Ministry of Education RS (Yakutia)

The Yakut state university name M.K. Ammosova

Physicotechnical institute

Power faculty





students of group -01

Vasilev M., Archaxov F., Mixailov A.


checked up:

Zaxarova E.V.

Yakutsk 2002.


1. History . 4

2. A few words about richness . 5

3. Sovereignity 6

4. Economic relations ... 8

5. Mikhail Nikolaev ... 10

6. The conclusion . 11

The used literature 14

Yakutia is a well-known place in the world since ancient time. But Republic

of Yakutia has received its own flag and stamp only recently, with

receiving of true sovereignity. In opinion of majority of Republic

citizens, both of state symbols most conciseness express historical destiny

of Yakutia native people, their present day, their future and nature of the

north country.

Present sovereign Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) is an exporter and

importer of goods production. But first of all a few words about history.


Beginning from the 17th century, with coming of Cossackslandwalders

to the Lena river, the Lena area, as they called Yakutia, attracted

attention of Russian tzars, and their close surrounding. Of course,

attention of Russian authorities to Yakutia was called by political and

economical matters in difference of attention of scientists, travellers,

men of letters.

Union of new lands, need in famous Yakutian fur, which was carrying

off abroad, to European and Asian countries, filling up the state treasure,

were necessary. Economic potention of Yakutia especially in the 20th

century, grew exceedingly, although it continued to serve as pantry of

natural richnesses only.


Before this time richness of sakha people was cattle and its

products, such as meat, milk and butter. Besides of this, it was nature:

sakha, evenks, evens, jukagirs and local Russians, they were rigorous and

silent, and nourished to nature the most tender feeling, used its gifts in

necessary degree to live in these austere conditions. Furs were used only

for practice. But in other hand, with sewing of clothes esthetical feeling

of the people was manifested, they decorated their clothes with patterns,

beads, other fur.

In the first half of the 17th century fairies appeared on the

northeast, and beginning in June 25,1768 a decree of Senate on instituting

of official fairies in Irkutsk, Yakutsk, Udinsk was adopted, Astonishing

fact was the quantity of merchants of second and third guilde, in Yakutsk

in 1823 they were 43, in Olyekminsk they were 10, in Vilyuisk 8.

Thats why in the end of the 19th century Yakutian merchants traded

on huge area not only in the area of north-east, they had exited to Japan,

China, and other countries. In the 20th century famous merchant families

gathered put together, such as Averenskie, Astrafhantsevy, Molotcovy,

Nikiforovy, and many others.


Today, when the Republic of Sakha stands enough firmly on the base

of sovereignity, it has possibility to trade itself with different states.

The Republic is establishing international political and economic relations

with its foreign partners, a number of intergovernmental agreements with

countries of CIS and foreign countries were signed. Constant and Trade

Representations of the Republic of Sakha were created in Latvia,

Kazakhstan, Ukraine, in several regions of Russian Federation.

There is almost all the Mendeleev table in Yakutia. Not in vain

our ancestry made a proverb: Nobody can desolate to bottom the chest of

nature On the other hand Mikhail Nikolaev is right saying: we must

extract, produce and sell such quantity of production, that Yakutian will

live in security. In his work Yakutia on the border of centuries he

stresses, that it is necessary for the Republic to be directed on European

countries, and especially to countries of Asian and Pacific ocean regions.

First Yakutian jewelry plant give its production. In 1992 it gave

products for 10 million roubles per day, now is achieved much more high

level. There are things of gold, diamond, silver. Add to this fur, mamont

bone, foal meat, deer meat, wood, coal, gas and so on. Republic of Sakha

has something to offer to foreign customer,, and it can support our

cultural connections, which have deep tradition, is coming of delegation of

47 people from brother-town Muroyama (Japan), the delegation carried out a

number of important appointment, including appointment with the head of

Yakutsk Alexey Tomtosov, rector of the university Vasily Philipov and

others. Delegations from Austria, Great Britain, China, the USA and other

countries desire visitors us.


But distinct character of our present connections must be mutually

beneficial economical relations. The Republic has worked out 22 state and

complex programmes of development, including almost all spheres of life and

activity of population, and branches of economy and culture. Each of them

requires large investments and provides their realization with taking part

of other foreign firms, companies and countries. Change of Republican

economy character (from extracting industry to processing one is planned by

foreign firms.

There are first signs of such cooperation. Austrian firms have

built Medical center and non-alcohol squashes plant in Yakutsk. Swatzer

MABETEXGRUPP, having built milk plant has built House of Maternity and

childhood protection. Canadian builders have Canadian village of 37

cottages with autonomous provision for talented children of the Republic.

State company of Foreign Trade SAKHAVNESHOPTTORG was established in the

Republic, president of the Company is Andrew Popov. Having special

divisions, SAKHAVNESHOPTTORG imports wood processing equipment, machines

and tools for building, technological conveyers on processing of meat,

fish, milk, newest medical technique and medicines, leading medical

technology, transport. means, clothes and shoes for all seasons, food and

other goods.

Export division is standing on its feet, too. SAKHAVNESHOPTTORG

does operates on a number of main positions. They export to external market

large sawing wood, timber, sawing materials, fur: squirrel, ermine, sable,

for: production of deer-breeding: pants (spring horns), broken horns,

organs of northern deer, energetic coal and so on. Having such firms as


will consolidate economical, trade and cultural connections with other


Many positive developments in the economy and culture of the region

are justifiably linked with the name of the first President of the Republic

of Sakha (Yakutia), Mikhail Nikolaev. The stable situation in the Republic,

the mutual understanding and co-operation with the leadership and regions

of Russia, with the countries of the CIS and the far abroad owe much to

him. In December 1993 he was elected deputy to the Federal Assembly of the

Russian Federation. The President of Russia, Boris Yeltsin, rated highly

Mikhail Nikolaev as President of the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia).


On 20 December 1991 Mikhail Nikolaev was elected the president of

the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia). In his remarks to the citizens of the

Republic on the third anniversary of the declaration of sovereignty of the

Republic he stressed that the constructive policies of the Republic of

Sakha for solving its internal problems and also for its relations with the

Russian Federation are attracting the attention of the Federations

subjects and raise the authority of the Republic inside as well as outside

of it borders

During two years since the December 1991 elections Yakutians have

been able to satisfy themselves that the political goals of the Republic

are achieving at ensuring the well-being of the people and welfare safety

net for the population at a difficult stage in the development of market

economy. These policies have as their fundamental goal the rebirth of the

multinational people of the republic and the strengthening of the centuries

old traditional ties with Russia.

Elected by all the people, the first President of the Republic of

Sakha, Mikhail Nikolaev, has become the acknowledged leader of the peoples

of Yakutia through his practical efforts for the good of the northern

peoples. Many things have been achieved. Chief among them the shaping and

strengthening of the Republic of Sakha as a sovereign state within Russia,

the signing the Federal Agreement, signing of the agreement on economic co-

operation with the Russian Federation, as a result of which the Republic

received the right to dispose of 20 per cent of gem-grade diamonds, 100 per

cent of industrial diamonds, 12 per cent of gold and other resources. An

agreement has been signed clarifying the status of state property,

belonging both to the Republic of Sakha and to the Russian Federation, and

providing for the creation of budget tax levies. The Republic of Sakha has

adopted the Constitution. With the active support of the president, the

foundations were being set for the development of production capacity, 950

enterprises have been put on a new management basis, more than 2.700 farms

have been established, diamond cutting was being developed, as well as

other processing industries.


Today, the Republic of Sakha has its own constitution and its own

president. Sakha has embarked on the path of sovereign, equal and

independent development. It follows that, from now, it will find its own

solutions to social, economic and cultural problems. It offers to co-

operate with other peoples on the basis of equal relations in trade,

science, politics and culture. Its freedom, newly won, will enable the

potential of the Sakha people as a whole, and of each individual, to flower

fully. Like the culture of other nation, the culture of Sakha brings its

own special contribution to world culture. The granite monument in Moscow

to Aleksey Kulakovsky, founder of Yakut literature, is testimony to this.

There are many differences between our nations. But there are many

common things, too. Every morning sun rise in the East, its rays illuminate

snow ridges of Yakutia, reflecting in waves of its full-watered reverse,

and roaming in unlimited taiga, these rays carry their light and warmness

to the West. We are one of the nations in the planet, who meet sun first of

all people. We meet sun with hope of peace, harmony and kind human


The used literature:

1. State Company of External Trade SAKHAVNESHOPTTRG Instituted by

Decree of Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) President from 21.07.92.

2. Yakutia - Russia: 370 years together. NKI Bichik Republic of

Sakha (Yakutia), 2002.