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London

London

LONDON

As well as being the capital of England, London is the capital of the

United Kingdom. It is one of the greatest, most colourful and interesting

cities of the world, and it tops the list of the cities I would like to

visit. I know a lot about it - I have studied its map, seen a lot of

postcards, talked to people who have been there. Sometimes I close my eyes

and imagine I walk down Piccadilly, Regent or Oxford Street, cross the

Thames by London or Tower Bridge, or knock on the door of Number 10,

Downing Street, just to say Hi! to Tony Blair.

London is a city which was never planned. It has accumulated. So, it

includes the City of London, the West End and the East End. The city is

really large more than 8 million people live in so-called Greater London

that is, London and its suburbs. It stands on the both sides of the river

Thames and 14 bridges span the river. The Thames, described variously as

liquid history and the noblest river in Europe is graced in London with

a score of bridges, tunnels and a barrier, but until 1750, when the first

Westminster Bridge opened, London Bridge was the one and the only. The

first one built in stone from 1176 to 1209 became renowned throughout

Europe for its houses and a chapel dedicated to St Thomas of Canterbury.

Several of London bridges have special features Hammersmith Bridge has

ornamental metal work and Vauxhall has larger than life bronze figures

representing pottery, engineering, architecture, agriculture, science, fine

arts, local government and education. Among the boats which ply the river,

few attract more attention than the Oxford and Cambridge University Boat

Race.

London was founded by the Romans in 43 A. D. and was called Londinium.

In 61 A. D. the town was burned down and when it was rebuilt by the Romans

it was surrounded by a wall. That area within the wall is now called the

City of London. It is a financial and business center of the country. The

Stock Exchange, the Bank of England, offices of major banks and companies

are all there. People only come to the City to work, nobody lives there,

and at night it becomes deserted.

Here is situated the Tower of London. The Tower was built by William

the Conqueror who conquered England in 1066. The Tower of London has been

fortress, palace, home of the Crown Jewels and national treasures,

arsenal, mint, prison, observatory, zoo and tourist attraction, wrote the

Duke of Edinburgh in a book celebrating the Towers 900th anniversary. It

is interesting to mention the tradition connected with the history of

Tower. The royal menagerie departed to the Zoo in 1834, leaving only the

ravens behind. Tradition says that if the ravens leave, the Tower and the

country will fall. So Beefeaters Warders of the Tower - give ravens meat

every night.

The finest part of London is the West End with long streets of fine

shops, theaters, picture gallery. Soho, the home of strip-tease, the cinema

industry and international haute cuisine, is on the edge of theatreland,

rich in history and rich in cultural mix. The name Soho probably came from

the ancient hunting cry So Ho in its farmland days. By the 19th

century it must have seemed a strange area, described by John Galsworthy in

the Forsyte Saga as Untidy, full of Greeks, Ishmaelites, cats, Italians,

tomatoes, restaurants, organs, coloured stuffs, queer names, people looking

out of out windows, it dwells remote from the British Body Politic. Today

there is a complete China Town and Restaurants serve haute cuisine from

scores of countries.

There are beautiful parks in the West End, such as St Jamess Park,

Green Park, Kensington Gardens, and Hyde Park with its Speakers Corner

there you can go up on a platform and speak freely on the topic that you

find vital. The Royal Parks are central Londons lungs. Bands play beside

lakes, parks have cafes and art galleries.

The Houses of Parliament with its Big Ben, the chimes of which are

heard throughout the world on the BBC World Service are also in the West

End. Big Ben, the voice of London, has been telling the time to the second

since 1859. Construction of the 320 foot clock tower began in the year

Queen Victoria came to the throne, 1837, as part of the reconstruction of

the Houses of Parliament. The Great Bell cracked, was recast and cracked

again, given us the famous resonating boom. Why Big Ben? There are two

answers either can be chosen. It could have been named after Sir Benjamin

Hall, chief commissioner of works at that time. Or, perhaps, it was named

by workmen Benjamin Caunt who brought the bell from Whitechapel Foundry

on a cart pulled by 16 white horses. The Palace of Westminster among the

worlds most famous buildings houses the British Parliament: the House of

Lords and the House of Commons. The first palace was built for Edward the

Confessor, who came to the throne in 1042. Every British citizen has the

traditional right to ask to see his or her Member of Parliament, and they

meet in the highly decorative Central Lobby. When Parliament is sitting, it

is possible to hear debates from the Strangers Galleries. Even the Queen

is subject to restrictions. For the State Opening of Parliament she has to

sit enthroned in the Lords a custom which goes back to the era of Charles

I. For relaxation, the Members of Parliament have reception rooms which

lead onto the riverside terrace. In gardens across the road is the Jewel

Tower. Among moderns sculptures to have been placed in the vicinity is the

statue of Sir Winston Churchill, with his larger-than-life size sculpture

raised on a plinth.

White Hall and Downing Street are also in the West End. White Hall

is a street where most government offices are situated, and I have already

mentioned that No. 10, Downing Street is the official residence of the

British Prime Ministers for more than 250 years. The famous cul-de-sac of

Downing Street was created by Sir George Downing, member of Parliament,

around 1680. Number 10 is one of the original Downing Street houses to

survive. No 10, with the most photographed door in the world, is guarded

outside by a single policeman. By the way the nick-name of British

policemen are bobbies, because of Sir Robert Peel, who formed the police

force.

The Queen, when she is in London, lives in Buckingham Palace.

Buckingham Palace facing the white marble and gilded Queen Victoria

memorial, flies the royal standard when the Queen is in residence. Today

the Queen and the Duke of Edinburgh have private suites in the North Wing,

overlooking Green Park. Their home is open to around 30.000 guests in

summer, attending garden parties. The entry costs around 20 pounds a

person. The gardens have a lake, cascading water and the wild life include

flamingoes. From the Palace the Queen leaves on ceremonial duties such as

the State Opening of Parliament in early winter and Trooping the colour to

mark her official birthday in June.

The architecture of London is very impressive. There is St. Pauls

Cathedral, for example, where a lot of famous people were buried. The

National and Tate Galleries contain many masterpieces of art.

Westminster Abbey has been the setting for every monarchs coronation,

beginning with Edward the Confessor, a saintly man who came to the throne

in 1040. The Abbey presents a pageant of noble, military, political and

artistic history. It has the graves of queens and kings, of poets,

politicians and churchmen. And the High Altar still contains the body of

Edward the Confessor, the Abbeys founder.

Westminster Cathedral is the leading Roman Catholic Church in England.

It was built half a mile from the Abbey. The single bell in the 280 foot

high campanile is dedicated (like the Chapel in the Abbey) to Edward the

Confessor. This gift from Gwendolen, Duchess of Norfolk, is inscribed St

Edward, pray for England.

The East End is something quite different. It is the industrial part

of London. There are factories and docks there, and blocks of flats where

working people live. They form quite a contrast to what we can see in the

West End.

Conclusion

When a man is tired of London, he is tired of life: for there is in

London all that life can afford -, wrote Samuel Johnson in 1777.

Naturally, London is a cultural, scientific, and industrial center of the

country, and it means that a lot of interesting things are taking place

there all the time.

CONTENTS

1. Introduction.

2. Main part.

1. The River.

2. The City of London.

3. The West End.

4. The East End.

3. Conclusion.

4. Bibliography.

Bibliography.

1. . . . 95 . . , 1997.

2. ., ., . 100 . .

. 2002.

3. . . Pilot One. . .

. 1998.

4. London. 161 colour plates map of the city centre. Thomas Benacci LTD.

London. 1997.

 
 

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