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English Literature books summary

English Literature books summary


Last update: 17.12.2002 (version 3.1)

1) 1984 by G.Orwell 2

2) Animal Farm by G.Orwell 15

3) Childe Harold by G.G.Byron_____________________________________17

4) The French Lieutenant's Woman by J.Fowles 18

a) French Lieutenant’s Woman in Russian 20

5) Gulliver’s Travels by Daniel Defoe 21

6) Heart of Darkness by J.Conrad 29

7) Ivanhoe by Sir Walter Scott 32

8) Lady Chatterley’s Lover by D.H.Lawrence 36

9) Lord of the Flies by W.Golding 38

10) Middlemarch by G.Eliot 42

11) Oliver Twist by Ch.Dickens 55

a) The Poor Laws 63

b) What does the phrase "justice is blind" normally mean? 64

c) The Victorian middle class's stereotypes of the poor. 65

12) A Passage to India by E.M.Forster 65

13) Pride and Prejudice by J. Austen 71

14) Pygmalion by B.Shaw 82

15) The Quiet American by G.Greene_________________________________86

16) Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe 87

17) The Picture of Dorian Grey by O.Wilde 92

18) The Time Machine by H. G. Wells (1866 - 1946) 102

19) Ulysses by J.Joyce 103

20) Vanity Fair by W.Thackeray 109

21) William Shakespeare 117

a) Extremely Short Summaries. Good for Seminars 117

i) A Midsummer Night's Dream 117

ii) The Merchant of Venice 118

iii) The Tragedy of Richard II 118

iv) Hamlet, Prince of Denmark 118

v) Othello 119

vi) King Lear, 1594 119

vii) The First Part of King Henry IV 119

viii) The Tragedy of Julius Caesar 120

ix) Macbeth 120

x) Romeo and Juliet 120

b) Full Summaries of Some Shakespeare's Works 121

i) Hamlet 121

ii) King Lear 127

iii) Macbeth 133

iv) The Merchant of Venice 138

v) Othello 142

vi) Richard III 144

vii) Romeo and Juliet 149

viii) The Tempest 152

ix) Twelfth Night 153

22) Wuthering Heights 156

1984 by G.Orwell

Part 1

Chapter 1


The book opens on a cold April day with 39-year-old Winston Smith

returning to his dilapidated flat in Victory Mansions. The hallway sports

an enormous poster of a man known as "Big Brother"; the caption reads, "BIG

BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU." The eyes of the poster seem to follow Winston as

he moves.

Upon entering his flat, Winston dims the telescreen (where someone is

reading statistics about pig-iron production), which can never be turned

off completely, and which both receives and transmits. Outside, Winston can

see "BIG BROTHER IS WATCHING YOU" posters, a poster with the word "INGSOC"

on it, and the police patrol spying on people.

Winston is living in London, the predominant city of the province

known as Airstrip One in Oceania. Bombed sites reveal that some sort of war

is going on. Winston tries to recall his childhood, to see if things have

always been like this, but cannot.

Outside his window stands the Ministry of Truth (a.k.a. "Minitrue" in

Newspeak, the official language of Oceania), an enormous structure

displaying the three slogans of _the Party_: WAR IS PEACE, FREEDOM IS

SLAVERY, IGNORANCE IS STRENGTH. There are four Ministries: the Ministry of

Truth concerns itself with the spread of information through news,

entertainment, education and the arts; the Ministry of Peace (Minipax)

deals with war; the Ministry of Love (Miniluv) administers law and order;

and the Ministry of Plenty (Miniplenty) handles economic affairs.

After swallowing some shocking Victory Gin and plying himself with a

cheap Victory cigarette, Winston carefully tucks himself out of the

telescreen's visual range with an old book, an old pen and an inkbottle.

These are compromising possessions, acquired through various means; Winston

is secretly something of a rebel, unhappy with the status quo. What he is

about to do--start a diary--is not "illegal" (since, we discover, there are

no laws anymore), but is certainly life-threatening.

Unused to writing by hand, Winston falters momentarily before writing

"April 4th, 1984." He sits back, uncertain whether it actually is 1984, and

he suddenly wonders for whom he is writing. Here the concept of

_doublethink_ (see Analysis) hits him; his attempt to communicate with the

future is impossible, futile. He is no longer sure what he wanted to write;

the moment has been building for weeks and suddenly he finds himself

wordless. Even when he tries to write, he finds he is not recording the

incident which had inspired him to begin the diary on this day .

This incident took place during that morning's "Two Minutes Hate," a

daily, almost orgiastic ritual of propaganda. Winston recalls noticing two

people: a girl whose name he does not know but whom he recognizes as

working in the Fiction Department, and O'Brien, an imposing man and member

of the Inner Party. Winston feels a dislike for the girl, whose youth gives

him the sense that she is a dangerous Party zealot; by contrast, he feels

drawn to O'Brien in a way almost resembling trust, because he hopes that

O'Brien is secretly politically unorthodox.

The "Two Minutes Hate" begins with footage of Emmanuel Goldstein, "the

Enemy of the People," castigating the Party. Apparently, Goldstein had once

been a leading Party member who rebelled, was condemned to death, and

disappeared to form the underground Brotherhood. The symbol of ultimate

treachery, Goldstein is featured in every Hate as the source of all crimes

against the Party. [Through Winston's reaction, we begin to get the sense

that the image and persona of Goldstein are actually completely

manufactured, hinting at the possibility that he is in fact a

propagandistic creation of the Party. This is reinforced by the observation

that there are always new spies, new Brotherhood members, being exposed

every day, despite the Party's brutal efficiency in creating universal

hatred for Goldstein.]

As the Hate goes on, people get increasingly worked up, shouting and

throwing things at the screen. [It is, Winston notes, impossible to avoid

joining in.] The Hate overwhelms the members, sweeping them into a blind

ecstasy of hatred. Winston directs his hatred at the girl, because, he

realizes, he wants to sleep with her.

The Hate reaches its climax when the terrifying images melt into the

face of Big Brother, who utters soothing words before fading away into the

three Party slogans. The crowd, passionately relieved at the appearance of

their "savior" starts to chant, "B-B! . . . B-B!" Here Winston catches

O'Brien's eye. In an instant, Winston feels that O'Brien is communicating

to him that he is on his side; this is the moment which brings him to his


After some reflection, Winston looks again at his page and finds he has

been writing automatically:



He knows there is no point in tearing out the page, because he has

committed thoughtcrime, and in the end the Thought Police will get him

anyway; he, and every last vestige of his existence, will be completely

wiped out--"vaporized."

Suddenly there is a knock at the door. Winston is terrified by this,

but knows that to delay would be worse than anything, so he gets up to

answer it.

Chapter 2


Winston finds Mrs. Parsons, his neighbour, at his door, asking him if

he can help repair her kitchen sink. Mrs. Parsons is a rather helpless,

dusty-looking woman; her husband Tom works with Winston at the Ministry of

Truth. Tom is something of an imbecile, slavishly devoted to the Party and

quite active in its social workings.

As Winston clears the blockage from the pipe, the Parsons children

come out and start dancing around him, calling him a "traitor" and a

"thought-criminal." These children, like many others, are horrid little

savages being trained to be good Party members through systematic

brainwashing; many denounce their own parents to the Thought Police.

Winston returns to his diary and starts thinking of O'Brien. About

seven years ago he had had a dream where he had been walking through a dark

room and someone had said to him, "We shall meet in the place where there

is no darkness." At some point, Winston identified the voice as O'Brien's.

Whether or not O'Brien is a friend or an enemy--and Winston still isn't

sure--they are connected by an understanding.

Winston feels isolated, yet pursued, everywhere faced (literally) by

Big Brother. He knows his thoughtcrime--his diary--will result only in

annihilation. Yet somehow, he takes heart in the idea that in the very act

of recording truths he is keeping himself sane and carrying on humanity. He

returns to his diary and starts to write "to the future or to the past, to

a time when thought is free."

"Thoughtcrime does not entail death: thoughtcrime IS death," Winston

writes, and in doing so recognizes himself as already dead. He now must

simply stay alive as long as possible.

Winston carefully washes the ink from his hands and puts the diary away

before going back to work.

Chapter 3


Winston dreams of his mother that she and his baby sister are sinking

down away from him, having in some way given their lives so he could

survive. He barely remembers his family, as they had likely fallen victim

to a purge in the 1950s. His mother's death, he feels, was a particular

tragedy, arising from a loyalty and complex emotion which are no longer


The dream shifts suddenly to an idyllic spot Winston calls "the Golden

Country," where the dark-haired girl comes to him and in one graceful,

careless gesture, tears off her clothes and flings them aside. Winston

feels no desire for her, but instead a strong admiration of the defiance of

the gesture, which itself belongs to a previous time, just like Winston's

mother's love. Winston wakes up saying the word "Shakespeare."

Winston is awakened by the telescreen. The Physical Jerks--morning

exercises--begin, directed by a woman on the screen. As he exercises,

Winston tries to remember the era of his childhood. He recalls an air raid

which caught everyone off guard, and since which Oceania had been

continuously at war. Currently, in 1984, Oceania is at war with Eurasia and

allied with Eastasia.

Although there are no records kept to contradict the given current

alignment, Winston knows that four years ago the alliance was reversed;

still, the present situation is always officially represented as though it

has always been. Winston is terrified by the thought that by so thoroughly

controlling history and information, the Party might actually be creating a

new truth. He reflects that the past has been destroyed because it only

exists in his own memory. Only once has Winston held proof that a

historical fact had been officially falsified--but his thoughts are

interrupted by the woman on screen shouting at him, Winston Smith, to try


Chapter 4


Winston is at his job in the Records Department in the Ministry of

Truth. He receives four assignments, tiny slips of paper on which are

written (mostly in Newspeak) his instructions. As it turns out, these

messages involve the "correction" of past issues of the Times, where a

speech of Big Brother's is "misreported" ("malreported" in Newspeak) or

statistics forecasting manufacturing output are "misprinted." The first

three assignments are simple; the fourth one, which mentions "unpersons,"

is an enticingly elaborate task which involves some use of imagination, and

Winston sets it aside to be dealt with last, almost like a dessert.

Winston uses his speakwrite (a sort of dictaphone) to quickly deal

with each of the first three assignments; he rewrites the articles, pushes

his work through the pneumatic tube in his cubicle, and disposes of the

original message and any notes through the "memory hole," which leads to a

furnace. In this way, newspapers, books, cartoons, even films and

photographs, are continually re-edited so as to conform with the current

state of political and economic affairs, and to make it appear as though

the Party has always been correct in its predictions or consistent in its

alliances. Any and all prior editions are destroyed, no matter how many

revisions are made.

Winston reflects that in many cases, what he is doing is not really

forgery, because the original statistics or "facts" are made up to begin

with. Nobody really knows anything except that on paper, millions of pairs

of boots are being produced, while on the streets, half of Oceania's

population runs barefoot.

Looking around, Winston notes that he hardly knows the people in his

Department, or what they do exactly. Across the hall from him Tillotson,

who flashes him a hostile look, sits with his speakwrite; a woman from the

Two Minutes Hate, whose husband had been vaporized, works next to Winston

at tracking down and eliminating references to "unpersons" (people whose

existences had been obliterated); and the dreamy Ampleforth works a few

cubicles away at rewriting poems so their ideologies will correspond with

the dominant one. As Winston reflects on the Department as a whole, the

staggering size of the operation becomes evident, especially as it is only

one part of the Ministry of Truth, which not only supplies materials to

Party members but to the "proles" (proletariat) as well.

At last, after disposing of some more messages and attending the Hate,

Winston settles down to work away at his engaging assignment: rewriting a

highly "unsatisfactory" article in an issue of the Times which references

people who no longer exist. Winston reads the original article, where Big

Brother's Order for the Day praises an organization called the FFCC and

awards the Order of Conspicuous Merit, Second Class, to one Comrade

Withers, a member of the Inner Party. Three months after this, however, the

FFCC had been dissolved and its members presumably disgraced, though there

was no report of this. Winston knows that this is the way it usually

happens: people who somehow displease the Party simply vanish and are never

heard from again. Although Winston does not know why Withers fell from

grace, he does know that the man is most likely dead, since he is called an


Winston decides to rewrite the speech entirely on a new topic: the

commemoration of the exemplary life of Comrade Ogilvy. Ogilvy, of course,

is purely Winston's invention, but he will be given life through a few

lines and a faked photograph or two. Winston creates Ogilvy's life‹that of

a textbook good Party member from the age of three‹and his heroic death

with a zesty enjoyment of the process.

Although Winston is fairly certain that other people, including Tillotson,

have been given the same assignment, he also believes that his own version

will be the one that is chosen.

Chapter 5


Winston is in the rather unpleasant canteen, where he meets up with

Syme‹not exactly his "friend" (since you have comrades rather than

friends), but one whose society is more pleasant to Winston than that of

others. Syme, a philologist, works in the Research Department and is one of

a team of experts who are compiling the Eleventh Edition of the Newspeak

Dictionary. (See Appendix for an in-depth discussion of Newspeak and points

relevant to this chapter.)

Syme asks Winston if he has any razor blades‹there is currently a

shortage, as there always is of one item or another. Winston lies that he

hasn't, though he has been saving two unused ones against the razor blade

famine. As he and Syme go through the queue, Syme discusses yesterday's

public hanging of prisoners with a relish that demonstrates his rabid yet

somehow intellectual orthodoxy.

As they eat their disgusting and somewhat unidentifiable lunch,

Winston gets Syme talking about the Dictionary's progress. Syme,

immediately fired with enthusiasm and a strange love for Newspeak, goes

into a panegyric about the destruction of words and the nature of Newspeak,

which is, he points out, the only language which gets smaller every year.

This limiting of vocabulary, Syme points out, is aimed at limiting thought

so that unorthodoxy will become literally impossible, since there will no

longer exist words to express or explain concepts that run counter to the

accepted ideology.

Syme discourses so intelligently upon these topics that Winston

suddenly thinks that Syme will certainly be vaporized someday, despite his

political orthodoxy. He is too intelligent for the Party to allow him to

stick around. In addition, he is somehow "shady"‹not subtle enough, too

well-read, with a tendency to frequent the Chestnut Street Cafe, where long

ago the old Party leaders would meet before they were discredited, and

Goldstein was rumored to have spent time.

Parsons, Winston's neighbor, appears in the canteen and makes his way

over to Winston and Syme (who takes out some work to avoid having to

interact with Parsons). Parsons, a large man with a dumb devotion to the

Party and its ideals, asks Winston for his subscription payment for the

upcoming "Hate Week." Parsons talks proudly about his monstrous children,

the younger of whom turned in a suspicious-looking person to the


Discussion is halted by an announcement from the Ministry of Plenty,

describing how production is up and the standard of living has been raised.

It is reported that a demonstration has been held to thank B.B. for raising

the chocolate ration to 20 grams/week, and Winston wonders incredulously

whether people can swallow this after having been told the day before that

the ration was being reduced from 30 grams/week to 20. Yet the people

around him, either through not thinking at all or through doublethink, do

accept it, forcing him to wonder whether he is the only person around who

has a memory.

Depressed, Winston looks around, at the horrid food, ugly clothes, and

bleak surroundings. Somehow he feels that things should be better, even

though he has never known a time when they were‹when food tasted pleasant

and things worked as they were supposed to. Even the people look ugly to

him, belying the Party's Aryan ideal.

The announcement ends, and Winston lapses into a reverie thinking

about who he knows will likely be vaporized, and who will not‹namely,

Parsons, the girl with the dark hair, and the man at a nearby table who has

been speaking in a quack about the wonders and achievements of the Party.

Winston is startled out of his reverie by the awareness that the girl

with the dark hair is sitting at the next table, and is looking at him. She

turns away, but Winston is terrified because she has been turning up near

him a good deal lately. He worries that she may be an amateur spy and that

he may have committed facecrime, the unconscious betrayal of unorthodox

opinions via facial expressions or tics.

Parsons tells Winston another horrid story about his disgusting

children, and they are signalled to return to work.

Chapter 6


Winston is writing in his diary about an encounter he had three years

ago with a prostitute. The memory is embarrassing and difficult for him,

and he feels an almost irresistible urge to scream obscenities or burst out

into some violent action to relieve his tension.

Of course he doesn't give in to the urge, and steels himself to

continue writing. His writing is interlaced with the memory of Katharine,

his wife, to whom he would technically still be married‹unless she were

dead‹although they are separated, because the Party does not permit

divorce. Katharine was physically attractive but, Winston soon discovered,

completely brainwashed by the Party, even in matters of sex. According to

the Party, there should be no pleasure in sex, which was an act intended to

beget children for the future of the Party. Katharine bought into this

ideology to the point where sex was an outright unpleasant act for Winston;

since no children were conceived, the couple were allowed to separate.

Perhaps because of his experience with Katharine, Winston believes that

none of the women in the Party have retained their natural sex drive.

Winston continues to write about his experience with the prostitute,

who had led him into a dark room with a bed. When he turned up the light,

he discovered to his horror that the woman was old, at least 50. But he

proceeded anyway.

Despite having gotten it all out, Winston does not feel any less

inclined to shout obscenities.

Chapter 7


Once again Winston is writing in his diary. "If there is hope," he

writes, "it lies in the proles." Winston reasons that the proles are so

numerous that if they simply woke up they could bring down the Party. But

would they ever wake up? He remembers a day when he had been walking and

heard a great cry of anger; in hope, he hurried to the spot to see what was

happening. As it turned out, a stall that had been selling saucepans had

run out, and the disappointed women were momentarily united in their

despair. But, to Winston's disgust, rather than remaining united and

surging up against the source of their misery, they turned on each other

instead, fighting over the pans.

Winston reflects on the Party's attitude toward the proles, itself an

exercise in doublethink: while the Party claims to have liberated the

proles from the horrendous bonds of capitalism, it also teaches that the

proles are inferior and must be kept in line with a few simple rules. But

in general, the Party leaves the proles alone, to live as they have always

lived, outside of the Party's strict moral and behavioral dictates.

What Winston is not sure of is whether life before the Revolution was

really that much worse than it is in 1984. He looks at a children's history

book which he has borrowed from Mrs. Parsons, reading a passage about life

before the Revolution, when most people were poor and miserable, and all

money and power were concentrated into the hands of a very few evil persons

known as capitalists. Yet he can never be sure how much of it is lies; he

only has an instinctive feeling in his bones that life doesn't have to be

as miserable as it is, and that there must have been something better at

one time. Life, in fact, not only belies the constant stream of Party

propaganda, it does not even approach the Party's avowed ideal of a

militarily ordered society in which every moment of every day is a

triumphant struggle for the principles of Ingsoc.

Considering the regular erasure of the past, Winston once again

recalls the one time (mentioned earlier) when he had held concrete evidence

of the falsification of history. In the mid-1960s, three of the last

surviving original leaders of the Revolution, Jones, Aaronson and

Rutherford, had been arrested, vanished temporarily, and then had returned

to make spectacular confessions of treachery. Afterwards, they had been

pardoned, reinstated in the Party and given hollow but important-sounding


Winston had seen them in the Chestnut Street Cafe with a mixture of

fascination at how they embodied history and terror at the certainty of

their imminent destruction. No one sat near them; they sat alone at a table

with an untouched chessboard and glasses of gin. Winston noticed that

Rutherford, once a strong man, looked as though he were breaking up before

his eyes.

A song came over the telescreen: "Under the spreading chestnut tree/ I

sold you and you sold me:/ There lie they, and here lie we/ Under the

spreading chestnut tree." The three men remained motionless, but Winston

saw that Rutherford's eyes were full of tears, and suddenly noticed that

both Aaronson and Rutherford had broken noses.

Shortly after this, they were re-arrested and executed after a second

trial. Five years later, in about 1973, Winston was at his work when among

his assignment-related documents he found part of a page from an earlier

edition of the Times, dated about 10 years earlier, showing a photograph of

Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford at a Party function in New York. At their

trials, the men had confessed to have been in Eurasia consorting with the

enemy on that very date. Clearly the confessions were untrue. Though this

was not in itself surprising, the existence of this piece of paper was

concrete evidence of the Party's action.

Winston carefully calmed himself, then disposed of the evidence

through the memory hole. If it had happened today, he thinks, he would have

kept the photograph; somehow the fact of its existence, the fact that he

had held it in his hand, is reassuring to him. But he knows that because

the past is continually rewritten, the photograph today might not even be


Winston does not understand why such an effort is being made to

falsify the past (i.e. the long-term goal). Perhaps, he thinks, he is

crazy; this does not scare him, though. What scares him is that he might be

wrong in thinking the past unchangeable. He picks up the book and looks at

the picture of B.B. on the frontispiece. In a sort of despairing fear,

Winston thinks to himself that the Party will eventually claim that 2 + 2 =

5, and that you would have to believe it; and again he is tormented by the

fear that they might, after all, be right.

But abruptly, his belief in common sense reasserts itself, and he

somehow feels that he is writing his diary to O'Brien. Defiantly, he

defends the truth of the obvious, writing, "Freedom is the freedom to say

that two plus two make four. If that is granted, all else follows."

Chapter 8


Winston is walking through the streets, taking a risk in missing his

second evening at the Community Centre in three weeks, but having been

unable to pass up the lovely evening air. He has been walking aimlessly

through the streets, observing the people and their surroundings, which are

equally dilapidated. Identifiable as a Party member by his blue overalls,

he is watched warily by the inhabitants, and reflects that it would be

dangerous to run into the patrols here, since it could draw you to the

Thought Police's attention.

Suddenly there is a commotion and people start bolting indoors;

Winston is warned by a passerby that a bomb is about to fall. He throws

himself down to protect himself against the blast. The bomb falls 200

meters away on a group of houses. He approaches the site and comes upon a

severed human hand, which he kicks into the gutter before turning into a

side street to avoid the crowd.

Winston passes a group of men who are arguing about the Lottery, which

is the one public event the proles really attend to and sink their energy

and powers of calculation into. However, as Winston knows, the big prizes

are awarded to fictitious persons, and only small sums are actually paid

out by the Ministry of Plenty.

Winston walks into a neighborhood which seems familiar; after a short

while he recognizes it as the area where he had purchased his diary,

penholder and ink. He pauses, and sees an old man entering a pub across the

alley. He is suddenly seized with the impulse to try and find out from this

old man what life was like before the Revolution.

He hurries into the pub, creating a bit of a pause in activity, and,

after witnessing an argument between the old man (who demands a pint) and

the barman (who only deals in liters and half-liters), Winston buys the old

man a beer. They sit in a noisy corner near a window and Winston tries to

get the old man to tell him about the past. However, the man latches onto

details that are too small to prove to Winston one way or another whether

the Party histories are true or false.

Winston leaves, thinking sadly that even now, when there are survivors

of the pre-Revolution days, it is impossible to find out whether the big

picture had changed for better or worse. He walks on, not thinking where he

is going, until he stops and realizes that he is outside the junk-shop

where he had bought the diary.

After some hesitation, he judges it safer to enter the shop than

loiter outside of it, and starts to talk with the proprietor, Mr.

Charrington. Winston wanders through the shop, and his attention is caught

by a glass paperweight with a coral inside. Captivated by its beauty,

Winston buys it for $4.00 and puts it into his pocket. The man, cheered by

the money, invites Winston to see an upstairs room. It is a bedroom

furnished with old-fashioned furniture, but most importantly, with no

telescreen. Winston feels a nostalgic security, almost a familiarity with

the room, and the thought flashes through his mind that it might be

possible to rent this room‹though he immediately abandons the notion.

The proprietor shows Winston an engraving of an old church which had

been bombed long ago, St. Clement's Dane. He quotes an old nursery rhyme:

"Oranges and lemons,' say the bells of St. Clement's, You owe me three

farthings,' say the bells of St. Martin's"; he doesn't remember the rhyme

in full, but he does recall the ending: "Here comes a candle to light you

to bed, Here comes a chopper to chop off your head." He talks a little

about the churches in the rhyme; Winston wonders when they had been built,

to what era they belonged.

Winston doesn't buy the engraving, but stays to talk a bit with Mr.

Charrington, seeming somehow to hear the bells of the nursery rhyme in his

head (though he has never actually heard church bells ringing as far as he

remembers). As he leaves, he decides to return to the shop after a month or

so, to buy things and talk to Charrington and maybe rent the room...

He is roused horribly from his reverie by seeing the girl with dark

hair walking towards him. She looks directly at him, then continues on her

way. Paralyzed, Winston realizes that she must be spying on him‹why else

should she be there? He walks in the wrong direction with a pain in his

gut, then turns, and considers killing her with the paperweight. But he

abandons the idea, as well as every other one he considers for trying to

safeguard himself. He simply goes home.

Once there, he takes out his diary but doesn't write anything for a

while as he struggles with his fear and the paralysis it has brought upon

him. He tries to open the diary, to think of O'Brien, but his mind is on

the torture that inevitably falls between capture by the Thought Police and

death (both of which are certain once you have committed thoughtcrime).

He recalls his dream, where O'Brien said that they would meet "in the

place where there is no darkness"; this place, he believes, is the imagined

future. But the face of B.B. drifts into his mind, pushing out O'Brien.

Winston takes a coin out of his pocket, and looks at it, trying to fathom

B.B.'s smile; the three Party slogans ring through his head.

Part 2

Chapter 1


On his way to the lavatory one morning, Winston encounters the girl

with dark hair in the corridor. Her right arm is in a sling. As she

approaches, she suddenly trips and falls on her arm, and cries out in pain.

Although Winston regards her as a dangerous enemy, he also feels sorry for

her and helps her up. As he does so, she very discreetly slips a small

piece of paper into his hand, surprising him greatly.

Though he is fired with curiosity, Winston knows he cannot look at the

piece of paper for a while. He goes back to his desk and tosses the slip

casually among the other papers there. As he works, he speculates that the

note could either be some sort of threat or summons or trap from the

Thought Police, or‹and this excites him‹a message from some sort of

underground organization like the Brotherhood.

When he finally gets the chance to look at the note, he is astounded,

because it reads "I love you."

This naturally throws him into an agitation for the rest of the

morning. During lunch he is not even allowed the luxury of temporary

solitude, as Parsons immediately shows up to bore him with details of Hate

Week preparations. After lunch, Winston immerses himself in his work, and

goes to the Community Centre in the evening; he is waiting to be alone in

bed to think.

At last he is alone, and he begins to think about how to meet her. It

would be impossible to repeat that morning's method. He cannot follow her

home because it would entail waiting around outside the Ministry, which

would be bound to be noticed. Sending a letter would be impossible as mail

is routinely opened. The only solution is to sit at a table with her in the

canteen, somewhere in the middle of the room as far as possible from the

telescreens, amidst a buzz of conversation in which the brief exchange of a

few words could go unnoticed.

The next week is torture for Winston: the girl disappears for three

days, during which time he cannot stop thinking about her and worrying that

she has been vaporized or that she has changed her mind. She reappears, but

Winston is unable to sit with her in the canteen, though he tries. The next

day he succeeds, and they form a plan to meet that evening in Victory


In the Square, Winston sees the girl but must wait until more people

have gathered so as to speak with her unnoticed. Fortunately, the passing

of a convoy of Eurasian prisoners allows Winston and the girl to lose

themselves in a massive crowd of onlookers. They squeeze next to one

another to watch, and the girl subtly gives Winston detailed directions to

a place where they can meet on Sunday afternoon.

They continue to watch the prisoners, and right before they must part,

the girl squeezes Winston's hand.

Chapter 2


It is Sunday afternoon. Winston is out in the country after what

sounds like an almost pleasant journey by train. He is early, and comes

across a thick patch of bluebells; he stoops to pick some, and the girl

arrives. She leads him expertly through the woods to a hidden clearing.

They talk a little, then start to kiss, but Winston feels no physical

desire yet because his disbelief and proud joy are too strong.

The girl, Julia, doesn't seem to mind; she sits up and they start to

talk some more. She is brassy and rebellious, even producing some

wonderfully tasty black-market chocolate, though she goes out of her way to

present a fanatically devout front in order to stay safe. She is young, and

Winston doesn't understand why she should be attracted to him; she explains

that it was something in his face, that she could tell he didn't belong,

that he hated the Party.

They leave the clearing and walk around, coming finally to the edge of

the wood. There, Winston has a gradual shock: he recognizes the landscape

as the Golden Country of his dreams. As if to prove it, he asks Julia if

there is a stream nearby, and she replies that there is.

A thrush lands nearby and starts to sing, its song startling in the

stillness. The song is beautiful, original, never quite the same, and

Winston watches and listens with awe. What, he asks himself, makes the bird

sing, if there is no other bird around to listen or respond? Gradually,

however, Winston stops thinking and simply feels the beauty of it. At this

point he kisses Julia and feels that he is ready to make love.

They hasten back to the clearing. Julia turns to him, and just as in

his dream, she defiantly tears off her clothes and flings them aside.

Before doing anything, Winston takes her hands and asks her: has she done

this before? Yes, quite a lot. With Party members? Always, though never

with Inner Party members. Winston is filled with joy at the thought that

the Party is at its foundation corrupt. He tells Julia that he hates purity

and goodness and that he desires corruption; she responds that she ought to

suit him just fine. His final question: does she enjoy the act of sex

itself? When she replies, "I adore it," Winston's last hope is fulfilled,

and they make love.

They fall asleep. Winston awakens first to reflect that their act has

been a political one, "a blow struck against the Party."

Chapter 3


Julia arranges the details of her and Winston's departures from the

clearing, using her practical sense (which Winston feels he lacks) and her

thorough knowledge of the countryside around London. They never return to

the clearing, as it turns out, and only once more that month succeed in

making love, inside the ruins of a church.

As they meet during the evenings, they "talk by instalments," as Julia

puts it‹their conversation cuts in and out mid-sentence according to the

relative levels of safety in their surroundings. Once during a walk, a bomb

falls near them, and Winston, thinking the plaster-whitened Julia is dead,

kisses her‹to discover that she is alive and he is coated in plaster too.

Meetings are dangerous and difficult to coordinate as their schedules

rarely coincide. Julia is astonishingly busy with Party activities; her

view is that as long as you keep up appearances and obey the small rules,

you could transgress the bigger ones. She even convinces Winston to

volunteer as a part-time munition worker.

Julia is 26, and works on the machinery in the Fiction Department,

literally churning out novels like any other mass-produced commodity. She

has established such a good character for herself that she had even been

selected to work in Pornosec, the division of the department dedicated to

producing cheap pornography for the proles. Her first affair was at age

sixteen; her view of life is simply that it is an eternal struggle between

you and the Party over whether or not you can have a good time.

She and Winston never discuss marriage, knowing it to be an

impossibility; but they do discuss Katharine. Julia asks about her, but

seems to know most of the essentials regarding Katharine's frigidity, even

the fact that she called sex "our duty to the Party." Julia knows because

she had undergone the same education as Katharine; intriguingly, and

perhaps because she is more sexually liberated, Julia has a clearer

comprehension than Winston of the Party's stance on sex.

Winston tells Julia about an incident early in his marriage to

Katharine where they had gotten lost on a community hike. They ended up

near the edge of a cliff. Katharine, uncomfortable, wanted to turn around

and try to find their way back; Winston points out a plant with two

different-colored flowers growing from the same root. As she unwillingly

returned to look, Winston realized that they were completely alone, and if

he chose to he could push her off the cliff. But he didn't.

He tells Julia he regrets that he didn't, although he knows it

wouldn't have made a difference. He lapses into a typically cynical

philosophical mood, which Julia, in her youthful and perhaps stubborn

optimism, rejects.

Chapter 4


Winston has rented the upstairs room from Mr. Charrington, the antique

shop owner, and is waiting for Julia to arrive. Outside, a prole woman is

singing one of the drivelly songs churned out by a versificator in the

Music Department‹a monstrosity to begin with, but somehow pleasant-sounding

in the woman's rendering. The room feels curiously still to Winston because

of the absence of a telescreen.

Though taking this room is a huge risk, the couple were unable to

resist it after days and weeks of being unable to meet. Winston recalls how

when they at last manage to set a day to go back to the clearing, Julia

tells him the night before (once again through a meeting on the street)

that she can't go because she is menstruating. Winston feels furious‹his

feeling toward Julia and desire for her has changed from an act of

rebellion to a sense of proprietary physical obligation, and he feels

almost like she is cheating him. But at this point, she squeezes his hand

with affection and prompts a sudden, new tenderness in him. He realizes

that this sort of thing must be normal for couples who live together, and

he is overwhelmed by the wish that he and Julia were a happily married

couple with no cares and complete privacy to do as they wished. Quite soon

after this they agree to rent the room.

Julia arrives, bearing real sugar, white bread, jam, milk, and real

coffee and tea‹all Inner Party privileges which she has filched somehow.

She then asks Winston to turn his back for a short while; when he is

allowed to turn around again, he finds that she has put on makeup and

perfume. Before they get into bed, she expresses her intention to find a

real dress and high heels so that she can be "a woman, not a Party


Winston wakes up around 9:00 (21:00), and wonders whether the peace

and freedom of lying in bed with your loved one on a cool summer evening

were ever a normal thing in the past. Julia wakes up, and is talking to

Winston when suddenly she spots a rat and hurls a shoe at it. Winston is

startled at the presence of a rat in this idyllic room, and recalls a

recurrent nightmare he has always had where he is standing in front of a

wall and behind it is something horrifying. He would always know, in some

deeply buried part of his mind, what was behind the wall, but he never

allowed himself to acknowledge it and would wake up without discovering it.

Julia gets up, makes coffee, and wanders around the room. She asks

about the engraving of St. Clement's Dane (which coincidentally hangs right

above where the rat had poked out its head), and to Winston's surprise,

adds a line to the nursery rhyme: "When will you pay me?' say the bells of

Old Bailey." Strangely, Julia too forgets the rest excepting the ominous

ending, giving Winston a sense of fate. After observing that the picture

likely has bugs behind it, and planning to clean it, Julia cleans herself,

washing off the makeup, while Winston gazes at the paperweight.

Chapter 5


The chapter opens with a brief paragraph on Syme's disappearance, but

quickly moves on to the intense preparations for Hate Week that are

sweeping through the city and swallowing up everyone's time. Huge posters

depicting a Eurasian soldier aiming his sub-machine gun at you crop up

everywhere, intended to stir the population into a patriotic frenzy; as

though by design, more rocket bombs fall on the city, killing more people

than usual.

Winston and Julia continue to meet in the upstairs room. Winston's

health, both physical and mental, has improved due to the existence of the

room. Occasionally he talks to Mr. Charrington, who seems to embody


Though Winston and Julia know that they are doomed, they sometimes

yield to the illusion of permanence, and frequently talk about escaping

some way or another‹though they know that they will never commit even the

only feasible act among these options, which is suicide.

They talk about rebelling against the Party in a vague way; Winston

tells her about his unspoken bond with O'Brien, which does not strike her

as at all strange. Though Julia takes it for granted that everyone harbors

hatred for the Party, she does not believe in an organized underground; in

fact, she thinks that Goldstein and the tales about him were invented by

the Party for their own ends.

Julia's intelligence is also shown by her casually offered opinion

that the war with Eurasia is not actually happening‹that the government of

Oceania was dropping the bombs on its own people for the purposes of

keeping the population scared and emotionally subjected to the Party.

Winston has never even thought of this possibility. But for the most part,

Julia does not question Party doctrine unless it touches her own life in

some way; she believes much of the false history she has been taught in

school, and it doesn't seem important to her that this is untrue. Winston

is shocked by this, as well as by the fact that she doesn't seem to recall

that only four years ago Eastasia, and not Eurasia, was Oceania's enemy in


Julia also does not seem to grasp the importance of Winston's story of

the photograph clearing Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford of wrongdoing. In

general she is not interested when Winston starts to delve into the

problems the Party presents. He realizes that people like Julia, who accept

what they are taught because they don't fully understand it, are in a fair

way to remain more sane than persons like himself.

Chapter 6


Winston, walking down the long corridor where he had first spoken to

Julia, encounters O'Brien, who addresses him cordially regarding Newspeak

and what he considers Winston's elegant use of it. O'Brien obliquely refers

to Syme as someone who shares this opinion, to whom he had spoken recently;

Winston takes this as some sort of signal.

O'Brien says that he had noticed that Winston had recently used two

words now obsolete in the forthcoming Tenth Edition of the Newspeak

Dictionary, which has not been issued yet but of which O'Brien has an

advance copy. He offers Winston to visit him at his flat to take a look at

the Dictionary; through this device he gives Winston his address.

This whole exchange‹which has taken place under the watchful eye of a

telescreen‹takes only a couple of minutes, but it has sparked in Winston

both a cautious joy in the existence of the conspiracy he had hoped for,

and a dreadful certainty that it is the beginning of the end for him.

Chapter 7


Winston awakens from a dream crying. The dream took place inside the

glass paperweight and somehow was about a protective gesture made by his

mother 30 years ago, and repeated in the film he wrote about in his diary

(where a helpless Jewish mother ineffectually tries to protect her child

from the bullets that are about to be fired at them). Within a few seconds

of waking, the memories surrounding this gesture flood back to Winston.

He had been a young boy, and London was a disaster area of starvation,

violence and unrest. His father disappeared, taking his mother's spirit

with him so that she moved through daily life waiting for her own

disappearance. She, Winston, and his baby sister lived in poor quarters and

had not enough to eat; despite his knowledge that the mother and sister

were starving, Winston would demand more food even though his mother would

automatically give him the biggest portion. One day there was a chocolate

ration, and Winston, though he knew the chocolate should be equally divided

between the three of them, found himself demanding the whole piece. After

long argument, his mother gave him 3/4 of the piece and the rest to his

sister. But Winston grabbed the piece from his sister and dashed for the

door, where he stopped at his mother's cry to come back. She looked at him;

the baby wailed; and she drew the baby closer to her, in some way that told

Winston the child was dying. He fled. When he came back a few hours later,

they both had disappeared.

This dream reminds him of the one he had had two months ago, where he

saw his mother and sister sinking away from him. He wants to talk about his

mother to Julia, but she is drifting in and out of sleep. Winston thinks

about love, about the novelty of the past, where people would make an

ineffectual gesture or act knowing that it was ineffectual but doing it

just the same; this indicates to him that they acted of their own accord,

out of their own private loyalties and standards. It strikes him that the

proles had remained like this‹had remained human. For the first time in his

life he feels no contempt or indifference toward the proles, but a strange

sort of respect for them for remaining who they are.

Julia has awakened again, and they talk about their inevitable

parting. Though they know they will be forced to confess and not be able to

help one another, Winston says that the only important thing is that they

should never betray one another, in the sense of being made to stop loving

the other person. Julia considers this and opines that this would be

impossible because they would never be able to get inside you and change

what you think. Winston takes some hope from this, believing in Julia-esque

fashion that you could beat them in the end because they couldn't change

your feelings.

Chapter 8


Winston and Julia arrive together at O'Brien's flat. The neighborhood

of Inner Party residences is a whole new world of wealth, cleanliness and

luxury with which neither Winston nor Julia is familiar. O'Brien's servant

Martin takes them in to O'Brien's office or drawing-room, where O'Brien is

working. Winston, already afraid, feels suddenly embarrassed‹what if he has

made a mistake and O'Brien is not sympathetic?

As O'Brien approaches, he astonishes the couple by shutting off the

telescreen, which, he explains, is an Inner Party privilege. He stands

sternly before them, waiting for a short while, before his face relaxes and

he breaks the silence.

Winston explains that they are there because they believe that O'Brien

works for an underground organization which they wish to belong to. Martin

enters, but O'Brien says he is one of them, so they all sit down with a

glass of wine (which neither Winston nor Julia has ever tasted) and talk

about the Brotherhood. O'Brien asks a series of questions to test how far

Winston and Julia will go to further the goals of the Brotherhood; when he

asks whether they are willing to separate from one another, they both reply

in the negative. O'Brien asks Julia whether she understands that even if

Winston survives, he would be substantially altered both in physique and

identity; she nods, pale.

O'Brien dismisses Martin, telling him to look carefully at Winston and

Julia before he goes. Martin gives them a long look without any

friendliness or emotion in it whatsoever, then leaves. O'Brien explains

that the Brotherhood is unusual because each agent works alone, with no

support, minimal information, and no link to one another except the common

ideal they hold for the destruction of the Party. Matter-of-factly, he

outlines their lives: they will work for a while, then be caught, forced to

confess and executed. "We are the dead," he says, echoing Winston's words

to Julia a couple of chapters ago.

O'Brien dismisses Julia, then settles some details with Winston about

getting him a copy of the book, i.e. Goldstein's heretical text exposing

the true nature of the current world and the methods by which the

Brotherhood will destroy the Party. After working out these plans, O'Brien

says to Winston, "We shall meet again . . . in the place where there is no

darkness." Winston's last question to him regards the nursery rhyme of the

bells, of which O'Brien knows the final line: "When I grow rich,' say the

bells of Shoreditch."

Chapter 9


Winston, exhausted after five days of intense work, and carrying in

his briefcase the book, goes to Mr. Charrington's shop.

The rush of work had begun on the sixth day of Hate Week, when‹at the

climax of hatred directed at Eurasia‹suddenly Oceania's alliance switched,

so that the enemy was now Eastasia and Eurasia was an ally. Remarkably, the

change occurred without any admission that it had taken place; the anti-

Eurasia posters and propaganda everywhere were suddenly deemed sabotage,

the work of Goldstein and his agents, and promptly torn down, while the

venomous speaker who had been castigating Eurasia shifted to vilifying

Eastasia without losing a beat. During the confusion, Winston is handed a

briefcase containing the book.

Winston and his fellow workers at the Ministry had spent 90 hours

rewriting history so that no trace of the war with Eurasia could be found

in the documents of the past 5 years. After the monumental task had been

completed, every Ministry worker had been given the rest of the day off, so

Winston had headed for the upstairs room.

As he waits for Julia to arrive, he starts to read the book, entitled

The Theory and Practice of Oligarchical Collectivism. He starts off looking

at Chapter 1, entitled "Ignorance is Strength," but breaks off to enjoy the

fact that he is reading, and takes up again with Chapter 3, "War is Peace."

This lengthy chapter discusses the history of events that led to the

current state of the world with its three superpowers, Oceania, Eurasia,

and Eastasia, and the territory they have theoretically been fighting over

for a quarter-century (which comprises a wide swath of land across Africa,

the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, and Indonesia).

First, the nature of war has changed: it has become continuous, and

therefore its aims are different. It is continuous because none of the

superpowers could ever win, and unnecessary in the old sense because each

could sustain itself materially and ideologically they're almost identical.

According to Goldstein, the aim of warfare is no longer conquest; it

is to use up production surplus while not raising the standard of living at

home. The reason for this is, essentially, that those in power wish to

maintain a hierarchical society‹an aim that was threatened by scientific

progress, whereby machines could raise the general standard of living to

the point where wealth could theoretically be evenly distributed. Because

hierarchy depends on poverty and ignorance, as well as keeping people too

busy to complain about conditions, it became the goal of the ruling class

to somehow maintain industry while not distributing goods. The only way to

do so was continuous warfare, which addresses this need practically but

also psychologically, by correctly maintaining the morale of the Party.

As long as they remain at war, the three superstates support one

another. The standards of living in all three are actually the same, as are

their socio-political systems. The techniques of warfare haven't really

changed in 30-40 years, because they don't need to. None of the superstates

ever undertakes a major risk, i.e. one that could lead to a serious defeat.

Not much fighting really goes on and it never approaches the heartland of

any of the three powers, because that would jeopardize cultural integrity

and risk people finding that other humans are pretty much the same as they,

which could prove the undoing of these governments. Whatever fighting or

strategy there is a dance of alliances, where each power tries to swallow

up an ally and then do the same with its remaining opponent.

When war becomes continuous, it is no longer dangerous, therefore no

recourse to the past and lessons learned then is necessary; neither is

efficiency; neither is any need to even address reality. Reality can be

shaped however the ruling class chooses.

Thus war is waged by the state upon its own citizens, not for conquest

but for maintaining the social structure. Because its nature has been so

altered, and that the same effects can be achieved through a state of

peace, "war is peace"‹the true meaning of the Party slogan.

Winston stops reading. The book is reassuring because it helps him to

know he is not insane. Julia comes in, and is less interested in the book

than in Winston.

Later, as they lie in bed, he starts to read it to her, from Chapter

1, which discusses class differences and the historical nature of the class

struggle between High, Middle and Low.

Socialist movements aiming for liberty and equality were more and more

openly abandoned over the first half of the twentieth century, until the

three currently dominating world movements‹Ingsoc in Oceania, Neo-

Bolshevism in Eurasia, and Death-Worship in Eastasia‹had emerged with their

new aims of "unfreedom and inequality." Their intent: to become the High,

and then freeze the cycle of class struggle so as to permanently maintain

their status. To this end, technical advances were anathema because they

promoted human equality, which was to be fought at all costs.

By the middle of the century, the new totalitarian forces had emerged

from the Middle, but with a difference: they were less concerned with

wealth than with power, and they had learned from history how they might

maintain their power and stifle all opposition. Technologies enabled 24-

hour surveillance and complete mind control; and the "abolition of private

property" really meant the appropriation of all property by the Party as a


According to history, the new ruling class could only be toppled one

of four ways. It could be conquered by an external power; this has

effectually ceased to be a possibility with the mutual unconquerability of

the three superstates. It could stimulate mass revolt due to its own

inefficiency; but the masses have no standards of comparison to even show

them the inefficiency or misery of Party rule. It could allow for the rise

of a strong Middle class, or it could lose its confidence in itself and its

ability to govern through the rise of certain attitudes in its own ranks.

These last two comprise an educational problem, and are solved through the

use of doublethink and the relative flexibility between the Outer Party and

Inner Party. Because Party membership is not hereditary, the Party is not a

class in the historical sense; it is concerned with propagating itself,

rather than with putting forth its children.

There is a discussion of Oceanic society and a detailed description of

the everyday life of a Party member, which delves into the mental

disciplines of "crimestop" (the ability to protect yourself from committing

thoughtcrime using stupidity), "blackwhite" (either an opponent's insolent

claim that black is white, or a Party member's laudable willingness to

claim black is white for the Party's sake), and doublethink (which in

reality encompasses all).

The alteration of history is explained as having two reasons: to

prevent Party members from having a standard of comparison, and to protect

the Party's supposed infallibility. "The mutability of the past is the

central tenet of Ingsoc," Goldstein writes, starting to touch upon the

issue that haunts Winston. According to Ingsoc, the past is defined by

record and memory; and since the Party creates and controls both of those,

it creates the past.

Here Goldstein comes to the practice of doublethink, and after a

detailed discussion of it (though nothing Winston doesn't already know),

claims that ultimately it is doublethink which has allowed the Party to

freeze the pendulum of social class struggle, because through doublethink

the Party is able to learn from past errors while maintaining the illusion

of its infallibility. Through the use of doublethink, the Party is able to

create an atmosphere of "controlled insanity," which is the ideal for

permanently keeping human equality at bay.

But when Goldstein comes to the central question‹i.e., why is it

necessary to forever avoid human equality? Winston stops reading, aware

that Julia has fallen asleep. He closes the book and reflects that he still

doesn't understand why (his question from a previous chapter). He knew

everything in those chapters already. But he derives comfort from the

feeling that he is not mad, and falls asleep with a feeling that he is


Chapter 10


Winston awakens, feeling like he has slept for a long time; but the

old-fashioned clock says 8:30, i.e. 20:30. The woman outside starts singing

the love song she always sings, waking Julia, who gets up to light the

stove. Oddly, there is no oil left, although she had made sure it was full.

Remarking that it is colder, she gets dressed; Winston follows suit. He

goes to the window and looks out‹no sun. As he watches the prole woman,

Julia joins him, and he is surprised to find that he thinks the huge lady

beautiful. She must have had many children, he reflects, noting also that

he and Julia can never do that; but with hope he thinks about the millions

of people like that woman, who live their lives and will eventually rise up

to construct a new world. He knows that while he and Julia are dead, they

can yet share in the future by somehow passing along the secret that "2 + 2

= 4."

He says, "We are the dead." Julia echoes him.

And then they are startled by a voice from the wall echoing them. "You

are the dead."

At last, they have been caught. There had been a telescreen behind the

picture. Winston and Julia are ordered to remain still and untouching, in

the middle of the room, hands behind their heads, while storm troopers

surround the house and burst in through a window.

Winston remains as still as he can, trying to avoid being struck. One

of the storm troopers smashes the paperweight. Another hits Julia in the

solar plexus, knocking the wind out of her and sending her to the floor.

She is picked up and ignominiously carried out as Winston watches


Various uninteresting thoughts begin to hit Winston. It becomes

apparent that he and Julia have overslept‹that it is now 9:00 in the

morning, rather than in the evening. But he does not pursue this train of


Mr. Charrington enters, but he is altered in accent and appearance.

Winston realizes that he is a member of the Thought Police.

Part 3

Chapter 1


Winston is in the Ministry of Love (he presumes), in a high-ceilinged

bare white cell with a telescreen in each wall and a bench running along

the perimeter. He has not eaten since he was arrested, and he has no

conception of how long ago that was.

Before being brought to this place he had been taken to a prison full

of both "common criminals" (i.e. prole gangsters, thieves, prostitutes,

etc.) and political prisoners like himself. He notes that the common

criminals comport themselves with almost no fear of consequences, in direct

contrast to the political prisoners, and that they have set up a sort of

hierarchical social order within the prison.

One huge, drunken woman is brought in kicking and screaming and dumped

on Winston's lap. She seems to take a liking to him, asks his name, and is

surprised to find that it is the same as hers. She speculates that she

might be his mother; he reflects that it is possible, given her age and the

potential changes time may have wrought.

In this prison, Winston hears for the first time a reference to "Room 101,"

which he does not understand.

In the cell in the Ministry of Love, Winston has nothing to do except

sit still and think. He is so paralyzed by hunger and fear that he cannot

even feel for Julia. Dreading torture, he thinks hopefully of the razor

blade O'Brien might send.

People start to come into the cell. The first is Ampleforth, the poet

from Winston's department. They talk briefly before the telescreen shouts

at them to be quiet. After a while, Ampleforth is taken out to Room 101.

The next person to enter is, to Winston's utter surprise, Parsons, whose

daughter denounced him to the Thought Police for saying "Down with Big

Brother" over and over again in his sleep.

After Parsons is removed, various other prisoners are brought in and

taken out. Again, someone is assigned to be taken to Room 101, and Winston

observes her fear without comprehending it. A starving man is brought in;

everyone in the cell seems to realize at once that he is dying of

starvation. Another prisoner, a chinless man, gets up to offer him a crust

of bread. The telescreen roars at him to freeze and drop the bread. An

officer and a guard enter; the guard smashes the man in the mouth, sending

him across the cell and breaking his dental plate.

After this, the starving man is summoned to Room 101. In mortal

terror, he flings himself into a posture of supplication, begging them not

to send him there. The officer is implacable. The prisoner begs them to do

anything to him, anything else but Room 101; still no relenting.

Desperately, he tries to point the finger at the chinless man, shrieking

that they should be taking him instead; the guards move forward to remove

him by force. He grabs one of the iron legs supporting the bench and puts

up a surprisingly good fight before his fingers are broken by a vicious

kick and he is dragged away.

An unknown amount of time passes, and Winston is alone. He is tortured

by hunger, thirst, and panic; he still hopes for the razor blade; his

thoughts of Julia are distant and cannot compete with his fright of the

pain he knows he will be suffering.

The door opens again, and O'Brien enters. Winston is shocked into

forgetting the telescreen for the first time in years. "They've got you

too!" he exclaims, to which O'Brien replies, "They got me a long time ago,"

and steps aside to reveal a guard with a truncheon. O'Brien was not, after

all, the co-conspirator Winston had thought; but somehow, now, he sees that

he has always known this was the case. This thought flits through his mind

almost unnoticed as he watches the guard's truncheon..

The blow falls on Winston's elbow and he is blinded by pain. Writhing

on the floor, he cannot think of anything except that there are no heroes

in the face of pain.

Chapter 2


For an indeterminate amount of time, Winston has been tortured, first

with frequent and vicious beatings, then with extensive interrogations

where the nagging of his questioners wore him down even more than the

beatings. He has confessed all manner of impossible crimes and implicated

everybody he knows. His memories are discontinuous and in some cases

hallucinatory. Through it all he has the sense that O'Brien has been in

charge of his life in the Ministry of Love‹that O'Brien dictates when

Winston shall be tortured and fed. Winston is not sure when it was, but he

recalls hearing a voice telling him not to worry, because "I shall save

you, I shall make you perfect." Winston is not certain whether it is

O'Brien's voice, but it is the same voice he heard in his old dream.

Winston drifts into a consciousness that he is in a room with O'Brien,

strapped to a bed. O'Brien is in control of some sort of pain-generating

device which will play a part in the current interrogation.

O'Brien begins by telling Winston that he is insane because he does

not have control of his memory, and that he recalls false events. He

mentions the photograph of Jones, Rutherford and Aaronson as a

hallucination Winston has had‹and then holds up the very photograph. Before

Winston's eyes, O'Brien proceeds to dispose of the photograph through a

memory hole and immediately deny that it ever existed. Winston feels

helpless because he realizes it is quite possible that O'Brien is not

lying, that he in fact believes that the photograph never existed.

They talk about the nature of the past and reality; O'Brien tells

Winston that reality exists only in the mind of the Party, and that Winston

has got to make an effort to destroy himself in order to become "sane." He

then asks Winston if he recalls writing in his diary that "Freedom is the

freedom to say that 2 + 2 =4," and this touches off a whole round of

torture. O'Brien holds up four fingers and asks Winston how many there are,

if the Party says there are five. Winston, for a long while, can only see

four, and suffers increasing levels of pain for it. O'Brien does not accept

Winston merely saying that he sees five; he has to actually believe it. At

last, Winston's senses are so dazed by pain that he is no longer sure how

many fingers there are.

O'Brien allows him a respite (for which Winston is lovingly grateful),

and asks him why he thinks people are brought to the Ministry of Love. When

Winston guesses that it is to make people confess or to punish them,

O'Brien suddenly becomes quite animated, and almost indignant in his

explanation. The point is not to hear about or punish petty crimes; it is

to actually change the Party's enemy, i.e. to empty him of himself and his

dangerous individualistic ideas, and to fill that void with the Party. This

precludes the possibility of martyrdom and the subsequent threat of people

rising up against the Party later. Even Jones, Aaronson and Rutherford,

O'Brien tells Winston, were in the end filled only with penitence and

adoration of Big Brother.

Winston feels that O'Brien's mind contains his own, and is not quite

sure which one of them is mad, though he thinks it must be himself since it

doesn't seem likely that O'Brien is.

O'Brien looks down at him sternly. He tells him, "What happens to you

here is for ever. . . . Things will happen to you from which you could not

recover, if you lived a thousand years." These things, notably, will wipe

out all human feeling from Winston‹in other words, they will take away his

humanity, and he will be nothing but a shell filled with the Party.

At this point, Winston is hooked up to another device which does not

pain him but seems to knock out some part of his brain, so that for a short

while he can remember nothing of his own accord but merely takes, and

believes, whatever O'Brien tells him to be truth. The effect wears off, but

it has made its point: that it is, in fact, possible for the Party to get

inside him and make him believe its truth.

The session is drawing to its close, and O'Brien mentions how he

agrees with Winston's diary entry about how it doesn't matter whether

O'Brien was an enemy or a friend because he could be talked to.

Magnanimously, he allows Winston to ask any question he desires; but his

answers are yet cruel, "truthful" only in the sense that they reference the

Party's truth.

Winston realizes suddenly that O'Brien knows what he is going to ask,

and he does: "What is in Room 101?" But O'Brien merely responds that

everyone knows what is in Room 101, and Winston is put to sleep.

Chapter 3


Some time has passed. After innumerable sessions with O'Brien, Winston

has completed the first "stage in his re-integration"‹learning‹and O'Brien

judges that it is time for him to move on to the second, understanding.

O'Brien quotes Winston's diary entry about understanding "how" but not

"why." He mentions Goldstein's book, informing Winston that he was one of

the people who wrote it, and that it is true as a description of the world

but that its discussion of insurrection is nonsense and impossible; the

Party, he says, will rule forever, and Winston must get that into his head.

That said, he turns to the question of why the Party holds onto its

power. Winston answers incorrectly and suffers for it. O'Brien answers his

own question: "The Party seeks power entirely for its own sake." Power is

defined as something that must be collective, and as power over human

beings. Almost as an aside, O'Brien says the Party already controls matter.

Winston, roused, argues that they do not, but O'Brien silences him using

plenty of doublethink, and returns to the idea of holding power over men.

Since power over others depends on making the subject suffer, the

Party's view of the future is a world based upon hatred, fear, and

destruction. All instincts of love and beauty will be eradicated and only

power, ever more refined and absolute, will remain.

Winston, horrified, again attempts to argue against the possibility

that such a world could ever last eternally. When O'Brien asks why Winston

thinks it should fail, he cites his belief that the spirit of man will

prevail. Ironically, O'Brien asks Winston if he thinks he is a man. Winston

replies that he does. O'Brien tells him that he must be the last man, and

bids him take off his clothes and go look in the mirror at the end of the


When Winston sees himself, he has a nasty shock. He is a skeleton,

dirty, broken, disgusting. He is, as O'Brien cruelly emphasizes, falling

apart. He breaks down into tears. Once again, O'Brien's manner changes to

near-kindness, as he tells Winston that he can get himself out of this

state because he got himself into it. He lists the humiliations Winston has

suffered, and asks him whether there is a single degradation he has not

experienced. Winston looks up and replies that he has not betrayed Julia.

O'Brien seems to understand this, and agrees, looking at Winston

thoughtfully. Far from taking this as any sort of hint, Winston is flooded

with his old worship of O'Brien, almost grateful that he has understood

without explanation.

Chapter 4


More time has passed, and Winston is no longer being tortured. In

fact, he is being fed and kept clean and allowed to sleep. At first he is

only interested in sleep and no conscious mental activity; he dreams

abundantly, always happy peaceful dreams, with Julia, his mother, or

O'Brien‹the three people he cares about.

Gradually he grows stronger, though he is shocked at how weak he had

become. Correspondingly, his mind becomes more active, and he sits down to

try and re-educate himself. He reviews everything he has been told, writes

down Party slogans and falsities such as "2 + 2 = 5," all the while

reflecting how easy it has been to mentally surrender, to "think as they


Still, he is troubled by some mental objections, and tries to practice

crimestop, which is the conscious stopping of thought before it leads you

into thoughtcrime. He finds that it is difficult to attain the stupidity

necessary to avoid seeing blatant logical flaws. At the back of his mind,

he wonders how soon he will be shot. The only thing he knows is that they

always shoot you in the back of the head.

Winston has a dream or reverie in which he is walking down the

corridor, waiting to be shot, feeling happy and at peace. He walks into the

Golden Country..

Suddenly he bolts awake, having heard himself cry out longingly for


He had had a fleeting sensation of her being inside him, and at that

moment had loved her more than at any previous moment. Somehow he feels she

is still alive and that she needs his help.

Despairing, Winston lies back, waiting for the tramp of boots in the

corridor. His thoughtcrime sprang from the fact that while he has tamed his

mind to the Party, he has tried to keep his innermost self‹his heart‹away

from them. He wonders how much time he has added to his torment by the cry.

Rebelliously, he decides to lock his hatred of the Party so far inside

him that it is even a secret from himself, and envisions the final moment

where, just before the bullet hits him, all his hatred would explode. This,

he feels, is the last avenue of freedom open to him: to have his final

heretical thought right before their bullet reached him.

But this will be difficult. He thinks of Big Brother and wonders what he

really feels toward him.

O'Brien enters at that moment with an officer and guards. He orders

Winston to stand up and examines him. He asks Winston what he feels towards

Big Brother. Winston replies that he hates him. The last step, O'Brien

tells him, is to learn to love Big Brother, and he orders Winston to be

taken to Room 101.

Chapter 5


Winston has been taken to Room 101 and strapped into a chair. O'Brien

enters and tells him what is in Room 101: the worst thing in the world,

which varies between individuals but is always something unendurable to the

person in the chair. For Winston, it is rats.

A mask with a cage attached to it is brought in. From its

construction, it is clear that the mask is designed to fit over Winston's

face, and at the pulling of a lever, the rats inside the cage‹enormous,

ravenous brutes‹will be free to attack him.

O'Brien casually mentions Winston's recurring nightmare, and tells him

what he already knows: that behind the dark wall of his nightmare were

rats. Winston, beyond panic, begs O'Brien to tell him what he wishes him to

do. O'Brien does not answer, but engages in a sort of ponderous mental

torture by bringing the contraption closer and pedantically musing on rats.

Winston's terror increases, but at the last moment it occurs to him

what must be done, and that is to beg that this be done to Julia rather

than to him.

He has saved himself; O'Brien shuts the cage door rather than opens


Chapter 6


It is 15:00 and Winston sits alone in the Chestnut Tree Cafe. He is

anxiously listening for news of the war with Eurasia.

However, Winston is not able to keep his mind on one topic for very

long these days, and he gulps down his glass of clove-flavored gin. He is

fatter and pinker now‹to the point of looking unhealthy. Without being

asked, a waiter brings him the current issue of the Times, opened to the

chess problem, and a chessboard; he sees that Winston's glass is empty and

refills it. The waiters know Winston's habits and bill him irregularly

(and, he suspects, they undercharge him), though with his new higher-paying

job this wouldn't have presented a problem either way.

An announcement from the Ministry of Plenty reveals that Oceania is in

the midst of the Tenth Three-Year Plan. Winston starts to attack the chess

problem. The telescreen announcer advises everyone to listen for an

important announcement at 15:30, which Winston knows must be about the

fighting in Africa. He has the sinking feeling that it will be bad news;

the thought that this could lead to the end of the Party triggers a

powerful but unclear reaction in him. He imagines a mysterious force

assembling to the rear of the Eurasian army, cutting off its

communications, and feels that by willing it he can bring that force into


His thoughts wander; almost unconsciously he traces the equation "2 +

2 = 5" on the table. He recalls Julia saying "They can't get inside you,"

but knows she is wrong; he remembers O'Brien saying "What happens to you

here is for ever," and knows he is right.

He had encountered Julia one freezing, dead March day in the Park.

Knowing that the Party no longer cared about what he did, he had followed

her, but not very eagerly. Something about her had changed. She had not

been particularly excited about having him around, but resigned herself.

They walked. He had put his arm around her waist; she did not respond. He

had realized that the change in her was not so much the scar across her

face or her pallor, but that her waist had thickened and stiffened into

something like a corpse or marble.

They did not speak or kiss. When Julia looked at him, it was with

contempt and dislike. They seated themselves on a bench and finally Julia

had said, "I betrayed you." He told her he had betrayed her as well. From

her explanation‹that they threaten you with the unendurable and you place

your loved one inside it instead of yourself, thereby changing forever how

you feel about the person‹it seems apparent that she, too, had been taken

to Room 101.

There was nothing more to say, and they had parted uncomfortably, with

empty words about meeting again, but really only the desire to get away

from one another.

Recalling Julia's words about betrayal, Winston reflects that he had

really wished for her to be devoured by the rats instead of himself‹but

before he can even get to the word "rats" in his thoughts (which we know he

will never do anyway), a voice from the telescreen starts to sing, "Under

the spreading chestnut tree, I sold you and you sold me . . ."

Winston's eyes fill with tears. A waiter passes by and refills his

glass; he thinks about how dependent he has become on gin, drinking it

every hour of the day. No one cares how he spends his days. His "job"

involves dealing with trivialities that arise from the current work being

done on the Eleventh Edition of the Newspeak Dictionary. His sub-sub-

committee consists of four other people like himself.

He thinks briefly again about the struggle in Africa, then picks up a

chess piece, and somehow triggers a memory of his childhood. His mother,

after entreating him to be good, had bought him the game Snakes and

Ladders, and although he had not been interested in it at first, he was

soon captivated, and the three of them had a happy, enjoyable afternoon.

Recalling himself, Winston shakes this off as a false memory, and is

picking up the chess piece again when a trumpet-call from the telescreen

startles him. The trumpet-call always signifies a victory, and excitement

spreads through the cafe and the streets like wildfire. The announcement is

that the very strategy Winston had imagined has taken place, utterly

defeating Eurasia and giving Oceania control of all of Africa.

Caught up in the excitement of this news, Winston looks up at the

portrait of Big Brother, overwhelmed, and feels the "final, healing

change": He loves Big Brother.



The Appendix details the underlying principles of Newspeak

(essentially that it was designed to limit the range of thought), and

details the word classes as follows:

The A vocabulary consisted of everyday words used in the expression of

simple thoughts, usually involving concrete objects or physical actions.

The B vocabulary consisted of words created to hold political

connotations and impose a politically desirable state of mind upon the

user. These were all compound words, like "Ingsoc" or "doublethink." Many

meant the opposite of what they really were, in keeping with the concept of


The C vocabulary consisted of scientific and technical terms which it

behooved no one but scientists and technicians to use.

The grammar of Newspeak had two notable characteristics:

There was an almost complete interchangeability between different parts

of speech. A noun and verb were basically the same, and formed the

root for all other forms of the word. Adjectives were formed by

tacking "-ful" onto the end of the word; adverbs, by adding the suffix

"-wise." Any word could be negated by the prefix "un-," and other

prefixes like "plus-" and "doubleplus-" could strengthen the word.

The grammar was exceedingly regular, with very few exceptions. All past

tenses were formed using "-ed," all plurals with "-s" or "-es," and

comparatives with "-er" and "-est."

Euphony was privileged above everything, including grammatical

regularity, except precision of meaning. This is because the end goal was

to produce words that could be spoken so quickly that they would not have

the time to prompt thought; in other words, so that people could speak

without thinking at all.

The meanings of Newspeak words were carefully controlled so that in many

cases most connotations were destroyed. For instance, the word "free" still

existed, but only in the sense of something being "free from" something

else, e.g. "This field is free from weeds." It could not be used with

reference to political freedom, as this meaning had been drilled out of the


This also precluded the ability to argue heretical opinions. Though, for

instance, it would have been possible to say "Big Brother is ungood," there

were not the words necessary to defend or argue this assertion. Through

this process, Oldspeak would become not only obsolete but impossible to

understand or translate, since its words hold meanings and can express

ideas that would be inexpressible in Newspeak (except using the single word


Animal Farm by G.Orwell

Chapter One: Summary

As the story opens on Mr. Jones's farm, the farm animals are preparing

to meet after Mr. Jones goes to sleep, to hear the words that the old and

well-respected pig, Old Major, wants to say to them. The animals gather

around as Old Major tells them that he had a dream the previous night and

senses that he will not live much longer. As the animals prepare for his

speech, the narrator identifies several of the animals which will become

more important in the story: the cart-horses Boxer and Clover, the old

donkey Benjamin, and Mollie the pretty mare. Before he dies, he wants to

tell the animals what he has observed and learned in his twelve years. Old

Major goes on to say that animals in England are cruelly kept in slavery by

man, who steals the animals' labor and is "the only creature that consumes

without producing". He describes his vision of an England in which animals

are free and live in complete harmony and cooperation, free of the tyranny

of man and his evil habits.

Old Major tells the animals that they must all band together to fight

the common enemy, Man, and rise up in rebellion when the opportunity comes.

He exhorts them to remain true to their animal ways, and then leads them in

a rousing song of revolution, called "Beasts of England". They are stirred

into a frenzy by Old Major's speech and sing the song five consecutive

times, until Mr. Jones stirs and fires a shot into the air to quiet them

down. Soon the whole farm falls asleep.

Chapter Two: Summary

Three days later, Old Major dies and is buried. His revolutionary

fervor lives on, and the animals begin to flesh in the revolutionary

ideology with which they will overthrow Mr. Jones. Two of the pigs,

Snowball and Napoleon, emerge as the leaders of the animals. Snowball is

naturally vivacious, while Napoleon "has a reputation for getting his own

way". Another pig named Squealer also becomes prominent for his persuasive

speaking ability. These three pigs create a system of tenets and name it

"Animalism," and begin imparting it to the rest of the animals, often

simplifying and slowly reasoning with the less-intelligent animals such as

the Sheep, or the frivolous animals, like Mollie the white mare. The cart-

horses Boxer and Clover are the most responsive of all the animals, and

Moses the tame raven is the most difficult animal for the pigs to persuade

to join the revolution. Moses claims that he knows of the existence of a

magical place called Sugarcandy Mountain, and his tales are a constant

distraction to the other animals.

Revolution comes earlier than anyone expected, when Mr. Jones gets so

drunk that he is unable to go feed the animals. After a day and a half

without food, the hungry animals finally riot and break into the feeding

area themselves, prompting Mr. Jones and his field hands to come outside.

The animals attack them with a vengeance, and the men flee, leaving Manor

Farm to the animals. Mrs. Jones wakes up during the commotion, and when she

discovers what has happened, she runs off with a suitcase of clothes

herself. The animals rejoice, walking over the farm to examine their

property, curiously investigate the farmhouse interior, and celebrate with

extra rations of food. The next morning, Snowball repaints the sign reading

"Manor Farm" to say "Animal Farm," and he and Napoleon introduce the

animals to The Seven Commandments, which form the tenets of their


Whatever goes upon two legs is an enemy.

Whatever goes upon four legs, or has wings, is a friend.

No animal shall wear clothes.

No animal shall sleep in a bed.

No animal shall drink alcohol.

No animal shall kill another animal.

All animals are created equal.

The cows by this time need milking, so the pigs manage to milk them.

Several of the animals want some of the milk for themselves, but Napoleon

distracts them, saying that they have more important things to attend to

and that he will take care of it. Later that day, the animals notice that

the milk had disappeared.

Chapter Three: Summary

The Animalism regime begins very promisingly, with all the animals

working industriously to improve the farm, and enjoying the feeling of self-

governance and "animal pride" which their regime produces. Inspired by the

idea that they would enjoy the fruits of their own labors for the first

time, the animals overcome the challenges of farming without man and bring

in the largest harvest Animal Farm has ever produced. Boxer the horse

becomes a model of hard work and devotion to the cause, and adopts the

personal motto, "I will work harder". The pigs do not actually perform any

work, but instead supervise and coordinate the work for the rest of the

animals. Mollie the mare is the only animal who shirks work. Benjamin, the

old donkey, remains unchanged after the revolution, and cryptically says

that "Donkeys live a long time." The animals observe a flag-raising ritual

on Sundays, which is a day of rest for them. Snowball forms an array of

committees aimed at social improvements, education, training, and the like.

The education program achieves the greatest success, with all the animals

achieving some degree of literacy. After the discovery that the stupider

animals could not learn the Seven Commandments, Snowball reduces the tenets

down to the maxim "Four legs good, two legs bad," which even the sheep can

memorize, and bleat for hours on end. The dogs have a litter of nine

puppies, which Napoleon takes under the guise of educating them. He keeps

them secluded in the loft, and soon the other animals forget about them.

After the apple harvest, the pigs announce that they will reserve all the

apples and milk for themselves, to fuel the strenuous efforts required to

manage the farm. The other animals reluctantly acquiesce.

Chapter Four: Summary

News of the rebellion at Animal Farm spreads quickly to the rest of

the animals in England, and the words to "Beasts of England" can soon be

heard on farms everywhere. Emboldened by the Animal Farm revolution, other

previously subdued animals begin displaying subversive behavior in subtle

ways, such as tearing down fences and throwing riders. This development

alarms the local farmers, who have listened to Mr. Jones's tale of woe at

the Red Lion tavern where he now spends most of his time. Alarmed by the

developments at Animal Farm and the threat of revolution spreading, the

townsmen band together with Mr. Jones and attempt to reclaim his farm. The

animals successfully defend it, led by the strategy and bravery of

Snowball. A young farm hand is thrown to the ground by Boxer, and at first

it appears that he has been killed, but he gains consciousness a few

moments later and runs off. At the first gunshot, Mollie the mare runs into

the barn in terror and buries her head in the hay. Snowball and Boxer are

given medals for their courageous fighting.

Chapter Five: Summary

Unhappy with the new workload at Animal Farm, Mollie runs away to work

pulling a dogcart for a man who feeds her sugar lumps, and she is never

spoken of again. When winter comes, Snowball begins talking of a plan to

build a windmill to bring electricity to the farm. Snowball has spent much

of his spare time reading Mr. Jones's old books on farming techniques, and

he envisions an Animal Farm where increased productivity will result in

less work and more comfortable lifestyles for all the animals. Napoleon,

who by this times disagrees with Snowball about almost everything, is

bitterly opposed, and the animals become divided into two camps of

supporters. Napoleon and Snowball also disagree about the best course of

defense for the farm, with Snowball advocating the spread of the

revolutionary spirit to neighboring farms, while Napoleon feels the animals

should procure weapons and develop a military force. The animals are set to

vote, and after Snowball's impassioned speech, Napoleon whistles for nine

large dogs (the puppies that he has trained), and they attack Snowball and

drive him off the farm. Napoleon becomes the single leader of the animals,

abolishes their weekly debates and meetings, and announces that they will

go through with the windmill scheme after all. The animals are initially

dismayed by these developments, but Squealer eventually smoothes things


Chapter Six: Summary

The animals begin working like slaves to complete the harvest and

build the windmill. Napoleon announces that the animals will now perform

"voluntary" work on Sundays. Though the work is officially called

voluntary, any animal who does not participate will have their food rations

cut in half. To finance the completion of the windmill, Napoleon announces

that Animal Farm will begin trading with the men who run nearby farms. The

animals think they remember Old Major speaking against evil human habits

such as trade. Squealer convinces the animals that they are only imagining

it. The sight of Napoleon on four legs conducting business with the farm's

trade agent Mr. Whymper, who stands upright, makes the animals so proud

that they ignore their misgivings. The pigs then move into the farmhouse,

and Squealer again convinces that animals that they are only imagining the

earlier rules against sleeping in beds. Some of the animals go to check the

Fourth Commandment, and discover that it actually reads "No animal shall

sleep in a bed with sheets". Rather than realizing that the Commandment has

been altered, the animals accept that they must have forgotten the ending

before. The windmill is destroyed in a storm, and Napoleon blames it on

Snowball, and places a reward on his head.

Chapter Seven: Summary

A hard winter comes, and the animals face near-starvation. To hide the

food shortage from the outside world, Napoleon fills the grain bins with

sand to fool Mr. Whymper. He also plants several animals at strategic

locations during Mr. Whymper's visits so that he can hear them making

"casual" (and false) remarks about food surpluses and increased rations.

Napoleon announces the plan to sell a pile of timber to one of two

neighboring farmers, Mr. Frederick or Mr. Pilkington. At Napoleon's

bidding, Squealer announces that the hens will have to give up their eggs

to be sold for money to buy grain. The hens refuse at first, but Napoleon

cuts off their food rations until they relent, after nine of them have died

from starvation. All sorts of acts of mischief and vandalism begin to

surface, which are immediately attributed to Snowball. Soon after, Napoleon

announces that an attempted rebellion has been discovered, and has several

of the farm animals executed. The remaining animals react with fear and

horror, and huddle around Clover the mare for comfort. She reminds them of

Old Major's glorious speech and leads them all in "Beasts of England,"

which prompts Napoleon to forbid the singing of the song and replace it

with the song "Animal Farm, Animal Farm, never through me shall thou come

to harm".

Chapter Eight: Summary

The animals discover that after the executions, another commandment is

different from how they remembered it; the Sixth Commandment now reads "No

animal shall kill another animal without cause". Napoleon has a long poem

praising his leadership painted on the side of the barn, and it is

announced that the gun will be fired each year on his birthday. All orders

are delivered through Squealer, with Napoleon living in near seclusion in

the farmhouse and rarely appearing on the farm in person. When he does make

public appearances, it is only while accompanied by a retinue of dogs and

other servants. Napoleon announces the sale of the pile of timber to

Frederick, a neighboring farmer whose acts of cruelty toward his animals

are legendary. After the transaction, it is revealed the Frederick paid

with forged bank notes. Napoleon pronounces a death sentence onto

Frederick. Shortly thereafter, the farm is again attacked by neighboring

farmers, led by Frederick himself. Napoleon appeals to Pilkington to help

the cause of Animal Farm, but Pilkington's interest in the farm were only

economic, and since he did not get the pile of timber, he refuses to help,

sending Napoleon the message "Serves you right". The animals finally repel

the farmers, but only with great difficulty, with Boxer sustaining a severe

injury to his hoof and the windmill being destroyed in an explosion.

Napoleon celebrates the victory by drinking lots of whisky, and despite his

vicious hangover, the Fifth Commandment soon reads "No animal shall drink

alcohol in excess".

Chapter Nine: Summary

More and more, the animals begin to think about the generous

retirement plans that had been part of the ideology of the early

Revolution. Life is hard for the animals, and rations continue to be

reduced, except for the pigs, who are allowed to wear green ribbons on

Sundays, drink beer daily, and actually seem to be gaining weight. To keep

the animals from complaining about the obvious discrepancies, Squealer

continually reads the animals reports which detail how much better off they

are now then before the Revolution. Animal Farm is declared a Republic and

must elect a President. Napoleon is the only candidate and is elected

unanimously. Moses the raven returns after an absence of several years,

still talking about the mystical Sugarcandy Mountain. Boxer falls ill and

Napoleon promises to send him to a hospital, but the animals read the sign

of the truck as he is hauled away and discover that he is being taken to

the butcher's. Squealer eventually convinces the animals that they are


Chapter Ten: Summary

Years pass, and many of the older animals, who remember life before

the Revolution, die off. Only cynical Benjamin remains just as he always

was. The animal population has increased, but not as much as would have

been predicted at the Revolution's beginning. Talk of retirement for the

animals stops, and the pigs, who have become the largest group of animals

by far, form a bureaucratic class in the government. As Napoleon ages,

Squealer assumes a position of increasing power, and learns to walk

upright. He teaches the sheep to change their chant to "Four legs good, two

legs better," and the Seven Commandments are replaced with a single

commandment: "All animals are created equal, but some animals are more

equal than others". The animals are once again uneasy by the new political

developments, but they comfort themselves with the knowledge that at least

they have no human master. Squealer begins to seek out the approval of the

neighboring farmers for his efficiency and order at Animal Farm. The pigs

invite a group of townsmen to dinner to inspect the efficiency of Animal

Farm, and the men congratulate the pigs on their achievements, noting that

the animals at Animal Farm did more work and required less food than any

farm in the county. Napoleon refers to the farm animals as "the lower

classes" and announces that Animal Farm will take back its original name of

The Manor Farm. As the animal watch the dinner proceedings through the

window, they realize with horror that they can no longer tell the pigs'

faces from the human ones.

Childe Harold by G.G.Byron

Canto 1: A wayward, wild, immoral youth grows weary of his ways and seeks

to gain a surer foothold on life by traveling. A rambling account follows

in which Harold goes to Spain and Portugal, with momentary lapses where

other areas of Europe are recalled. Familiarity with the area in the reader

might make the descriptions more meaningful, but they are romantic


Canto 2: Harold then journeys to the Baltics, where he is impressed by the

fierce culture of the Albanians, and the past glory of Greece. A

reminiscence and some extensive notes on the state of Greece and its

bondage to foreign powers are included. The descriptions are often

picturesque, but the poem as a whole lacks coherence. We see no growth in

Harold-- in fact, it is not a story about him at all, but rather a poetic

chronicle of travels and thoughts. As such, though, it is passable.

Canto 3: This is a far superior piece of work to the last two cantos.

Harold develops, affected by and reflecting deeply and interestingly on

Waterloo and Napoleon in Belgium, on the Alps, the Rhine and the battles

fought there. His cynicism begins to soften, and he begins to yearn for his

beloved. With the place-descriptions are woven (this time, rather than

simply interspersed as before) meditations on people, such as the Aventian

princess Julia whose love for her father affected Byron so deeply; and

Rousseau, of whom Byron is critical but admiring (see also his long

thoughtful note on this subject); and Voltaire and Gibbon, who are

acknowledged but claimed to be wrongheaded. Also, he thinks about nature as

a respite from the "madding crowd" (fortified with a prose argument in a

note), entertains what we would now call some "environmentalist" thoughts,

and finally comments on his shunning of the world's trends and his sorrow

as an estranged father to his girl. This canto is very like the meandering

thoughts of a traveler or a wanderer. But here they are fruitful and bubble

forth to a greater extent than in the first two.

Canto 4: In keeping with the progression of this poem, this canto is the

best of the four. In Italy, we see the places and hear reminiscences of the

people, but these in this canto seem oddly secondary. Harold's journey is

now admitted to be Byron's journey, and the meditations which the sites and

scenes inspire are deep and thoughtful as never before. We get much more of

an idea that this is Byron speaking to us rather than an imagined

character; indeed, Byron in the prefatory letter calls the work his most

thoughtful composition (as of 1818). He reaches highs of contemplation more

than once-- on imagination and the eternal glimpses it brings; on suffering

and painful memory; on solitude and its virtues and vices; on education; on

man's humility and state of political and spiritual slavery; on freedom; on

our poor souls and the illusory nature of love; on thought and truth; on

the joys of the wilderness and the power of the ocean; and an excellent

conclusion which humbly and thoughtfully closes the mind's eye of the

reader in rest. Meanwhile, of course, we are shown Venice, several ancient

sites, and (for the bulk of the canto) Rome, about whose history Byron

muses, talking of the rise and fall of civilizations. We see the Pantheon,

Circus, Coliseum, Vatican... and all inspire thought and reflection. No

real conclusions are reached-- Harold/Byron does not have a sustained and

rejuvenation epiphany-- but still we get the idea that he is better for

having superfluity wrung from him on this trip. For, how can one descend to

the level of a profligate again, after tasting the greatness which man has

attained in a worldly sense, and being inspired by that to think (to some

extent at least) of great things in a spiritual sense?

The French Lieutenant's Woman by J.Fowles

The first chapter describes Lyme Regis and its Cobb, a harbor quay on

which three characters are standing: Charles Smithson, Ernestina Freeman,

and Sarah Woodruff. The describing narrator has a distinctive voice, all-

knowing yet intimate, with a wide-ranging vocabulary and evidently vast

knowledge of political and geographical history. In one sentence the

narrator sounds like a Victorian, as he remarks that the male character

recently "had severely reduced his dundrearies, which the arbiters of the

best English male fashion had declared a shade vulgar--that is, risible to

the foreigner--a year or two previously." In the next sentence he sounds

modern, as he describes how "the colors of the young lady's clothes would

strike us today as distinctly strident." The narrator's double vision and

double voice make him as important as the characters in this novel.

Charles is a middle-aged bachelor and amateur paleontologist;

Ernestina is his fiancйe, who has brought him to spend a few days with her

aunt. Out of a chivalric concern for Sarah, Charles advises her to return

from the end of the Cobb to a safer position, but she merely stares at him.

As he reflects on this curious meeting, the narrator begins to comment on

Charles's outlook on life and on the attitudes that were typical of the age

in 1867, with occasional comparisons with 1967.

Ernestina is revealed to be a pretty but conventional young woman.

Sarah is an outcast who is reputed to be pining for the French lieutenant

who has jilted her. Charles is earnest but intelligent enough to be aware

of Ernestina's limitations. When he is looking for fossils along the wooded

Undercliff, Charles discovers Sarah sleeping, and must apologize when she

awakes and sees him observing her. As he returns to Lyme, he inquires about

her at a nearby farm, whose owner tells him that the "French Loot'n'nt's

Hoer" often walks that way. Sarah's employer, having separately become

aware of that fact, forbids her to walk there any more. Sarah spends that

night contemplating suicide, and Chapter 12 ends with two questions: "Who

is Sarah? Out of what shadows does she come?"

Chapter 13 begins "I do not know," and the narrator proceeds to

discuss the difficulty of writing a story when characters behave

independently rather than do his bidding. Charles, he complains, did not

return to Lyme as the narrator had intended but willfully went down to the

Dairy to ask about Sarah. But, the narrator concedes, times have changed,

and the traditional novel is out of fashion, according to some. Novels may

seem more real if the characters do not behave like marionettes and

narrators do not behave like God. So the narrator, in effect, promises to

give his characters the free will that people would want a deity to grant

them. Likewise, the narrator will candidly admit to the artifice of the

narration and will thereby treat his readers as intelligent, independent

beings who deserve more than the manipulative illusions of reality provided

in a traditional novel.

Subsequent chapters contain representations of domestic life--a quiet

evening with Charles and Ernestina, a morning with Charles and his valet, a

concert at the Assembly Rooms. During this last, Charles reflects on where

his life seems to be leading and on the fact that, as he puts it, he has

become "a little obsessed with Sarah…or at any rate with the enigma she

presented." He returns to the Undercliff, again finds Sarah there, and is

shocked to be told by her that she is not pining for her French lieutenant,

that he is married. The next time Charles encounters her in the Undercliff

she offers Charles some fossils she has found and tells him that she thinks

she may be going mad; she asks him to meet her there once more, when she

has more time, so that she can tell him the truth about her situation and

obtain his advice.

Charles decides to seek advice himself and visits Dr. Grogan, an

elderly bachelor and an admirer of Darwin, whose theories they discuss.

When the conversation turns to Sarah, Grogan expresses the belief that she

wants to be a victim. Sarah seems to bear out his view when she explains to

Charles that she indeed became infatuated with the French lieutenant when

he was recovering from an injury in the house, where Sarah was governess,

and that she followed him when he left to return to France. She tells

Charles that she quickly realized that he had regarded her only as an

amusement, but that she "gave" herself to him nonetheless, doubly

dishonoring herself by choice as well as by circumstances. She seems to be

proud of her status as outcast, for it differentiates her from a society

she considers unjust. Charles accepts her story--even finds it fascinating.

When Charles returns to his room at the inn, he finds a telegram from

his bachelor uncle Robert, summoning him home to the family estate he is in

line to inherit. To Charles's surprise, Robert has decided to marry Bella

Tomkins, a young widow, whose sons--if she has any--would displace Charles

as heir. On Charles's return to Lyme Regis, Ernestina mentions that Sarah

was seen returning from their last meeting in the Undercliff, where she had

been forbidden to walk, and has been dismissed by Mrs. Poulteney. At his

hotel, Charles finds a message from Sarah, urging him to meet her one more

time. Charles has Dr. Grogan call off the search for Sarah, who, it was

thought, might have killed herself Grogan again warns Charles against

Sarah, this time by offering him a document to read about a case of bizarre

behavior by a young woman in France who manages to get one of her father's

officers unjustly convicted of attempting to rape her. Charles decides to

meet Sarah again, despite the possibility that she may be deranged and

trying to destroy him.

When he finds her, she confesses that she deliberately allowed herself

to be seen and, hence, dismissed. Charles is unable to resist kissing her

but is bewildered. His feelings turn to dismay when they are stumbled on by

Sam and Mary, his valet and Ernestina's aunt's servant, who have come to

the Undercliff for their own privacy. Embarrassed, he swears them to


Now even more of two minds about his marriage, Charles decides to go

to London to discuss his altered financial prospects with Ernestina's

father, a prosperous merchant there. Mr. Freeman is more concerned for the

happiness of his daughter, who evidently loves Charles dearly, so the

engagement stands; but Charles is increasingly uncomfortable with, even

trapped by, his situation. He goes to his club and drinks too much. He

visits a brothel with two of his friends, but finds the entertainment

repellant, and leaves. He picks up a Cockney streetwalker and returns to

her flat with her; when she tells him her name is, coincidentally, Sarah,

Charles becomes ill and, subsequently, returns to his room. The next

morning Charles receives a letter from Grogan, and a note from Sarah with

the name of a hotel in Exeter.

Because the train station nearest to Lyme Regis is in Exeter, Charles

must pass through that town on his way back from London. Having steamed

open the note from Sarah, Sam is confident that they will spend the night

in Exeter, so that Charles can visit Sarah, but they proceed to Lyme, where

Charles and Ernestina are reunited. The narrator recounts that they go on

to marry, have seven children, and live well into the twentieth century. In

the next chapter, the narrator explains that this traditional ending is

just one possibility, a hypothetical future for his characters. Charles

recognized his freedom of choice and "actually" did decide to put up at

Exeter for the night, precisely as Sam had expected.

As the story resumes and continues to unfold, Charles visits Sarah at

her hotel. He must see her in her room because she has supposedly injured

her ankle, though she has purchased the bandage before the "accident"

occurred. Charles is overcome by passion and takes her to bed, only to

discover that she is a virgin, despite what she had told him about the

French lieutenant. She confesses that she has deceived him, says that she

cannot explain why and, furthermore, cannot marry him. Stunned by the whole

experience, Charles visits a nearby church and meditates on the human

condition. He decides that Sarah has been trying to "unblind" him with her

stratagems, so that he would recognize that he is free to choose. He writes

a letter to Sarah, telling her how much she means to him, and then returns

to Lyme to call off his engagement.

Sam does not deliver the letter. Ernestina is distraught when Charles

tells her that he is unworthy to be her husband, more so when she realizes

that the true reason is another woman. Sam correctly surmises that his

master's star will wane as the marriage is called off, so determined to

protect his prospect of marriage to Mary, he leaves his position as

Charles's valet in hope that Ernestina's aunt and her father will help him.

When Charles returns to Exeter, he finds Sarah gone to London, having

left no forwarding address. As he follows her, by train, a bearded figure

sits opposite Charles and watches him as he dozes. The character is the

narrator himself, who professes not to know where Sarah is or what she

wants; indeed, he is wondering what exactly to do with Charles. He compares

writing a novel to fixing a fight in favor of one boxer or another; to seem

less dishonest, he decides to show the "fight" as if "fixed" both ways,

with different "victors," or endings. Because the last ending will seem

privileged by its final position, he flips a coin to determine which ending

to give first.

The narrative resumes the description of Charles's search for Sarah.

He checks agencies for governesses, patrols areas frequented by

prostitutes, and advertises--all without success. He visits the United

States and advertises there. Two years after she disappeared, Charles gets

a cable from his solicitor saying that Sarah has been found. Charles hopes

that Sarah has decided to answer the ad, but the narrator explains that

Mary has seen Sarah enter a house in Chelsea, and that it is Sam who

responded to the ad, now that he is a thriving employee of Mr. Freeman as

well as a happy father and husband, but still slightly guilt-ridden over

his having intercepted the letter at Lyme.

When Charles arrives at Sarah's house, he finds her surprised to see

him and not apologetic about having left him in ignorance of her

whereabouts. She gradually is revealed to be living in the house of Dante

Gabriel Rossetti and several other artists and models of the Pre-Raphaelite

Brotherhood. Charles is shocked, partly by the rather notoriously

unconventional company she is keeping and partly by her lack of repentance

for having deceived him and left him in uncertainty. He accuses her of

implanting a dagger in his breast and then twisting it. She decides not to

let Charles leave without revealing that she has had a child by him, named

Lalage. Chapter 60 ends with the three of them evidently on the threshold

of some kind of future together.

Chapter 61 begins with the bearded narrator in front of Sarah's house

with a watch, which he sets back fifteen minutes and drives off. The

narrative resumes with the same piece of dialogue from Chapter 60, about

twisting the knife. In this version of the conversation, Charles sees that

she cannot marry without betraying herself, and that he cannot accept her

on more independent terms. He leaves without realizing that the child he

notices on the way out is his. The narrator ends the novel by noting that

Charles has at least begun to have some faith in himself, despite his not

feeling that he understands Sarah, and that the reader should not imagine

that the last ending is any less plausible than the one before it.

French Lieutenant’s Woman in Russian

Краткое содержание

Ветреным мартовским днем 1867 г. вдоль мола старинного городка Лайм-

Риджиса на юго-востоке Англии прогуливается молодая пара. Дама одета по

последней лондонской моде в узкое красное платье без кринолина, какие в

этом провинциальном захолустье начнут носить лишь в будущем сезоне. Ее

рослый спутник в безупречном сером пальто почтительно держит в руке

цилиндр. Это были Эрнестина, дочь богатого коммерсанта, и ее жених Чарльз

Смитсон из аристократического семейства. Их внимание привлекает женская

фигура в трауре на краю мола, которая напоминает скорее живой памятник

погибшим в морской пучине, нежели реальное существо. Ее называют несчастной

Трагедией или Женщиной французского лейтенанта. Года два назад во время

шторма погибло судно, а выброшенного на берег со сломанной ногой офицера

подобрали местные жители. Сара Вудраф, служившая гувернанткой и знавшая

французский, помогала ему, как могла. Лейтенант выздоровел, уехал в Уэймут,

пообещав вернуться и жениться на Саре. С тех пор она выходит на мол,

"слоноподобный и изящный, как скульптуры Генри Мура", и ждет. Когда молодые

люди проходят мимо, их поражает ее лицо, незабываемо-трагическое: "скорбь

изливалась из него так же естественно, незамутненно и бесконечно, как вода

из лесного родника". Ее взгляд-клинок пронзает Чарльза, внезапно ощутившего

себя поверженным врагом таинственной особы.

Чарльзу тридцать два года. Он считает себя талантливым ученым-

палеонтологом, но с трудом заполняет "бесконечные анфилады досуга". Проще

говоря, как всякий умный бездельник викторианской эпохи, он страдает

байроническим сплином. Его отец получил порядочное состояние, но проигрался

в карты. Мать умерла совсем молодой вместе с новорожденной сестрой. Чарльз

пробует учиться в Кембридже, потом решает принять духовный сан, но тут его

спешно отправляют в Париж развеяться.

Он проводит время в путешествиях, публикует путевые заметки -

"носиться с идеями становится его главным занятием на третьем десятке".

Спустя три месяца после возвращения из Парижа умирает его отец, и Чарльз

остается единственным наследником своего дяди, богатого холостяка, и

выгодным женихом. Неравнодушный к хорошеньким девицам, он ловко избегал

женитьбы, но, познакомившись с Эрнестиной Фримен, обнаружил в ней

незаурядный ум, приятную сдержанность. Его влечет к этой "сахарной

Афродите", он сексуально неудовлетворен, но дает обет "не брать в постель

случайных женщин и держать взаперти здоровый половой инстинкт". На море он

приезжает ради Эрнестины, с которой помолвлен уже два месяца. Эрнестина

гостит у своей тетушки Трэнтер в Лайм-Риджисе, потому что родители вбили

себе в голову, что она предрасположена к чахотке. Знали бы они, что Тина

доживет до нападения Гитлера на Польшу! Девушка считает дни до свадьбы -

осталось почти девяносто... Она ничего не знает о совокуплении, подозревая

в этом грубое насилие, но ей хочется иметь мужа и детей. Чарльз чувствует,

что она влюблена скорее в замужество, чем в него.

Однако их помолвка - взаимовыгодное дело. Мистер Фримен, оправдывая

свою фамилию (свободный человек), прямо сообщает о желании породниться с

аристократом, несмотря на то что увлеченный дарвинизмом Чарльз с пафосом

доказывает ему, что тот произошел от обезьяны. Скучая, Чарльз начинает

поиски окаменелостей, которыми славятся окрестности городка, и на Вэрской

пустоши случайно видит Женщину французского лейтенанта, одинокую и

страдающую. Старая миссис Поултни, известная своим самодурством, взяла Сару

Вудраф в компаньонки, чтобы всех превзойти в благотворительности. Чарльз, в

обязанности которого входит трижды в неделю наносить визиты, встречает в ее

доме Сару и удивляется ее независимости. Унылое течение обеда разнообразит

лишь настойчивое ухаживание голубоглазого Сэма, слуги Чарльза, за горничной

мисс Трэнтер Мэри, самой красивой, непосредственной, словно налитой

девушкой. На следующий день Чарльз вновь приходит на пустошь и застает Сару

на краю обрыва, заплаканную, с пленительно-сумрачным лицом. Неожиданно она

достает из кармана две морские звезды и протягивает Чарльзу. "Джентльмена,

который дорожит своей репутацией, не должны видеть в обществе вавилонской

блудницы Лайма", - произносит она. Смитсон понимает, что следовало бы

подальше держаться от этой странной особы, но Сара олицетворяет собой

желанные и неисчерпаемые возможности, а Эрнестина, как он ни уговаривает

себя, похожа, порою на "хитроумную заводную куклу из сказок Гофмана". В тот

же вечер Чарльз дает обед в честь Тины и ее тетушки. Приглашен и бойкий

ирландец доктор Гроган, холостяк, много лет добивающийся расположения

старой девы мисс Трэнтер. Доктор не разделяет приверженности Чарльза к

палеонтологии и вздыхает о том, что мы о живых организмах знаем меньше, чем

об окаменелостях.

Наедине с ним Смитсон спрашивает о странностях Женщины французского

лейтенанта. Доктор объясняет состояние Сары приступами меланхолии и

психозом, в результате которого скорбь для нее становится счастьем. Теперь

встречи с ней кажутся Чарльзу исполненными филантропического смысла.

Однажды Сара приводит его в укромный уголок на склоне холма и рассказывает

историю своего несчастья, вспоминая, как красив был спасенный лейтенант и

как горько обманулась она, когда последовала за ним в Эймус и отдалась ему

в совершенно неприличной гостинице: "То был дьявол в обличий моряка!"

Исповедь потрясает Чарльза. Он обнаруживает в Саре страстность и

воображение - два качества, типичных для англичан, но совершенно

подавленных эпохой всеобщего ханжества. Девушка признается, что уже не

надеется на возвращение французского лейтенанта, потому что знает о его

женитьбе. Спускаясь в лощину, они неожиданно замечают обнимающихся Сэма и

Мэри и прячутся. Сара улыбается так, как будто снимает одежду. Она бросает

вызов благородным манерам, учености Чарльза, его привычке к рациональному

анализу. В гостинице перепуганного Смитсона ждет еще одно потрясение:

престарелый дядя, сэр Роберт, объявляет о своей женитьбе на "неприятно

молодой" вдове миссис Томкинс и, следовательно, лишает племянника титула и

наследства, Эрнестина разочарована таким поворотом событий. Сомневается в

правильности своего выбора и Смитсон, в нем разгорается новая страсть.

Желая все обдумать, он собирается уехать в Лондон. От Сары приносят

записку, написанную по-французски, словно в память о лейтенанте, с просьбой

прийти на рассвете.

В смятении Чарльз признается доктору в тайных встречах с девушкой.

Гроган пытается объяснить ему, что Сара водит его за нос, и в

доказательство дает прочитать отчет о процессе, проходившем в 1835 г. над

одним офицером. Он обвинялся в изготовлении анонимных писем с угрозами

семье командира и насилии над его шестнадцатилетней дочерью Мари.

Последовала дуэль, арест, десять лет тюрьмы. Позже опытный адвокат

догадался, что даты самых непристойных писем совпадали с днями менструаций

Мари, у которой был психоз ревности к любовнице молодого человека.. Однако

ничто не может остановить Чарльза, и с первым проблеском зари он

отправляется на свидание. Сару выгоняет из дома миссис Поултни, которая не

в силах перенести своеволие и дурную репутацию компаньонки. Сара прячется в

амбаре, где и происходит ее объяснение с Чарльзом. К несчастью, едва они

поцеловались, как на пороге возникли Сэм и Мэри. Смитсон берет с них

обещание молчать и, ни в чем не признавшись Эрнестине, спешно едет в

Лондон. Сара скрывается в Эксетере.

У нее есть десять соверенов, оставленные на прощание Чарльзом, и это

дает ей немного свободы. Смитсону приходится обсуждать с отцом Эрнестины

предстоящую свадьбу. Как-то, увидев на улице проститутку, похожую на Сару,

он нанимает ее, но ощущает внезапную тошноту. Вдобавок шлюху также зовут

Сарой. Вскоре Чарльз получает письмо из Эксетера и отправляется туда, но,

не повидавшись с Сарой, решает ехать дальше, в Лайм-Риджис, к Эрнестине. Их

воссоединение завершается свадьбой. В окружении семерых детей они живут

долго и счастливо. О Саре ничего не слышно. Но этот конец неинтересен.

Вернемся к письму. Итак, Чарльз спешит в Эксетер и находит там Сару. В ее

глазах печаль ожидания. "Мы не должны... это безумие", - бессвязно

повторяет Чарльз. Он "впивается губами в ее рот, словно изголодался не

просто по женщине, а по всему, что так долго было под запретом". Чарльз не

сразу понимает, что Сара девственна, а все рассказы о лейтенанте - ложь.

Пока он в церкви молит о прощении, Сара исчезает. Смитсон пишет ей о

решении жениться и увезти ее прочь. Он испытывает прилив уверенности и

отваги, расторгает помолвку с Тиной, готовясь всю жизнь посвятить Саре, но

не может ее найти. Наконец, через два года, в Америке, он получает

долгожданное известие. Возвратившись в Лондон, Смитсон обретает Сару в доме

Росетти, среди художников. Здесь его ждет годовалая дочка по имени Лалаге


Нет, и такой путь не для Чарльза. Он не соглашается быть игрушкой в

руках женшины, которая добилась исключительной власти над ним. Прежде Сара

называла его единственной надеждой, но, приехав в Эксетер, он понял, что

поменялся с ней ролями. Она удерживает его из жалости, и Чарльз отвергает

эту жертву. Он хочет вернуться в Америку, где открыл "частицу веры в себя".

Он понимает, что жизнь нужно по мере сил претерпевать, чтобы снова выходить

в слепой, соленый, темный океан.

Gulliver’s Travels by Daniel Defoe


Gulliver's Travels was published in 1726 by satirist Jonathan Swift.

Because it can be read as a fantasy novel, a story for children, and a

social satire, its tales of dwarves, giants, oating islands and talking

horses have long entertained readers from every age group. It has often

been issued with long passages omitted, particularly those concerning

bodily functions and other distasteful topics. Even without these passages,

however, Gulliver's Travels serves as a biting satire, and Swift ensures

that it is both humorous and critical, constantly criticizing British and

European society through its descriptions of imaginary countries.

The book was originally published as Travels to Several Remote Nations

of the World by Captain Lemuel Gulliver. It is set at the turn of the 18th

century, and it details four journeys made over the course of several

years. It describes only vaguely the locations of the fantastic lands to

which Gulliver travels, ultimately insisting that European maps are too

awed to allow them to be easily found.

There is a general tone of mockery in the text, echoing the sarcastic

voice found in other works by Swift (e.g. "A Modest Proposal"). Gulliver is

sometimes wise, sometimes foolish, but always eager to please his new

masters. The sarcastic tone of the text sets Swift himself as a kind of

foil to Gulliver; unlike his protagonist, Swift's purpose was no doubt to

annoy the leaders of Britain rather than please them.

Swift wrote Gulliver's Travels at a time of political change and

scientific invention, and many of the events he describes in the book can

easily be linked to contemporary events in Europe. One of the reasons that

the stories are deeply amusing is that, by combining real issues with

entirely fantastic situations and characters, they suggest that the

realities of 18th-century England were as fantastic as the situations in

which Gulliver finds himself.


Gulliver The narrator and protagonist of the story, Lemuel Gulliver

is a English ship's surgeon carried by circumstance into a series of

adventures in strange parts of the world. He is well-traveled and speaks

several languages.

The Emperor The ruler of Lilliput; he, like all Lilliputians, is less than

six inches tall.

Reldresal A government official in Lilliput; he befriends Gulliver and

warns him when his life is threatened.

The farmer Gulliver's first master in Brobdingnag; in order to make money,

he puts Gulliver on display around Brobdingnag.

Glumdalclitch The farmer's nine-year-old daughter; she becomes Gulliver's

friend and nursemaid.

The Queen The Queen of Brobdingnag.

The King The King of Brobdingnag.

Yahoo Unkempt beasts who live under the power of the Houyhnhnms; they are

strong, malicious, and cowardly, and resemble humans in most respects.

Houyhnhnms Horses who maintain a simple, peaceful society, in which the

Yahoos are subordinate; they befriend Gulliver, but cannot accept him as an



Gulliver's Travels details a sailor's journey to four very different

fantastical societies. The first, Lilliput, is populated by miniature

people who brought wars over the proper way to break an egg. The second,

Brobdingnag, is inhabited by giants who put Gulliver on display as a

curiosity. The third consists of a kingdom governed by a king who lives on

a oating island; the kingdom also contains an academy of scientists

performing futile experiments, such as trying to extract sunbeams from

cucumbers. The fourth is a society in which human-like creatures are made

to serve their horse-like superiors, the Houyhnhnms.

In his first adventure, in Lilliput, Gulliver becomes a hero by

destroying an enemy's fleet of ships. He is constantly under threat of

execution by the little people of Lilliput, however, who believe that

trivial crimes deserve severe punishments. The willingness of the

Lilliputians and their enemies to risk their lives in defense of their

methods of egg-breaking is a way for Swift to criticise the European

tendency to focus on, and _get over, trivialities.

In his next adventure, in Brobdingnag, Gulliver finds himself in the

opposite situation, now many times smaller than his hosts. He is made to

see things up close, and notices things that would have escaped him had the

people been his own size. To him, the Brobdingnagians seem vulgar and ugly,

since the aws, which would be invisible on smaller beings, become all too

obvious when expanded to their gargantuan size. Gulliver is treated poorly

by the farmer who first discovers him, but is then rescued by the Queen,

who turns him into a pet. The giants see him, and the society from which he

comes, as tiny and insignificant.

Next, Gulliver visits the oating island of Laputa, where he encounters

a government so absorbed in its theories that the King must be aroused

during conversation by being hit with a stick. While the people on the

oating island concern themselves with theories, the people of the kingdom

below suffer from poverty and hunger. On the ground a scientific academy is

similarly concerned with the most impractical projects; the value of

academia is challenged by their ineptitude.

Finally, Gulliver travels to a country populated by intelligent

horses, the Houyhnhnms, and the brutish, human-like Yahoos who serve them.

During his stay, he is treated like a Yahoo and comes to think of his own

European society as being not that different from theirs. He wants to stay

with the Houyhnhnms, but he is eventually banished from their company for

resembling a Yahoo. Knowing that the ways of his people are awed and

irrational, he finds it very difficult to return home to England.

Part I, Chapter 1


The novel begins with Lemuel Gulliver recounting the story of his

life, beginning with his family history. He was born to a family in

Nottinghamshire, the third of five sons. Although he studied at Cambridge

as a teenager, his family was too poor to keep him there, so he was sent to

London to be a surgeon's apprentice. There, he learned mathematics and

navigation with the hope of travelling. When his apprenticeship ended, he

studied physics at Leyden.

He then became a surgeon aboard a ship called The Swallow for three

years. Afterwards, he settled in London, working as a doctor, and married a

woman named Mary Burton. His business began to fail when his patron died,

so he decided to go to sea again and travelled for six years. Although he

had planned to return home, he decided to accept one last job on a ship

called The Antelope.

Here the background information ends and Gulliver's story really

begins. In the East Indies, The Antelope encounters a violent storm in

which twelve crewmen die. Six of the crew members, including Gulliver,

board a small rowboat to escape. Soon the rowboat capsizes, and Gulliver

loses track of his companions; they are never seen again. Gulliver,

however, swims safely to shore.

He lies down on the grass to rest and soon falls asleep. When he wakes

up he finds that his arms, legs, and long hair have been tied to the ground

with ropes bound across the rest of his body. Tied as he is, he can only

look up, and the bright sun prevents him from seeing anything. He feels

something move across his leg and over his chest. He looks down at it and

sees, to his surprise, a six-inch-tall human carrying a bow and arrow. At

least forty more little people climb onto his body. He is surprised and

shouts loudly, frightening the little people away. They return, however,

and one of the little men cries out "Hekinah Degul."

Gulliver struggles to get loose and finally succeeds in breaking the

strings binding his left arm. He loosens the ropes tying his hair so he can

turn to the left. In response, the little people _re a volley of arrows

into his hand and violently attack his body and face. He decides that the

safest thing to do is to lie still until nightfall. The noise increases, as

the little people build a stage next to Gulliver about a foot o_ the

ground. One of them climbs onto it and makes a speech in a language that

Gulliver does not understand.

Gulliver indicates that he is hungry, and the little people bring him

baskets of meat. He devours it all, and then shows that he is thirsty, so

they bring him two large barrels of wine. Gulliver is tempted to pick up

forty or fifty of them and throw them against the ground, but he decides

that he has made them a promise of goodwill and is grateful for their

hospitality. He is also struck at their bravery, since they climb onto his

body despite his great size.

An official climbs onto Gulliver's body and tells him that he is to be

carried to the Capital City. Gulliver wants to walk, but they tell him that

that will not be permitted. Instead, they bring their largest machine; a

frame of wood raised three inches o_ the ground and carried by twenty-two


Nine hundred men pull this cart about half a mile to the city. His left leg

is padlocked to a building, giving him only enough freedom to walk around

the building in a semicircle and lie down inside the temple.

Part I, Chapters 2-3


Chained to the building, Gulliver is finally able to stand up and view

the entire countryside, which he discovers is beautiful and rustic. The

tallest trees are seven feet tall, and the whole area looks to him like a

theatre set.

Gulliver describes his process of relieving himself, which initially

involved walking inside the building to the edge of his chain. After the

first time, he makes sure to relieve himself in open air; the sewage is

carried away in wheelbarrows by servants. He is careful to describe this

process in order to ensure that his cleanliness is known, since critics

have called it into question.

The Emperor visits from his Tower, on horseback. He orders his

servants to give Gulliver food and drink. The Emperor is dressed plainly

and carries a sword to defend himself. He and Gulliver converse, though

they cannot understand each other. Gulliver tries to speak every language

he knows, but nothing works. After two hours, Gulliver is left with a group

of soldiers guarding him. Some of them try to shoot arrows at him, and as a

punishment the Brigadier ties up six of them and places them in Gulliver's

hand. Gulliver puts five of them into his pocket and takes the fifth into

his hand. They think he is to be eaten, but Gulliver cuts loose his ropes

and sets him free. He does the same with the other five, which pleases the


After two weeks, a bed is made for Gulliver. It consists of 600 small

beds sewn together. News of his arrival also spreads throughout the

kingdom, and curious people from the villages come to see him. Meanwhile,

the government attempts to decide what is to be done with Gulliver.

Frequent Councils bring up various concerns: for instance, that he will

break loose or that he will eat enough to cause a famine. It is suggested

that they starve him or shoot him in the face to kill him, but that would

leave them with a giant corpse and a large health risk.

Officers that had witnessed Gulliver's lenient treatment of the six

offending soldiers report to the Council, and the Emperor and his Court

decide to respond with kindness. They arrange to deliver large amounts of

food to Gulliver every morning, and to supply him with servants to wait on

him, tailors to make him clothing, and teachers to instruct him in their


Every morning Gulliver asks the Emperor to set him free, but he

refuses, saying that Gulliver must be patient. The Emperor also orders him

to be searched to ensure that he does not have any weapons. Gulliver agrees

to this, and the little people take an inventory of all his possessions; in

the process, all of his weapons are taken away.

Gulliver hopes to be set free, as he is getting along well with the

Lilliputians and earning their trust. The Emperor decides to entertain him

with shows, including a performance by Rope-Dancers.

Rope-Dancers are Lilliputians who are seeking employment in the

government; for the performance, which doubles as a sort of competitive

entrance examination, the candidates dance on "ropes" slender threads

suspended two feet above the ground. When a vacancy occurs, candidates

petition the Emperor entertain him with a dance; whoever jumps the highest

earns the office. The current ministers continue this practice as well, in

order to show that they have not lost their skill.

As another diversion for Gulliver, the Emperor lays three silken

threads of different colors on a table. He then holds out a stick, and

candidates are asked to leap over it or creep under it. Whoever shows the

most dexterity wins one of the ribbons.

Gulliver builds a platform from sticks and his handkerchief and

invites horsemen to exercise upon it. The Emperor greatly enjoys watching

this new entertainment, but it is cut short when a horse steps through the

handkerchief and Gulliver decides that it is too dangerous for them to keep

riding on the cloth.

Some Lilliputians discover Gulliver's hat, which had washed ashore

after him, and he asks them to bring it back. Soon after, the Emperor asks

Gulliver to pose like a Colossus, so that his troops might march under him.

Gulliver's petitions for freedom are finally answered. Gulliver must

swear to obey the articles put forth. Included in these articles are the

stipulations that he must assist the Lilliputians in times of war, survey

the land around them, help with construction, and deliver urgent messages.

Gulliver agrees and his chains are removed.

Part I, Chapters 4-5


The first thing Gulliver does after regaining his freedom is to ask to

see the city, which is called Mildendo. The residents are told to stay

indoors, and they all sit on their roofs and in their garret windows to see

him. He describes the town as being five hundred feet square, with a wall

surrounding it. The town can hold five hundred thousand people. The

Emperor's Palace is at the center, where the two large streets meet. The

Emperor wants Gulliver to see the magnificence of his palace, so Gulliver

cuts down trees to make himself a stool, which he carries around with him

so that he can sit down and see things from a shorter distance than a

standing position allows.

About two weeks after Gulliver obtains his liberty, a government

official, Reldresal, comes to see him. Gulliver offers to lie down to make

conversation easier, but Reldresal prefers to be held in Gulliver's hand.

He tells Gulliver that the kingdom is threatened by two forces, one rebel

group and one foreign empire. The rebel group exists because the kingdom is

divided into two factions, called Tramecksan and Slamecksan; the people in

the two factions are distinguished by the heights of their heels.

Reldresal tells Gulliver that the current Emperor has chosen to employ

primarily the low-heeled Slamecksan in his administration. He adds that the

Emperor himself has lower heels than all of his officials, but that his

heir has one heel higher than the other, which makes him walk unevenly. At

the same time, the Lilliputians fear an invasion from the Island of

Blefuscu, which Reldresal calls the "Other Great Empire of the Universe"

(25). He adds that the philosophers of Lilliput do not believe Gulliver's

claim that there are other countries in the world inhabited by other people

of his size, preferring to think that Gulliver dropped from the moon or a


Reldresal describes the history of the two nations, starting out by

saying that it makes no mention of any other empire ever existing. The

conflict between them, he tells Gulliver, began years ago, when the

Emperor's father, then in command of the country, commanded all

Lilliputians to break their eggs on the small end first. He made this

decision after breaking an egg in the old way, large end first, and cutting

his finger. The people resented the law, and six rebellions were started in

protest. The monarchs of Blefuscu fuelled these rebellions, and when they

were over the rebels fled to that country to seek refuge. Eleven thousand

people chose death rather than submitting to the law. Many books were

written on the controversy, but books written by the Big-Endians were

banned. The government of Blefuscu accused the Lilliputians of disobeying

their religious doctrine, the Brundrecal, by breaking their eggs at the

small end. The Lilliputians argued that the doctrine reads "That all true

believers shall break their eggs at the convenient end," which could be

interpreted as the small end.

The exiles gained support in Blefuscu to launch a war against Lilliput

and were aided by rebel forces inside Lilliput. A war has been raging ever

since between the two nations, and Gulliver is asked to help defend

Lilliput against its enemies. Gulliver does not feel that it is appropriate

to intervene, but he nonetheless offers his services to the Emperor.

Gulliver then visits Blefuscu and devises a plan. He asks for cables

and bars of iron, out of which he makes hooks with cables attached. He then

walks to Blefuscu and catches their ships at port. The people are so

frightened that they leap out of their ships and swim to shore. Gulliver

attaches a hook to each ship and ties them together. While he does this the

soldiers _re arrows at him, but he keeps working. In order to protect his

eyes, he puts on the spectacles he keeps in his coat pocket. He tries to

pull the ships away, but they are anchored too tightly, so he cuts them

away with his pocketknife and pulls the ships back to Lilliput with them.

In Lilliput, Gulliver is greeted as a hero. The Emperor asks him to go

back to retrieve the other ships, intending to destroy Blefescu's military

strength and make it a province in his empire. Gulliver dissuades him from

this, saying that he does not want to encourage slavery or injustice. This

causes great disagreement in the government, with some officials turning

staunchly against Gulliver and calling for his destruction.

Three weeks later a delegation arrives from Blefuscu, and the war ends with

their surrender. They are privately told of Gulliver's kindness towards

them, and they ask him to visit their kingdom. He wishes to do so, and the

Emperor reluctantly allows it.

As a Nardac, or person of high rank, Gulliver no longer has to perform

all the duties laid down in his contract. He does, however, have the

opportunity to help the Lilliputians when the Emperor's wife's room catches

_re. He forgets his coat and cannot put the flames out with his clothing,

so instead he thinks of a new plan: he urinates on the palace, putting out

the _re entirely. He worries afterwards that, since the act of public

urination is a crime in Lilliput, he will be prosecuted, but the Emperor

tells him he will be pardoned. He is told, however, that the Emperor's wife

can no longer tolerate living in her rescued quarters.

Part I, Chapters 6-8


In these chapters, Gulliver describes the customs and character of

Lilliput in more detail, beginning by explaining that everything in

Lilliput is sized in proportion to the Lilliputians: their animals, trees,

and plants are all proportional to their own height. Their eyesight is also

adapted to their scale; Gulliver cannot see as clearly close-up as they

can, while they cannot see as far.

The Lilliputians are well-educated, but their writing system is odd to

Gulliver, who jokes that they write not left to right like the Europeans or

top to bottom like the Chinese, but from one corner of the page to the

other, "like the ladies in England."

The dead are buried with their heads pointing directly downwards,

because the Lilliputians believe that eventually the dead will rise again

and that the earth, which they think is at, will turn upside-down. Gulliver

adds that the more well-educated Lilliputians no longer believe in this


Gulliver describes some of the other laws of Lilliput, such as a

tradition by which anyone who falsely accuses someone else of a crime is

put to death.

Deceit is considered worse than theft, because honest people are more

vulnerable to liars than to thieves. The law provides not only for

punishment but also for rewards of special titles and privileges for good


Children are raised not by individual parents but by the kingdom as a

whole. They are sent to live in schools at a very young age; the schools

are chosen according to the station of their parents, whom they see only

twice a year. Only the laborers' children stay home, since their job is to

farm. There are no beggars at all, since the poor are well looked-after.

Gulliver goes on to describe the "intrigue" that precipitates his

departure from Lilliput. While he is preparing to make his trip to

Blefuscu, a court official pays him a visit. He tells Gulliver that he has

been charged with treason by enemies in the government. He shows Gulliver

the document calling for his execution: Gulliver is charged with public

urination, refusing to obey the Emperor's orders to seize the remaining

Blefuscu ships, aiding enemy ambassadors, and travelling to Blefuscu.

Gulliver is told that Reldresal has asked for his sentence to be

reduced, calling not for execution but for putting his eyes out. This has

been agreed upon, along with a plan to starve him to death slowly. The

official tells Gulliver that the operation to blind him will take place in

three days.

Fearing this resolution, Gulliver crosses the channel and arrives in

Blefuscu. Three days later, he sees a boat of "normal" size that is, big

enough to carry Gulliver overturned in the water. He asks the emperor of

Blefuscu to help him _x it. At the same time, the emperor of Lilliput sends

an envoy with the articles commanding him to give up his eyesight. The

emperor of Blefuscu sends them back with the message that Gulliver will be

leaving both their kingdoms soon. After about a month the boat is ready and

Gulliver sets sail. He arrives safely back in England, and makes a good

profit showing miniature farm animals that he had carried away from

Blefuscu in his pockets.

Part II, Chapters 1-2


Two months after returning to England, Gulliver is restless again. He

sets sail on a ship called the Downs, travelling to the Cape of Good Hope

and Madagascar before encountering a monsoon that draws the ship o_ course.

They continue to sail, eventually arriving at an unknown land mass. They

find no inhabitants, and the landscape is barren and rocky. Gulliver is

walking back to the boat when he sees that it has already left without him.

He tries to chase after it, but then he sees that they are being followed

by a giant. Gulliver runs away; when he stops, he is on a steep hill from

which he can see the countryside. He is shocked to see that the grass is

about twenty feet high.

He walks down what looks like the high road, but turns out to be a

footpath through a field of barley. He walks for a long time, but cannot

see anything beyond the stalks of corn, which are forty feet high. He tries

to climb a set of steps into the next field, but he cannot mount them

because they are too high. As he is trying to climb up the stairs he sees

another one of the island's giant inhabitants. He hides from the giant, but

it calls for more people to come, and they begin to harvest the crop with


Gulliver lies down and bemoans his state, thinking about how

insignificant he must be to these giant creatures.

One of the servants comes close to Gulliver with both his foot and his

scythe, so Gulliver screams as loudly as he can. The giant finally notices

him, and picks him up between his fingers to get a closer look. Gulliver

tries to speak to him in plaintive tones, bringing his hands together, and

the giant seems pleased. Gulliver makes it clear that the giant's fingers

are hurting him, and the giant places him in his pocket and begins to walk

towards his master.

His master, the farmer of these fields, takes Gulliver from his

servant and observes him more closely. He asks the other servants if they

have ever seen anything like Gulliver, and places him onto the ground. They

sit around him in a circle. Gulliver kneels down and begins to speak as

loudly as he can, taking o_ his hat and bowing to the farmer. He presents a

purse full of gold to the farmer, which he takes into his palm. He cannot

seem to figure out what it is, even after Gulliver empties the coins into

his hand.

The farmer takes him back to his wife, who is frightened of him. The

servant brings in dinner and they all sit down to eat, Gulliver sitting on

the table not far from the farmer's plate. They give him tiny bits of their

food, and he pulls out his knife and fork to eat, which delights the

giants. The farmer' son picks him up and scares him, but the farmer takes

Gulliver from his hands and strikes his son. Gulliver makes a sign that the

boy should be forgiven, and kisses his hand. After dinner, the farmer's

wife lets Gulliver nap in her own bed. When he wakes up he finds two rats

attacking him, and he defends himself with his weapon.

The farmer's nine-year-old daughter, whom Gulliver calls

Glumdalclitch, or nursemaid, has a doll's cradle, which becomes Gulliver's

permanent bed. This is placed inside a drawer to keep him away from the

rats. The girl becomes Gulliver's caretaker and guardian, sewing clothes

for him and teaching him the giants' language.

The farmer begins to talk about Gulliver in town, and a friend of the

farmer's comes to see him. He looks at Gulliver through his glasses, and

Gulliver begins to laugh at the sight of his eyes through the glass. The

man becomes angry, and advises the farmer to take Gulliver into the market

to display him. He agrees, and Gulliver is taken in a carriage, which he

finds very uncomfortable, to the town. There he is placed on a table and

the little girl sits down on a stool beside him, with thirty people at a

time walking through as he performs "tricks."

Gulliver is exhausted by the journey to the marketplace, but finds

upon returning to the farmer's house that he is to be shown there as well.

People come from miles around and are charged great sums to view him.

Thinking that Gulliver can make him a great fortune, the farmer takes him

and his daughter on a voyage to the largest cities.

They arrive in the largest city, Lorbrulgrud, and the farmer rents a

room with a table for displaying Gulliver. By now he can understand their

language and speak it fairly well. He is shown ten times a day and pleases

the visitors greatly.

Part II, Chapters 3-5


The strain of travelling and performing "tricks" takes its toll on

Gulliver, and he begins to grow very thin. The farmer notices this and

resolves to make as much money as possible before Gulliver dies. Meanwhile,

an order comes from the court, commanding the farmer to bring Gulliver to

the Queen for her entertainment.

The Queen is delighted with Gulliver's behavior and buys him from the

farmer for a thousand gold pieces. Gulliver requests that Glumdalclitch be

allowed to live in the palace as well. Gulliver explains his suffering to

the Queen, and she is impressed by his intelligence. She takes him to the

King, who at first thinks he is a mechanical creation. He sends for great

scholars to observe Gulliver, and they decide that he is unfit for

survival, since there is no way he could feed himself. Gulliver tries to

explain that he comes from a country in which everything is in proportion

to himself, but they do not seem to believe him.

Glumdalclitch is given an apartment in the palace and a governess to teach

her, and special quarters are built for Gulliver out of a box. They also

have clothes made for him from fine silk, but Gulliver finds them very

cumbersome. The Queen grows very used to his company, finding him very

entertaining at dinner, especially when he cuts and eats his meat. He finds

her way of eating repulsive, since her size allows her to swallow huge

amounts of food in a single gulp.

The King converses with Gulliver on issues of politics, and laughs at

his descriptions of the goings-on in Europe. He finds it amusing that

people of such small stature should think themselves so important, and

Gulliver is at first offended. He then comes to realize that he too has

begun to think of his world as ridiculous, since it is so small and yet

sees itself as so important.

The Queen's dwarf is not happy with Gulliver, since he is used to

being the smallest person in the palace and a source of diversion for the

royal court. He drops Gulliver into a bowl of cream, but Gulliver is able

to swim to safety and the dwarf is punished. At another point the dwarf

sticks Gulliver into a marrowbone, where he is forced to remain until

someone pulls him out.

Gulliver then describes the country for the reader, noting first that

since the land stretches out about six thousand miles there must be a

severe error in European maps. The kingdom is bound on one side by

mountains and on the other three sides by the sea. The water is very rough,

so there is no trade with other nations. The rivers are well stocked with

giant-sized fish, but the fish in the sea are of the same size as those in

the rest of the world and therefore not worth catching.

Gulliver is carried around the city in a special travelling-box, and

people always crowd around to see him. He asks to see the largest temple in

the country and is not overwhelmed by its size, since at a height of three

thousand feet it is proportionally smaller than the largest steeple in


Gulliver is happy in Brobdingnag except for the many mishaps that

befall him because of his diminutive size. In one unpleasant incident, the

dwarf, unhappy at Gulliver for teasing him, shakes an apple tree over his

head and one of the apples strikes Gulliver in the back and knocks him

over. Another time, he is left outside during a hailstorm and is so bruised

and battered that he cannot leave the house for ten days.

Gulliver and his nursemaid are often invited to the apartments of the

ladies of the court, and there he is treated as a plaything of little

significance. They enjoy stripping his clothes and placing him in their

bosoms, and he is appalled by their strong smell, noting that he was told

by a Lilliputian that he smelled quite repulsive to them. The women also

strip their own clothes in front of him, and he finds their skin very ugly

and uneven.

The Queen constructs a way for Gulliver to sail, ordering a special boat to

be built for him. This is placed in a cistern, and Gulliver rows in it for

his own enjoyment and for the amusement of the Queen and her court. Yet

another danger arises in the form of a monkey, which takes Gulliver up a

ladder, holding him like a baby and force-feeding him. He is rescued from

the monkey, and Glumdalclitch pries the food from his mouth with a needle,

after which he vomits. He is so weak and bruised that he stays in bed for

two weeks. The monkey is killed and orders are sent out that no other

monkeys be kept in the palace.

Part II, Chapters 6-8


Gulliver makes himself a comb from the stumps of hair left after the

King has been shaved. He also collects hairs from the King and uses them to

weave the backs of two small chairs, which he gives to the Queen as


Gulliver is brought to a musical performance, but it is so loud that

he can hardly make it out. Gulliver decides to play the spinet for the

royal family, but must contrive a novel way to do it, since the instrument

is so big. He uses large sticks and must run over the keyboard with them,

but he can still strike only sixteen keys.

Thinking that the King has unjustly come to regard his home country as

insignificant and laughable, Gulliver tries to tell him more about Britain,

describing the government and culture there. The King asks many questions,

and is particularly struck by the violence of the history Gulliver


He then takes Gulliver into his hand and, explaining that he finds the

world that Gulliver describes to be ridiculous, contemptuous and strange,

tells him that he concludes that "the bulk of your natives [are] the most

pernicious race of little odious vermin that nature ever suffered to crawl

upon the surface of the earth."

Gulliver is disturbed by the King's proclamation. He tries to tell him

about gunpowder, describing it as a great invention, and offering it to the

King as a gesture of friendship. The King is appalled by the proposal, and

Gulliver is taken aback, thinking that the King has refused a great

opportunity. He says that the King is unnecessarily scrupulous and narrow-

minded for not being more open to the inventions of Gulliver's world.

Gulliver finds the people of Brobdingnag in general to be ignorant and

poorly educated. Their laws are not allowed to exceed in words the number

of letters in their alphabet, and no arguments may be written about them.

They know the art of printing but do not have many books, and their

writing is simple and straightforward. One text describes the

insignificance and weakness of humans, and argues that at one point they

must have been much larger.

Gulliver wants to recover his freedom. The King orders any small ship

to be brought to the city, hoping that they might find a woman with which

Gulliver can propagate. Gulliver fears that any offspring thus produced

would be kept in cages or given to the nobility as pets. He has been in the

country for two years and wants to be among his owned kind again.

Gulliver is taken to the south coast, and both Glumdalclitch and

Gulliver fall ill. Gulliver says that he wants fresh air, and a page

carries him out to the shore in his travelling-box. He asks to be left to

sleep in his hammock, and the boy wanders o_. An eagle grabs hold of his

box and flies off with him, and then suddenly Gulliver feels himself

falling and lands in the water.

He worries that he will drown or starve to death, but then feels the

box being pulled. He hears a voice telling him that his box is tied to a

ship, and that a carpenter will come to drill a hole in the top. Gulliver

says that they can simply use a finger to pry it open, and hears laughter.

He realizes that he is speaking to people of his own height and climbs a

ladder out of his box and onto their ship.

Gulliver begins to recover on the ship, and he tries to tell the

sailors the story of his recent journey. He shows them things he saved from

Brobdingnag, like his comb and a tooth pulled from a footman. He has

trouble adjusting to their small size, and finds himself shouting all the

time. When he reaches home it takes him some time to grow accustomed to his

old life, and his wife asks him never to go to sea again.

Part III, Chapters 1-3


Gulliver has only been home in England ten days when a visitor comes

to his house, asking him to sail aboard his ship in two months' time.

Gulliver agrees and prepares to set out for the East Indies. On the voyage,

the ship is attacked by pirates. Gulliver hears a Dutch voice among them

and speaks to the pirate in Dutch, begging to be set free since he and the

pirate are both Christians. A Japanese pirate tells them they will not die,

and Gulliver tells the Dutchman that he is surprised to find more mercy in

a heathen than in a Christian. The pirate grows angry and punishes him by

sending him out to sea in a small boat with only four days' worth of food.

Gulliver finds some islands and goes ashore on one of them. He sets up

camp but then notices something strange: the sun is mysteriously obscured

for some time. He then sees a land mass dropping down and notices that it

is crawling with people. He is baffed by this oating island, and he shouts

up to its inhabitants. They lower the island and send down a chain, by

which he is able to crawl up.

He is immediately surrounded by people and notices their oddities.

Their heads are all tilted to one side or the other, with one eye turned

inward and the other looking up. Their clothes are adorned with images of

celestial bodies and musical instruments. Some of the people are servants,

and they carry a Goddamn knows what made of a stick with a pouch tied to

the end. Their job is to aid conversation by striking the ear of the

listener and the mouth of the speaker at the appropriate times; otherwise,

the minds of their masters would wander o_.

Gulliver is conveyed to the King, who sits behind a table loaded with

mathematical instruments. They wait an hour before there is some

opportunity to arouse him from his thoughts, at which point he is struck

with the apper. The King says something, and Gulliver's ear is struck with

the apper as well, even though he tries to explain that he doesn't require

it. It becomes clear that he and the King cannot speak any of the same

languages, so Gulliver is taken to an apartment and served dinner.

A teacher is sent to instruct Gulliver in the language of the island,

and he is able to learn several sentences. He discovers that the name of

the island is Laputa, which in their language means " oating island." A

tailor is also sent to improve his clothes, and while he is waiting for

these the King orders the island to be moved. It is taken to a point above

the capital city of the kingdom, Lagado, passing villages along the way and

collecting petitions from the King's subjects by means of ropes sent down

to the lands below.

The language of the Laputans depends greatly on mathematics and music,

and they despise practical geometry, thinking it vulgarso much so that they

make sure that there are no right angles in their buildings. They are very

good with charts and figures but very clumsy in practical matters. They

dread changes in the celestial bodies.

The island is exactly circular and consists of ten thousand acres of

land. At the center there is a cave for astronomers, containing all their

instruments and a loadstone six yards long. It moves the island with its

magnetic force, since it has two charges that can be reversed by means of

an attached control.

The mineral that acts upon the magnet is only large enough to allow it

to move over the country directly beneath it. When the King wants to punish

a particular region of the country, he can keep the island above it,

depriving the lands below of sun and rain. This failed to work in one town,

where the rebellious inhabitants had stored provisions of food in advance.

They planned to force the island to come so low that it would be trapped

forever and to kill the King and his officials in order to take over the


Instead, the King ordered the island to stop descending and gave in to

the town's demands. The King is not allowed to leave the oating island, nor

is his family.

Part III, Chapters 4-10


Gulliver feels neglected on Laputa, since the inhabitants seem

interested in only mathematics and music and are far superior to him in

their knowledge.

He is bored by their conversation and wants to leave. There is one

lord of the court whom Gulliver finds to be intelligent and curious, but

who is known to the other inhabitants of Laputa as the stupidest of all

because he has no ear for music. Gulliver asks this lord to petition the

King to let him leave the island. The petition succeeds, and he is let down

on the mountains above Lagado. He visits another lord there and is invited

to stay at his home.

Gulliver and his host visit a nearby town, which Gulliver finds to be

populated by poorly dressed inhabitants living in shabby houses. The soil

is badly cultivated and the people appear miserable. They then travel to

the lord's country house, first passing many barren fields but then

arriving in a lush green area that the lord says belongs to his estate. He

says that he is criticized heavily by the other lords for the

"mismanagement" of his land.

The lord explains that forty years ago some people went to Laputa and

returned with new ideas about mathematics and art. They decided to

establish an academy in Lagado to develop new theories on agriculture and

construction and to initiate projects to improve the lives of the city's

inhabitants. However, the theories have never produced any results and the

new techniques have left the country in ruin. He encourages Gulliver to

visit the academy, which Gulliver is glad to do since he had once been

intrigued by projects of this sort himself.

Gulliver visits the academy, where he meets a man engaged in a project

to extract the sunbeams from cucumbers. He also meets a scientist trying to

separate out the different parts of excrement, hoping to produce food from

it. Another is attempting to turn ice into gunpowder and is writing a

treatise about the malleability of _re, hoping to have it published. An

architect is designing a way to build houses starting from the roof, and a

blind master is teaching his blind apprentices to mix colors for painters

according to smell and touch. An agronomist is designing a method of

plowing fields with hogs by first burying food in the ground and then

letting the hogs loose to dig them out. A doctor in another room tries to

cure patients by blowing air through them; Gulliver leaves him trying to

revive a dog that he has killed by "curing" him in this way.

On the other side of the academy there are people engaged in

speculative learning. One professor has a class full of boys working from a

machine that produces random sets of words; using this, the teacher claims,

anyone can write a book on philosophy or politics. A linguist in another

room is attempting to remove all the elements of language except nouns;

this would make language more concise and prolong lives, since every word

spoken is detrimental to the human body. Since nouns are only things,

furthermore, it would be even easier to carry things and never speak at


Gulliver then visits professors who are studying issues of government.

One claims that women should be taxed according to their beauty and skill

at dressing, another that conspiracies against the government could be

discovered by studying the excrement of subjects. Gulliver grows tired of

the academy and begins to yearn for a return to England. He tries to travel

to Luggnagg, but finds no ship available. Since he has to wait a month, he

is advised to take a trip to the island of GLUBBDUBDRIB the island of


Gulliver visits the governor of GLUBBDUBDRIB, and finds that he is

attended by servants who appear and disappear like spirits. The governor

tells Gulliver that he has the power to call up whomever he would like to

speak to; Gulliver chooses Alexander the Great, who assures him that he

died not from poison but from excessive drinking. He then sees Hannibal,

Caesar, Pompey and Brutus. Gulliver sets apart one day to speak with the

most venerated people in history, starting with Homer and Aristotle. He

asks Descartes and Gassendi to describe their systems to Aristotle, who

freely acknowledges his own mistakes.

Gulliver returns to Luggnagg, where he is confined despite his desire

to return to England. He is ordered to appear at the King's court and is

given lodging and an allowance. The Luggnuggians tell him about certain

immortal people, children born with a red spot on their foreheads and

called Struldbruggs. Gulliver devises a whole system of what he would do if

he were immortal, starting with the acquisition of riches and knowledge. He

is told that after the age of thirty, most Struldbruggs grew sad and

dejected; by eighty, they were incapable of affection and envious of those

who could die. If two of the Struldbruggs married, the marriage was

dissolved when one reached eighty, because "those who are condemned without

any fault of their own to a perpetual continuance in the world should not

have their misery doubled by the load of a wife." He meets some of these

people and finds them to be unhappy and unpleasant, and he regrets ever

wishing for their state.

Gulliver is then finally able to depart from Luggnagg, refusing

employment there, and he arrives safely in Japan. From there he gains

passage on a Dutch ship by pretending to be from Holland and sets sail from

Amsterdam to England, where he finds his family in good health.


Gulliver stays home for five months, but then leaves his pregnant wife

to set sail again, this time as the captain of a ship called the Adventure.

Many of his sailors die of illness, so he recruits more along the way. His

crew mutinies under the influence of these new sailors, and they become

pirates. Gulliver is left on an unknown shore, after being confined to his

cabin for several days.

He sees animals in the distance, and describes them as long-haired,

with beards like goats and sharp claws which they use to climb trees.

Gulliver decides that they are very ugly and sets forth to find settlers,

but encounters one of the animals on his way.

He takes out his sword and hits the animal with the side of it. The

animal roars loudly, and a herd of others like it attack Gulliver by

attempting to defecate on him. He hides, but then sees them hurrying away.

He emerges from his hiding place to see that the beasts have been scared

away by a horse.

The horse observes him carefully, and then neighs in a complicated

cadence. Another horse joins the first and the two seem to be involved in a

discussion. Gulliver tries to leave but one of the horses calls him back.

The horses appear to be so intelligent that Gulliver concludes that

they are magicians who have transformed themselves into horses. He

addresses them directly, and asks to be taken to a house or village. The

horses use the words Yahoo and Houyhnhnm, which Gulliver tries to


Gulliver is led to a house, and he takes out gifts, expecting to meet

people. He finds instead that there are more horses in the house, sitting

down and engaged in various activities. He thinks that the house belongs to

a person of great importance, and wonders why they should have horses for

servants. A horse looks Gulliver over and says the word "Yahoo." Gulliver

is led out to the courtyard, where a few of the ugly creatures are tied up.

One creature and Gulliver are lined up and compared, and he finds that the

creature does look quite human. The horses test him by offering him various

foods: hay, which he refuses, and flesh, which he finds repulsive but which

the Yahoo devours. The horses determine that he likes milk and give him

large amounts of it to drink.

Another horse comes to dine, and they all take great pleasure in teaching

Gulliver to pronounce words in their language. They cannot determine what

he might like to eat, until Gulliver suggests that he could make bread from

their oats. He is given a place to sleep with straw for the time being.

Gulliver endeavours to learn the horses' language, and they are

impressed by his intellect and curiosity. After three months he can answer

most of their questions and tries to explain that he comes from across the

sea, but the horses, or "Houyhnhnms," do not believe it to be possible.

They think he is some kind of a Yahoo, though superior to the rest of his

species. He asks them to stop using that word to refer to him, and they


Gulliver tries to explain that the Yahoos are the governing creatures

where he comes from, and the Houyhnhnms ask how their horses are employed.

Gulliver explains that they are used for travelling, racing, and drawing

chariots, and the Houyhnhnms express disbelief that anything as weak as a

Yahoo would dare to mount a horse that was so much stronger than it does.

Gulliver explains that the horses are trained from a young age to be tame

and obedient. He describes the state of humanity in Europe and is asked to

speak more specifically of his own country.

Part IV, Chapters 5-12


Gulliver describes the state of affairs in Europe over the course of

two years, speaking to the Houyhnhnms of the English Revolution and the war

with France. He is asked to explain the causes of war, and he does his best

to provide reasons. He is also asked to speak of law and the justice

system, which he does in some detail.

The discussion then turns to other topics, such as money and the

different kinds of food eaten in Europe. Gulliver explains the different

occupations in which people are involved, including service professions

such as medicine and construction.

Gulliver develops such a love for the Houyhnhnms that he no longer

desires to return to humankind. However, fate has other plans for him. His

Master tells him that he has considered all of his claims about his home

country and has come to the conclusion that his people are not as different

from the Yahoos as they may first have seemed. He describes all the aws of

the Yahoos, principally detailing their greed and selfishness. He admits

that the humans have different systems of learning, law, government, and

art, but says that their natures are not different from those of the


Gulliver wants to observe these similarities for himself, so he asks

to go among the Yahoos. He finds them to be very nimble from infancy, but

unable to learn anything. They are strong, cowardly, and malicious.

The principle virtues of the Houyhnhnms are their friendship and

benevolence. They are concerned more with the community than with their own

personal advantages, even choosing their mates in order to promote the race

as a whole. They breed industriousness, cleanliness, and civility in their

young, and exercise them for speed and strength. They have no writing

system and no word to express anything evil.

A room is made for Gulliver, and he furnishes it well. He also makes

new clothes for himself and settles into life with the Houyhnhnms quite

easily. He begins to think of his friends and family back home as Yahoos.

However, he is called by his Master and told that others have taken offence

at his being kept in the house as a Houyhnhnm; he has no choice but to ask

Gulliver to leave. Gulliver is very upset to hear that he is to be

banished. He builds a

canoe with the help of his Master and sadly departs.

Gulliver does not want to return to Europe, and so he begins to search for

an island where he can live, as he likes. He finds land and discovers

natives there. He is struck by an arrow and tries to escape the natives'

darts by paddling out to sea. He sees a sail in the distance and thinks of

going towards it, but then decides he would rather live with the barbarians

than the European Yahoos, so he hides from the ship. The seamen find him

and question him, laughing at his strange horse-like manner of speaking. He

tries to escape from their ship, and they do not understand why.

Gulliver then travels back to England and sees his family. They were

certain he was dead, and he is filled with disgust and contempt for them.

For a year he cannot stand to be near to his wife and children, and he

buys two horses and converses with them for four hours each day. Gulliver

concludes his narrative by acknowledging that the law requires him to

report his findings to the government, but that he can see no military

advantage in attacking any of the locations he discovered; and he

particularly wishes to protect the Houyhnhnms.

Heart of Darkness by J.Conrad

Summary Part I:

A ship called the Nellie is cruising down the Thames‹it will rest

there as it awaits a change in tide. The narrator is an unidentified guest

aboard the ship. He describes at length the appearance of the Thames as an

interminable waterway, and then he moves on to describing the inhabitants

of the ship. The Director of Companies doubles as Captain and host. They

all regard him with affection, trust and respect. The Lawyer is advanced in

years and possesses many virtues. The Accountant is toying with dominoes,

trying to begin a game. Between them already is the "bond of the sea." They

are tolerant of one another. Then there is Marlow. He has an emaciated

appearance sunken cheeks and a yellow complexion.

The ship drops anchor, but nobody wants to begin the dominoes game.

They sit and meditatively at the sun, and the narrator takes great notice

of how the water changes as the sun sets. Marlow suddenly speaks, noting

that "this also has been one of the dark places of the earth." He is a man

who does not represent his class: he is a seaman but also a wanderer, which

is disdainful and odd, since most seamen live sedentary lives aboard the

ship that is their home. No one responds to the remark, and Marlow

continues to talk of olden times when the Romans arrived and brought light,

which even now is constantly flickering. He says those people were not

colonists but conquerors, taking everything by brute force. This "taking of

the earth is not a pretty thing" when examined too closely; it is the idea

behind it which people find redeeming. Then, to the dismay of his bored

listeners, he switches into narration of a life experience, how he decided

to be a fresh water sailor and had come into contact with colonization.

After a number of voyages in the Orient and India, Marlow began to

look for a ship, but he was having hard luck in finding a position. As a

child, he had a passion for maps, and would lose himself in the blank

spaces, which gradually turned into dark ones as they became peopled. He is

especially taken with the picture of a long coiling river. Marlow thinks to

get charge of the steamboats that must go up and down that river for trade.

His aunt has connections in the Administration, and writes to have him

appointed a steamboat skipper. The appointment comes through very quickly,

as Marlow is to take the place of Fresleven, a captain who has been killed

in a scuffle with the natives. He crosses the Channel to sign the contract

with his employers. Their office appears to him like a white sepulchre. The

reception area is dimly lit, and two women sullenly man the area. Marlow

notes an unfinished map, and he is going into the yellow section, the

central area that holds the river. He signs, but feels very uneasy as the

women look at him meaningfully. Then there is a visit to the doctor. Marlow

questions him on why he is not with the Company on its business. The doctor

becomes cool and says he is no fool. Changes take place out there. He asks

his patient whether there is madness in the family. With a clean bill of

health and a long goodbye chat with his aunt, Marlow sets out on a French

steamer, feeling like an "impostor."

Watching the coast as it slips by, our newly named skipper marvels at

its enigmatic quality‹it tempts and invites the seer to come ashore, but in

a grim way. The weather is fierce, for the sun beats down strongly. The

ship picks up others along the way: soldiers and clerks mainly. The trade

names they pass on ships and on land seem almost farcical. There is a

uniformly somber atmosphere. After a month, Marlow arrives at the mouth of

the big river, and takes his passage on a little steamer. Once aboard he

learns that a man picked up the other day hanged himself recently. He is

taken to his Company's station. He walks through pieces of "decaying

machinery" and observes a stream of black people walking slowly, very thin

and indifferent. One of the "reclaimed" carries a rifle at "it's middle."

Marlow walks around to avoid this chain gang and finds a shade to rest. He

sees more black people working, some who look like they are dying. One

young man looks particularly hungry, and Marlow goes to offer him the ship

biscuit in his pocket. He notices that the boy is wearing white worsted

around his neck, and wonders what this is for. Marlow hastily makes his way

towards the station. He meets a white man dressed elegantly and in perfect

fashion. He is "amazing" and a "miracle." After learning that he is the

chief accountant of the Company, Marlow respects him. The station is a

muddle of activity. The new skipper waits there for ten days, living in a

hut. Frequently he visits the accountant, who tells him that he will meet

Mr. Kurtz, a remarkable man in charge of the trading-post in the ivory-

country. The accountant is irritated that a bed station for a dying man has

been set up in his office. He remarks that he begins to "hate the savages

to death." He asks Marlow to tell Kurtz that everything is satisfactory.

The next day Marlow begins a 200 mile tramp into the interior. He

crosses many paths, many deserted dwellings, and mysterious "niggers." His

white companion becomes ill on the journey, which makes Marlow impatient

but attentive. Finally they arrive at the Central Station, and Marlow must

see the General Manager. The meeting is strange. The Manager has a stealthy

smile. He is obeyed, but he does not inspire love or fear. He only inspires

uneasiness. The trading had begun without Marlow, who was late. There were

rumors that an important station was jeopardy, and that its chief, Kurtz,

was ill. A shipwreck on Marlow's boat has set them back. The manager is

anxious, and says it will be three months before they can make a start in

the trading. Marlow begins work in the station. Whispers of "ivory"

punctuate the air throughout the days. One evening a shed almost burns

down. A black man is beaten for this, and Marlow overhears: "Kurtz take

advantage of this incident." The manager's main spy, a first-class agent,

befriends the new skipper and begins to question him extensively about

Europe and the people he knows there. Marlow is confused about what this

man hopes to learn. The agent becomes "furiously annoyed." There is a dark

sketch on his wall of a woman blindfolded and carrying a lighted torch. The

agent says that Kurtz painted it. Upon Marlow's inquiry as to who this man

is, he says that he is a prodigy, an "emissary of pity and science." They

want Europe to entrust the guidance of the cause to them. The agent talks

precipitately, wanting Marlow to give Kurtz a favourable report about his

disposition because he believes Marlow has more influence in Europe than he

actually does.

The narrator breaks off for an instant and returns to his listeners on

the ship, saying that they should be able to see more in retrospect than he

could in the moment. Back in the story, the droning of the agent bores him.

Marlow wants rivets to stop the hole and get on with the work on his ship.

He clambers aboard. The ship is the one thing that truly excites him. He

notes the foreman of the mechanics sitting on board. They cavort and talk

happily of rivets that should arrive in three weeks. Instead of rivets,

however, they receive an "invasion" of "sulky niggers" with their white

expedition leader, who is the Manager's uncle. Marlow meditates for a bit

on Kurtz, wondering if he will be promoted to the General Manger position

and how he will set about his work when there.

Summary Part II

While lying on the deck of his steamboat one evening, Marlow overhears

a conversation between the Manager and his uncle, leader of the Expedition

group that has arrived. Snatches of talk indicate that the two are

conferring about Kurtz. The Manager says he was "forced to send him there."

They say his influence is frightful, and that he is alone, having sent away

all his assistants. The word "ivory" is also overheard. The two men are

wondering how all this ivory has arrived, and why Kurtz did not return to

the main station as he should have. Marlow believes this fact allows him to

see Kurtz for the first time. The Manager and his uncle say that either

Kurtz or his assistant must be hanged as an example, so that they can get

rid of unfair competition. Realizing that Marlow is nearby, they stop


In the next few days, the Expedition goes into the wilderness and

loses all their donkeys. As they arrive at the bank below Kurtz's station,

Marlow is excited at the prospect of meeting him soon. To Marlow,

travelling up the river is like going to the beginning of the world. He

sees no joy in the sunshine, however. The past comes back to haunt him on

this river. There is a stillness that does not resemble peace. It is alive

and watching Marlow. He is concerned about scraping the bottom of his

steamship on the river floor‹this is disgraceful for seamen. Twenty

"cannibals" are his crew. The Manager and some pilgrims are also onboard.

Sailing by stations, they hear the word "ivory" resonating. The trees are

massive and make you feel very small. The earth appears "unearthly." The

men are monstrous but not inhuman. This scares Marlow greatly. He believes

the mind of man is capable of anything. They creep on towards Kurtz. The

ship comes across a deserted dwelling. Marlow finds a well-kept book about

seamanship. It has notes in a language he cannot understand. Back on the

boat, he pushes ahead.

Eight miles from Kurtz's station, the Manager decides they will stay

put for the evening. No sounds are heard. The sun rises, and "complaining

clamor" with "savage discord" fills the air. Everyone fears an attack. One

of the black crew members says that the attackers should be handed over to

them and eaten. Marlow wonders why he and the other whites have not been

eaten. The Manager insincerely worries that something might have happened

to Kurtz. Marlow does not believe there will be an attack‹the jungle and

fog seem impenetrable. No one believes him. Some men go and investigate the

shore. A pattering sound is audible: flying arrows! The helmsman on the

ship panics and does not steer properly. The crew is firing rifles into the

bushes. A black man is shot and lays at Marlow's feet. He tries to talk and

dies before he can get any words out. Marlow supposes that Kurtz has

perished in this attack. He is exceedingly upset: talking to the mythical

man has become a major point of interest. In a fit of distress Marlow

throws his shoes overboard. He tells the listeners on the Thames ship that

the privilege of talking to Kurtz was waiting for him. Marlow relates that

Kurtz mentioned a girl, and how his shanty was busting with ivory. Kurtz

has taken position of "devil of the land." Originally he was well-educated,

but he has become entirely native in Africa, participating in rituals and

rites. Kurtz is anything but common. Back in the battle, the helmsman is

killed. Marlow throws the body overboard. After a simple funeral, the

steamer continues moving. Miraculously they spy Kurtz's station, which they

had assumed to be lost. They see the figure of a man who resembles a

harlequin. This man says that Kurtz is present, and assures them that they

need not fear the natives, who are simple people. He speaks with Marlow,

introducing himself as a Russian. The book Marlow holds is actually his,

and he is grateful to have it returned. The Russian says the ship was

attacked because the natives do not want Kurtz to leave with the crew‹he

has broadened everybody's mind.

Summary Part III:

Marlow is astonished at the Russian's words. He is gathering a clearer

picture of Kurtz. The Russian says that he has gone so far that he doesn't

know if he will ever get back. Apparently he has been alone with Kurtz for

many months. His sense of adventure is pure, and glamour urges him onward.

The Russian remembers the first night he spoke to Kurtz‹he forgot to sleep,

he was so captivated. Kurtz made him "see things." He has nursed this great

man through illnesses, and accompanied him on explorations to villages.

Kurtz has raided the country by getting the cooperation of the nearby

tribe, who all adore him. He loses himself in ivory hunts for weeks at a

time, and forgets himself. The Russian disagrees that Kurtz is mad. Even

when this bright-eyed adventurer was told to leave by his mentor, he

refused to go. Kurtz went down the river alone to make another ivory raid.

His illness acted up, so the Russian joined him in order to take care of

him. Presently, Kurtz lies in a hut surrounded by heads on stakes. Marlow

is not very shocked at the sight. He takes this as an indication that Kurtz

lacks restraint in the gratification of his lusts, a condition for which

the wilderness is culpable. Marlow assumes that Kurtz was hollow inside and

needed something to fill that. The Russian is perturbed by Marlow's

attitude of skepticism. He has heard enough about the ceremonies

surrounding this revered man.

Suddenly around the house appears a group of men. They convene around

the stretcher that holds the dying Kurtz. He looks gaunt, and tells the

natives to leave. The pilgrims carry him to another cabin, and give him his

correspondence. In a raspy voice he says he is glad to meet Marlow. The

Manager comes in to talk privately with Kurtz. Waiting on the boat with the

Russian, Marlow spies the "apparition" of a gorgeous woman. She glitters

with gold, paint, and she looks savage. She steps to the edge of the shore

and eyes the steamer. She gestures violently toward the sky, turns and

disappears into the thicket. The harlequin man fears her. They overhear

Kurtz telling the Manager that he is interfering with plans. The Manager

emerges. Taking Marlow aside, he says they have done all they can for

Kurtz, and that he did more harm than good to the Company. His actions were

too "vigorous" for the moment. Marlow does not agree that Kurtz's method

was unsound. To him, Kurtz is a remarkable man, and a friend in some way.

Marlow warns the Russian to escape before he can be hanged; he states that

he will keep Kurtz's reputation safe. It was Kurtz who ordered the attack

on the steamer‹he did not want to be taken away, and thought to fake his


While Marlow dozes, drumbeats and incantations fill the air. He looks

into the cabin that holds Kurtz, and discovers he is missing. Marlow sees

his trail, and goes after him. The two men face one another. Kurtz pleads

that he has plans. Marlow replies that his fame in Europe is assured; he

realizes that this man's soul has gone mad. He is able to bring Kurtz back

to the cabin. The ship departs the next day amongst a crowd of natives.

Kurtz is brought into the pilot-house of the ship. The "tide of brown" runs

swiftly out of the "heart of darkness." The life of Kurtz is ebbing. Marlow

is in disfavor, lumped into the same category as Kurtz. The Manager is now

content. Marlow listens endlessly to Kurtz's bedside talk. He accepts a

packet of papers and a photograph that his friend gives him, in order to

keep them out of the Manager's hands. A few evenings later, Kurtz dies,

with one phrase on his lips: "The horror!"

Marlow returns to Europe, but is plagued by the memory of his friend.

He is disrespectful to all he encounters. The Manager demands the papers

that Kurtz entrusted to Marlow. Marlow relinquishes the technical papers,

but not the private letters and photograph. All that remains of Kurtz is

his memory and that picture of his Intended. Kurtz is very much a living

figure to Marlow. He goes and visits the woman in the picture. She embraces

and welcomes him. She has silently mourned for the past year, and needs to

profess her love and how she knew him better than anyone. Marlow perceives

the room to darken when she says this. She speaks of Kurtz's amazing

ability to draw people through incredibly eloquent speech. The woman says

she will be unhappy for life. Marlow states that they can always remember

him. She expresses a desperate need to keep his memory alive, and guilt

that she was not with him when he died. When the woman asks Marlow what

Kurtz's final words were, he lies and says it was her name. The woman weeps

in triumph. Marlow states that to tell the truth would be too dark. Back on

the Thames River ship, a tranquil waterway leads into the heart of


Ivanhoe by Sir Walter Scott


The novel begins in England during the reign of King Richard I, also

known as Richard the Lion-Hearted (1157-1199). Scott provides some

historical background for the politics of the time and places the action

somewhere near the end of Richard's reign when he is returning from the

Crusades. England's Saxon population is under the control of Norman

royalty. French has become the forced official language, a fact which both

angers and demeans the Saxons, and many landowners have been forced to

give their lands to their Norman rulers. When the action of the novel

begins, the Norman King Richard I has been captured and held for ransom in

Europe. His brother John has assumed power.

Though both men are Norman rulers in Saxon populated England, Richard

is more popular among the people he rules, known as both fair and

courageous; John is aggressive, encouraging his men to steal or destroy

everything Saxon. John is content to rule, and even hopes his brother

remains imprisoned so that he can become king. Richard's loyal subjects

despair of ever seeing him again, and are angry that John and his greedy

nobles have been aggressive and relentless in seizing whatever Saxon land

they can. A swineherd named Gurth is talking with a jester, Wamba, about

the increasing hostility between the native Saxons and the Norman rulers.

Both servants work for a loyal Saxon named Cedric. When a storm approaches,

they head for home. On their way, they hear horsemen riding toward them.


The Norman horsemen catch up with Gurth and Wamba. One of them is a

Cisterian monk dressed in fine clothes. The other is a Knight Templar. The

two, attended by several others, demand to know where they will be able to

stay for the night and ask where Cedric the Saxon lives. Knowing his master

Cedric's hatred of Normans, Wamba, with sheer mischief, gives them wrong

and confusing directions. However, they soon meet a Palmer, a holy man who

has traveled to the Holy Land on a pilgrimage, who takes them safely to

Cedric's mansion.


Cedric is in his home, Rotherwood, impatiently waiting for his servants to

come home. He is also displeased that his ward Rowena is late for supper.

His thoughts are interrupted by the blast of a horn. Then the gatekeeper

announces that Prior Aymer of the Abbey of Jorvaulx, Brian de Bois-

Guilbert, and a small party of men are on their way to the royal tournament

at Ashby-de-la- Zouche and want to lodge at Rotherwood for the night.

Cedric does not want to entertain these Normans, but his Saxon pride

demands that they be offered hospitality; however, he clings to his dignity

by refusing to go out to welcome them. Only when they come to him in his

hall does Cedric reluctantly welcome them.

Cedric counsels Rowena against appearing before the guests. He does not

trust the Knight Templar and does not want anything to interfere with his

plans to marry Rowena off to the right gentleman. She, however, is keen to

hear the latest news from the Holy Land from the Palmer, since she is in

love with Ivanhoe, whom she thinks is still fighting in the Crusades.


When the richly dressed guests enter Cedric's hall, he receives them

politely but without any warmth. He then scolds Gurth and Wamba for being

late. When Rowena enters to join in the meal, Bois-Guilbert stares at her

beauty. In response, she draws a veil over her face. Cedric notices the

interchange and is annoyed with the Templar. The chapter ends with the

announcement of a stranger at Cedric's gates.


The stranger at Cedric's gate is Isaac of York. Although he is a Jew,

Cedric refuses to turn him away into the stormy night. The Norman guests

protest at his being admitted and Cedric makes him sit at a separate table.

Only the Palmer takes pity on the drenched and exhausted Jew.

The Palmer names five knights who have displayed great courage during the

Crusades. He also mentions a sixth knight, a great competitor, whose name

he cannot remember, though he is actually speaking about himself. The

Templar vows to challenge this sixth and unknown Knight at the forthcoming

Ashby tournament.


On his way to bed, the Palmer is asked to accompany Cedric's servants to

the kitchen for more drink and gossip. A message is sent to him by Lady

Rowena, demanding his presence. She wants more news of Ivanhoe since she

heard the Palmer mention Ivanhoe's courageous exploits. All that the Palmer

tells her is that Ivanhoe, having fought bravely, is on his way home.

Before going to bed, the Palmer warns Isaac that he has overheard Bois-

Guilbert ordering his Moslem slaves to follow Isaac and rob him. Isaac is

grateful to the Palmer, and before he escapes, rewards the Palmer with a

favor. He sends a letter to his Jewish kinsman asking him to give the

Palmer a horse and armor so that he can participate in the Ashby



These chapters are largely descriptive and do little to advance the plot of

the story. The busy arena where the knights will display their skill is

brilliantly described. The challengers, Bois-Guilbert, Front-de-Boeuf,

Grantmesnil, Malvoisin, and Ralph de Vipoint, are introduced and described

as seasoned Norman knights. Isaac's daughter Rebecca is also introduced.

A stranger, beautifully attired in steel and gold armor, arrives at the

arena, challenges Bois-Guilbert, and emerges victorious; Bois- Guilbert

feels disgraced. The mysterious knight also wins on the second day of the

tournament and crowns Rowena as the Queen of Love and Beauty.


As soon as Ivanhoe, in the guise of the Disinherited Knight, reaches his

tent on the first day of the tournament, he is presented with the rich

armor, weapons, and horses of the knights he has defeated. He accepts his

rewards from four of the five knights. He refuses the gifts of Bois-

Guilbert, however, and sends a message that he will meet the Templar Knight

again in combat on the following day.

With some of the money from his rewards, Ivanhoe sends Gurth, who is now

his confidante, to Isaac to pay for the horse and armor which he so

generously loaned to him for the tournament. Isaac takes the money, but

Rebecca secretly sends it back, adding twenty gold coins as a tip for



On his way back to Ashby, poor Gurth is attacked by four men who steal the

money he carries, both his gold coins and that belonging to Ivanhoe. The

thieves question him about where he got the money. When Gurth tells about

Rebecca's kindness, the thieves

refuse to believe that any Jew would return a payment on a loan. Gurth

fights with his attackers. When he shows his courage in the conflict, the

robbers surprisingly give him back his money and escort him to Ashby.


After the combats of the first day at Ashby, the crowds eagerly await the

events of the next day. The excitement reaches a fever pitch when the

Disinherited Knight is attacked simultaneously by Athelstane, Front-de-

Boeuf, and Bois-Guilbert. With the help of another mysterious character,

the Black Knight, who comes to his aid, Ivanhoe overcomes his challengers,

emerging the victor once again. After the victory, the Black Knight

disappears. Rowena crowns the Disinherited Knight, who is now forced to

raise his visor and show his face. He is revealed to all as Ivanhoe,

Cedric's son. Severely wounded, he faints at Rowena's feet.


The revelation that Ivanhoe is the disguised winner of the tournament

causes a great commotion and some fear in the minds of the Norman nobles. A

castle once belonging to Ivanhoe that John had given to Front-de-Bouef is

now the object of much speculation, for many think that Ivanhoe will demand

it back.

Prince John himself is a bit worried about a confrontation until his

advisor Fitzurse informs him that Ivanhoe is severely wounded and probably

incapable of protest.

When Prince John receives a message that says, "Take heed to yourself, for

the Devil is unchained," he turns pale. He guesses that the message means

his brother Richard is free, and his own corrupt reign is nearing its end.

At the same time, many of his supporters begin to falter in their support

of him, and Fitzurse busies himself trying to rally them back to John.

The tournament ends with an archery contest, which introduces Robin of

Locksley (Robin Hood). Locksley easily defeats Hubert. John is enraged at

both Locksley's skill as an archer and his unswerving loyalty to Richard.

Cedric also offends John in his surprising expression of support for

Richard when he drinks to missing king's health.

Prince John has planned to marry Rowena to De Bracy, who is pleased with

the idea. Now De Bracy is determined to force the marriage whether Richard

has returned or not. He makes plans to ambush Cedric's party as they travel

home from the tournament. He will take Rowena and make her his unwilling


CHAPTERS 16 & 17

This chapter introduces Friar Tuck, the jolly priest who is one of Robin

Hood's men. Earlier in the novel, King Richard proved his valor at Ashby

disguised as the Black Knight. After the victory, he quickly disappeared

before his identity was questioned. In this scene, he is traveling in the

forest when he meets the Clerk of Copmanhurst, who is actually Friar Tuck.

The two trust one another; they eat and drink in great companionship. The

king and the fat priest get on so well that after supper they decide to

sing together. Each chooses a song that makes fun of the other; the priest

pokes fun at Crusaders and Richard mocks the priest.

CHAPTERS 18 & 19

When Cedric first sees his son wounded, his natural paternal love is

revived, but not wishing to reveal this to the spectators at Ashby, he

keeps quiet. Later he learns that Ivanhoe is being taken care of by Rebecca

and is relieved. Discovering that his swineherd Gurth has been helping

Ivanhoe, Cedric has him bound with rope as a punishment.

Cedric and Athelstane take their group to Prince John's palace where they

have been invited to a banquet. On the way to Prince John's, the group

encounters the dog, Fangs, howling. Cedric throws his javelin at it,

wounding the dog. Saxons are a superstitious lot, and Cedric believed this

howling was a sure sign of an impending danger. Gurth is upset to see the

dog wounded and manages to escape his bonds.

At Prince John's, Rowena refuses to attend the banquet, which annoys

Cedric. He and Athelstane discuss matters of land. Then Cedric broaches the

subject of Athelstane's marriage to Rowena.

CHAPTERS 20 & 21

As they make their way through the woods, Cedric and his party come upon

Isaac and Rebecca accompanying a sick man. Rebecca is crying out loudly for

help. Their bodyguard has deserted them in sheer fear of the outlaws who

are known to inhabit the woods.

Rebecca begs Rowena to help the sick man. The entire party is then attacked

by De Bracy and his men, impersonating outlaws. They kidnap the group and

take them to Front-de-Bouef at Torquilstone Castle, which once belonged to

Ivanhoe until John gave it away. Except for Wamba, who escapes, they are

all taken prisoners.

Wamba meets Gurth, and they go to find Locksley (Robin Hood). Gurth, Wamba,

Locksley, and his men meet up with the disguised King Richard and Friar

Tuck. All of them proceed to Torquilstone Castle to aid the prisoners.


Isaac of York has been thrown into a dark dungeon in Torquilstone Castle.

Front-de-Boeuf demands a ransom of a thousand silver pounds, to which Isaac

protests. The Normans threaten him with physical torture, so Isaac requests

that his daughter Rebecca be sent with an escort to York to get the money.

He is deeply upset when he learns that she has been given to Bois-Guilbert

as his own personal captive. Isaac is willing to give up whatever wealth he

possesses if only he can get Rebecca back. As his captors begin

preparations for torture, the sound of a bugle is heard outside the castle,

and Isaac is saved for the moment.


Elsewhere in Front-de-Boeuf's castle, De Bracy tries his best to persuade

Rowena to marry him. He threatens that if she does not accept him, the

lives of Ivanhoe and Cedric will be forfeited. In the conversation, she

learns that Ivanhoe is a prisoner in the same castle and breaks down. The

bugle call interrupts this scene as well.


Rebecca meets the old hag, Urfried, in the little tower where she is

imprisoned. Urfried makes the most frightening forecast for Rebecca,

recounting her own terrible fate at the hands of Front-de- Boeuf's father.

Urfried, however, had submitted to the elder Front- de-Bouef's molestation,

accepting the subsequent shame and dishonor. The brave Rebecca looks around

for some escape, but finds none. Musing over her fate, she hears footsteps

on the stairs.

A tall man stands at the door. She offers her jewelry to the man who takes

off his cap and reveals himself as Bois-Guilbert. He makes advances at her,

which she refuses. Rebecca threatens to kill herself. She would rather die

than be dishonored as the old woman Urfried has been. The trumpet call also

saves Rebecca, for it summons Bois-Guilbert, who promises to visit her



The occupants of Torquilstone receive a letter signed by Gurth and Wamba,

but sent by the mysterious Black Knight and Locksley; the letter demands

the release of the prisoners. Front-de-Boeuf responds to the letter by

asking that a priest be sent to hear the confessions of the prisoners

before they are put to death. Wamba, dressed in Friar's robes, enters the

castle "to hear the confessions of the condemned". When he reaches the

place where Cedric and the others are imprisoned, he and Cedric exchange

their clothes and Cedric is able to leave the dungeon undetected.

Thinking Cedric to be the priest, Front-de-Boeuf gives him a message for

Philip Malvoisin. Cedric rejects Front de Boeuf's payment and joins the

party outside. Subsequently, Wamba's disguise and Cedric's escape are

discovered. It now seems that a clash is inevitable between the Normans

inside and the besiegers outside, now joined by Cedric.


Using flashback, Scott supplies the necessary information to link various

events that have happened. Ivanhoe's actual whereabouts since being injured

at the tournament have never been explicitly stated. But here it is

revealed that Rebecca took the invalid Ivanhoe on as a charge, promising to

use her powers of healing. It is made clear that the sick man she and her

father were accompanying when they were kidnapped is Ivanhoe.


As the besiegers attack the Castle, Rebecca stands at the window to relate

to Ivanhoe the exact sequence of events. He soon falls asleep. Rebecca,

left to her own thoughts, tries to sort out her feelings for him. She

realizes that she is beginning to love him.

CHAPTERS 30 & 31

The battle rages on, with both parties fighting intensely. Front-de- Boeuf

is seriously wounded in the battle. As he lies dying, the old hag Urfried

accuses him of all kinds of sins, the worst being the murder of his own

father. Hungry for revenge for wrongs done to her by his family, she sets

fire to the castle. Both she and Front-de- Boeuf die in the flames. The

Black Knight saves Ivanhoe and captures De Bracy. Everyone manages to

escape to freedom except Rebecca, who is carried away by Bois-Guilbert, the

Knight Templar who wants to defile her. In attempting to stop Bois-

Guilbert, Athelstane is hit on the head and falls down, apparently dead.


Early next morning the freed prisoners and their rescuers, the outlaws,

meet in the forest. Robin of Locksley places Cedric on his left and the

Black Knight on his right. The booty plundered from the castle is shared

equally. Cedric refuses his share, saying that Rowena and he are grateful

to Locksley for his help. He offers his share to the Black Knight, who also

refuses to take any of the plunder. In gratitude to him for his help,

Cedric frees his slave Gurth.

De Bracy, now a prisoner, attempts to speak to Rowena but is insulted by

Cedric. Athelstane's body is carried in on a stretcher. Then Friar Tuck

arrives, leading Isaac by a rope that is tied around his neck. He and the

Black Knight engage in a friendly fight over Isaac. The Black Knight wins,

and Isaac is set free. Two other men bring in another prisoner, the Prior

of Jorvaulx.

CHAPTERS 33 & 34

Prior Aymer is frightened when he is brought in to the camp, but is mostly

disturbed because his beautiful, expensive clothes are ruined. Isaac is

relieved to learn Rebecca is alive and listens carefully when the Prior

offers, for an appropriate price, to use his friendship with the Knight

Templar to free Rebecca. The Black Knight is pleasantly surprised at the

decency with which the outlaws behave.

At a banquet hall in the castle of York to which Prince John has invited

his nobles, rumors are afoot that Torquilstone Castle has been attacked and

captured. Word has it that Front-de-Boeuf and Bois-Guilbert, and perhaps De

Bracy too, are dead. John is disturbed but listens to Fitzurse, who

reassures him that his unscrupulous reign is invincible.

De Bracy dramatically enters the banquet and announces that Richard is in

England, Bois-Guilbert has fled with the Jewish girl, and Front-de-Bouef is

dead. John is frightened at the news and begins to drink heavily. In his

drunken stupor, he realizes that many of his knights are deserting him. He

quickly appoints De Bracy High Marshal to secure his loyalty. De Bracy,

however, no longer trusts or believes in John. John, in turn, sets spies on

De Bracy.


Isaac of York is warned by his relation Nathan that Lucas Beaumanoir, Chief

of the Order of Templars, is also present at Templestowe, where Rebecca is

being held prisoner. Beaumanoir is a rigid knight who is insistent on

Templar principles, a cruel enemy to the Moslems, and a strong hater of the


Isaac brings a letter from Prior Aymer to Bois-Guilbert, asking for the

Prior's ransom; the Jew is brought to Lucas Beaumanoir. Until Isaac shows

up, Beaumanoir is completely unaware of Rebecca's presence in the castle.

He is annoyed that Bois-Guilbert is guilty of sequestering Rebecca for

immoral purposes, since he is a strict keeper of the Knights Templar rules

of celibacy.

Isaac is oblivious to the fact that the Prior's letter nastily hints that

Rebecca is a "second witch of Endor"; in it, the Prior says Rebecca has

cast a spell over the Templar. Malvoisin, the preceptor of Templestowe,

seizes on the notion that Rebecca is a witch and defends his friend Bois-

Guilbert. In the meantime, Bois-Guilbert finds he is strongly attracted to

Rebecca and continues to press her to accept him.

Beaumanoir orders a full-scale trial for Rebecca, thinking this is his only

chance to save the reputation of the Knight Templar who has acted so out of

keeping with the order's rules. Bois-Guilbert's attempts to help Rebecca

escape the trial by marrying him are in vain.

CHAPTERS 37 & 39

The scene is set for Rebecca's trial. The Grand Master sits opposite a pile

of logs, which will form the stake at which Rebecca will be burned alive if

she is found guilty. The charges against Bois- Guilbert are read first, but

he is excused on the grounds that Rebecca's evil magic has taken away his

power of reason. Others testify to the supernatural powers of Rebecca, her

healing of Ivanhoe, and her presence and influence at the attack on

Torquilstone. The common people are on her side, deeply affected by her

beauty and her defense; but it is not a fair trial. Bois- Guilbert tries to

save Rebecca by asking for a champion to fight him on her behalf; however,

he suspects no one will come to her aid against him. He then tries in vain

to convince Rebecca to run away with him.


In an earlier chapter, Prince John is seen losing the loyalty of most of

his knights except that of Waldemar Fitzurse, who slips out of the

banqueting hall to confront King Richard before he takes back his power. On

their way to Athelstane's castle of Coningsburgh to bury him, the Black

Knight and Wamba are ambushed by Fitzurse and his men. Richard sounds his

horn to summon Locksley and his outlaws. With their help, he overcomes and

kills his attackers.

Only Fitzurse is left alive. The king banishes him forever from England and

confiscates his lands.

The Black Knight then reveals himself as the rightful King of England. He

and Ivanhoe proceed to Coningsburgh. Athelstane, who has only been knocked

unconscious and not killed, now rises to tell his story. Ivanhoe rides on,

prepared and ready to champion Rebecca's fate.


Rebecca's trial attracts a large crowd, including many of Robin Hood's men.

Just as her situation seems hopeless, for no champion has offered to defend

Rebecca, Ivanhoe rides into the arena. He challenges those who accuse the

beautiful Jewess. Brian de Bois- Guilbert becomes an unwilling participant

in the fight as a representative of the people who accuse Rebecca;

Beaumanoir and the Knight Templars demand his obedience and loyalty. It is

an exciting and hard-fought battle, but Bois-Guilbert is finally killed.

Ivanhoe has saved Rebecca.


Richard, having intended to champion Rebecca himself, is detained by the

Earl of Essex who warns him of John's evil plans. He arrives at the trial

too late to fight, but brings with him a troop of soldiers and arrests

Albert Malvoisin for plotting with John against him. He gives Lucas

Beaumanoir the choice of exile or death, and Beaumanoir chooses exile.

Richard then banishes all the traitors except John, who is sent to his

mother with a warning. Athelstane gives up his claim to Rowena and retires

from public life. Rowena and Ivanhoe are married. Before departing from

England with her father forever, Rebecca visits Rowena to thank her.

Lady Chatterley’s Lover by D.H.Lawrence


Lady Chatterley's Lover begins by introducing Connie Reid, the

female protagonist of the novel. She was raised as a cultured bohemian of

the upper-middle class, and was introduced to love affairs--intellectual

and sexual liaisons--as a teenager. In 1917, at 23, she marries Clifford

Chatterley, the scion of an aristocratic line. After a month's honeymoon,

he is sent to war, and returns paralyzed from the waist down, impotent.

After the war, Clifford becomes a successful writer, and many

intellectuals flock to the Chatterley mansion, Wragby. Connie feels

isolated; the vaunted intellectuals prove empty and bloodless, and she

resorts to a brief and dissatisfying affair with a visiting playwright,

Michaelis. Connie longs for real human contact, and falls into despair, as

all men seem scared of true feelings and true passion. There is a growing

distance between Connie and Clifford, who has retreated into the

meaningless pursuit of success in his writing and in his obsession with

coal-mining, and towards whom Connie feels a deep physical aversion. A

nurse, Mrs. Bolton, is hired to take care of the handicapped Clifford so

that Connie can be more independent, and Clifford falls into a deep

dependence on the nurse, his manhood fading into an infantile reliance.

Into the void of Connie's life comes Oliver Mellors, the gamekeeper

on Clifford's estate, newly returned from serving in the army. Mellors is

aloof and derisive, and yet Connie feels curiously drawn to him by his

innate nobility and grace, his purposeful isolation, his undercurrents of

natural sensuality. After several chance meetings in which Mellors keeps

her at arm's length, reminding her of the class distance between them,

they meet by chance at a hut in the forest, where they have sex. This

happens on several occasions, but still Connie feels a distance between

them, remaining profoundly separate from him despite their physical


One day, Connie and Mellors meet by coincidence in the woods, and

they have sex on the forest floor. This time, they experience simultaneous

orgasms. This is a revelatory and profoundly moving experience for Connie;

she begins to adore Mellors, feeling that they have connected on some deep

sensual level. She is proud to believe that she is pregnant with Mellors'

child: he is a real, "living" man, as opposed to the emotionally-dead

intellectuals and the dehumanized industrial workers. They grow

progressively closer, connecting on a primordial physical level, as woman

and man rather than as two minds or intellects.

Connie goes away to Venice for a vacation. While she is gone,

Mellors' old wife returns, causing a scandal. Connie returns to find that

Mellors has been fired as a result of the negative rumors spread about him

by his resentful wife, against whom he has initiated divorce proceedings.

Connie admits to Clifford that she is pregnant with Mellors' baby, but

Clifford refuses to give her a divorce. The novel ends with Mellors working

on a farm, waiting for his divorce, and Connie living with her sister,

also waiting: the hope exists that, in the end, they will be together


Valuable Commentory

The greatness of Lady Chatterley's Lover lies in a paradox: it is

simultaneously progressive and reactionary, modern and Victorian. It looks

backwards towards a Victorian stylistic formality, and it seems to

anticipate the social morality of the late 20th century in its frank

engagement with explicit subject matter and profanity. One might say of

the novel that it is formally and thematically conservative, but

methodologically radical.

The easiest of these assertions to prove is that Lady Chatterley's

Lover is "formally conservative." By this I mean that there are few evident

differences between the form of Lady Chatterley's Lover and the form of

the high-Victorian novels written fifty years earlier: in terms of

structure; in terms of narrative voice; in terms of diction, with the

exception of a very few "profane" words. It is important to remember that

Lady Chatterley's Lover was written towards the end of the 1920s, a decade

which had seen extensive literary experimentation. The 1920s opened with

the publishing of the formally radical novel Ulysses, which set the stage

for important technical innovations in literary art: it made extensive use

of the stream-of-consciousness form; it condensed all of its action into a

single 24-hour span; it employed any number of voices and narrative

perspectives. Lady Chatterley's Lover acts in many ways as if the 1920s,

and indeed the entire modernist literary movement, had never happened. The

structure of the novel is conventional, tracing a small group of

characters over an extended period of time in a single place. The rather

preachy narrator usually speaks with the familiar third-person omniscience

of the Victorian novel. And the characters tend towards flatness, towards

representing a type, rather than speaking in their own voices and

developing real three-dimensional personalities.

But surely, if Lady Chatterley's Lover is "formally conservative," it

can hardly be called "thematically conservative"! After all, this is a

novel that raised censorious hackles across the English-speaking world. It

is a novel that liberally employs profanity, that more-or-less graphically-

-graphically, that is, for the 1920s: it is important not to evaluate the

novel by the standards of profanity and graphic sexuality that have become

prevalent at the turn of the 21st century--describes sex and orgasm, and

whose central message is the idea that sexual freedom and sensuality are

far more important, more authentic and meaningful, than the intellectual

life. So what can I mean by calling Lady Chatterley's Lover, a famously

controversial novel, "thematically conservative"?

Well, it is important to remember not only precisely what this novel

seems to advocate, but also the purpose of that advocacy. Lady

Chatterley's Lover is not propaganda for sexual license and free love. As

D.H. Lawrence himself made clear in his essay "A Propos of Lady

Chatterley's Lover," he was no advocate of sex or profanity for their own

sake. The reader should note that the ultimate goal of the novel's

protagonists, Mellors and Connie, is a quite conventional marriage, and a

sex life in which it is clear that Mellors is the aggressor and the

dominant partner, in which Connie plays the receptive part; all who would

argue that Lady Chatterley's Lover is a radical novel would do well to

remember the vilification that the novel heaps upon Mellors' first wife, a

sexually aggressive woman. Rather than mere sexual radicalism, this

novel's chief concern--although it is also concerned, to a far greater

extent than most modernist fiction, with the pitfalls of technology and

the barriers of class--is with what Lawrence understands to be the

inability of the modern self to unite the mind and the body. D.H. Lawrence

believed that without a realization of sex and the body, the mind wanders

aimlessly in the wasteland of modern industrial technology. An important

recognition in Lady Chatterley's Lover is the extent to which the modern

relationship between men and women comes to resemble the relationship

between men and machines.

Not only do men and women require an appreciation of the sexual and

sensual in order to relate to each other properly; they require it even to

live happily in the world, as beings able to maintain human dignity and

individuality in the dehumanizing atmosphere created by modern greed and

the injustices of the class system. As the great writer Lawrence Durrell

observed in reference to Lady Chatterley's Lover, Lawrence was "something

of a puritan himself. He was out to cure, to mend; and the weapons he

selected for this act of therapy were the four-letter words about which so

long and idiotic a battle has raged." That is to say: Lady Chatterley's

Lover was intended as a wake-up call, a call away from the hyper-

intellectualism embraced by so many of the modernists, and towards a

balanced approach in which mind and body are equally valued. It is the

method the novel uses that made the wake-up call so radical--for its time--

and so effective.

This is a novel with high purpose: it points to the degradation of

modern civilization--exemplified in the coal-mining industry and the

soulless and emasculated Clifford Chatterley--and it suggests an

alternative in learning to appreciate sensuality. And it is a novel, one

must admit, which does not quite succeed. Certainly, it is hardly the

equal of D.H. Lawrence's great novels, Women in Love and The Rainbow. It

attempts a profound comment on the decline of civilization, but it fails

as a novel when its social goal eclipses its novelistic goals, when the

characters become mere allegorical types: Mellors as the Noble Savage,

Clifford as the impotent nobleman. And the novel tends also to dip into a

kind of breathless incoherence at moments of extreme sensuality or

emotional weight. It is not a perfect novel, but it is a novel which has

had a profound impact on the way that 20th-century writers have written

about sex, and about the deeper relationships of which, thanks in part to

Lawrence, sex can no longer be ignored as a crucial element. Characters

Lady Chatterley - The protagonist of the novel. Before her marriage, she

is simply Constance Reid, an intellectual and social progressive, the

daughter of Sir Malcolm and the sister of Hilda. When she marries Clifford

Chatterley, a minor nobleman, Constance--or, as she is known throughout

the novel, Connie--assumes his title, becoming Lady Chatterley. Lady

Chatterley's Lover chronicles Connie's maturation as a woman and as a

sensual being. She comes to despise her weak, ineffectual husband, and to

love Oliver Mellors, the gamekeeper on her husband's estate. In the

process of leaving her husband and conceiving a child with Mellors, Lady

Chatterley moves from the heartless, bloodless world of the intelligentsia

and aristocracy into a vital and profound connection rooted in sensuality

and sexual fulfillment.

Oliver Mellors - The lover in the novel's title. Mellors is the

gamekeeper on Clifford Chatterley's estate, Wragby. He is aloof,

sarcastic, intelligent and noble. He was born near Wragby, and worked as a

blacksmith until he ran off to the army to escape an unhappy marriage. In

the army he rose to become a commissioned lieutenant--an unusual position

for a member of the working classes--but was forced to leave the army

because of a case of pneumonia, which left him in poor health.

Disappointed by a string of unfulfilling love affairs, Mellors lives in

quiet isolation, from which he is redeemed by his relationship with

Connie: the passion unleashed by their lovemaking forges a profound bond

between them. At the end of the novel, Mellors is fired from his job as

gamekeeper and works as a laborer on a farm, waiting for a divorce from

his old wife so he can marry Connie. Mellors is the representative in this

novel of the Noble Savage: he is a man with an innate nobility but who

remains impervious to the pettiness and emptiness of conventional society,

with access to a primitive flame of passion and sensuality.

Clifford Chatterley - Connie's husband. Clifford Chatterley is a minor

nobleman who becomes paralyzed from the waist down during World War I. As

a result of his injury, Clifford is impotent. He retires to his familial

estate, Wragby, where he becomes first a successful writer, and then a

powerful businessman. But the gap between Connie and him grows ever wider;

obsessed with financial success and fame, he is not truly interested in

love, and she feels that he has become passionless and empty. He turns for

solace to his nurse and companion, Mrs. Bolton, who worships him as a

nobleman even as she despises him for his casual arrogance. Clifford

represents everything that this novel despises about the modern English

nobleman: he is a weak, vain man, but declares his right to rule the lower

classes, and he soullessly pursues money and fame through industry and the

meaningless manipulation of words. His impotence is symbolic of his

failings as a strong, sensual man.

Mrs. Bolton - Ivy Bolton is Clifford's nurse and caretaker. She is a

competent, complex, still-attractive middle-aged woman. Years before the

action in this novel, her husband died in an accident in the mines owned by

Clifford's family. Even as Mrs. Bolton resents Clifford as the owner of

the mines--and, in a sense, the murderer of her husband--she still

maintains a worshipful attitude towards him as the representative of the

upper class. Her relationship with Clifford--she simultaneously adores and

despises him, while he depends and looks down on her--is probably the most

fascinating and complex relationship in the novel.

Michaelis - A successful Irish playwright with whom Connie has an affair

early in the novel. Michaelis asks Connie to marry him, but she decides

not to, realizing that he is like all other intellectuals: a slave to

success, a purveyor of vain ideas and empty words, passionless.

Hilda Reid - Connie's older sister by two years, the daughter of Sir

Malcolm. Hilda shared Connie's cultured upbringing and intellectual

education. She remains unliberated by the raw sensuality that changed

Connie's life. She disdains Connie's lover, Mellors, as a member of the

lower classes, but in the end she helps Connie to leave Clifford.

Sir Malcolm Reid - The father of Connie and Hilda. He is an acclaimed

painter, an aesthete and unabashed sensualist who despises Clifford for his

weakness and impotence, and who immediately warms to Mellors.

Tommy Dukes - One of Clifford's contemporaries, Tommy Dukes is a

brigadier general in the British Army and a clever and progressive

intellectual. Lawrence intimates, however, that Dukes is a representative

of all intellectuals: all talk and no action. Dukes speaks of the

importance of sensuality, but he himself is incapable of sensuality and

uninterested in sex.

Charles May, Hammond, Berry - Young intellectuals who visit Wragby, and

who, along with Tommy Dukes and Clifford, participate in the socially

progressive but ultimately meaningless discussions about love and sex.

Duncan Forbes - An artist friend of Connie and Hilda. Forbes paints

abstract canvases, a form of art both Mellors and D.H. Lawrence seem to

despise. He once loved Connie, and Connie originally claims to be pregnant

with his child.

Bertha Coutts - Although Bertha never actually appears in the novel, her

presence is felt. She is Mellors' wife, separated from him but not

divorced. Their marriage faltered because of their sexual incompatibility:

she was too rapacious, not tender enough. She returns at the end of the

novel to spread rumors about Mellors' infidelity to her, and helps get him

fired from his position as gamekeeper. As the novel concludes, Mellors is

in the process of divorcing her.

Squire Winter - A relative of Clifford. He is a firm believer in the old

privileges of the aristocracy.

Daniele, Giovanni - Venetian gondoliers in the service of Hilda and

Connie. Giovanni hopes that the women will pay him to sleep with them; he

is disappointed. Daniele reminds Connie of Mellors: he is attractive, a

"real man." Context

Lord of the Flies by W.Golding

William Gerald Golding was born in September of 1911 in the city of

Cornwall, England. Growing up in the life of luxury, Golding soon realized

that he was very talented at his school studies. He attended both the

prestigious colleges of Malboro and Oxford, studying both natural science

and English. Despite his father’s protests, Golding eventually decided to

devote his career to literature, where he became one of the most famous

English novelists ever. Soon World War II started, compelling Golding to

enlist in the Navy. It was war where Golding lost the idea that men are

inherently good. After witnessing the evil of war, both from men of the

enemy and his own side, Golding lost the belief that humans have an

innocent nature. Even children he learned are inherently evil, thus

foreshadowing his future and most famous novel, Lord of the Flies. In later

years, Golding received many noteworthy awards for his contribution to

English and world literature. Finally in 1983, he was awarded the Nobel

prize for his literary merits. Golding’s other interests include Greek

literature, music and history. Yet William G. Golding will be remembered

mostly for his great contributions to modern literature.

Chapter One: The Sound of the Shell:

The novel begins in the aftermath of a plane crash in the Pacific

Ocean during an unnamed war in which a group of English schoolboys are

isolated on what they assume to be an island under no adult supervision.

The pilot died in the crash and the plane has been swept to sea by a storm.

Among the survivors are a young, fair-haired boy of twelve named Ralph and

a pudgy boy referred to only by the derisive nickname from school that he

dislikes: Piggy. Piggy insists that he can neither run nor swim well

because of his asthma. Ralph insists that his father, a commander in the

Navy, will come and rescue them. Both of Piggy's parents had already died.

Piggy doubts that anybody will find them, and suggests that the boys should

gather together. Ralph finds a conch shell, which Piggy tells him will make

a loud noise. When Ralph blows the conch, several children make their way

to Ralph and Piggy. There were several small children around six years old

and a party of boys marching in step, dressed in eccentric clothing: black

cloaks and black caps. One of the boys, Jack Merridew, leads the group,

which he addresses as his choir. Piggy suggests that everyone state their

names, and Jack insists on being called Merridew, for Jack is a kid's name.

Jack, a tall thin boy with an ugly, freckled complexion and flaming red

hair, insists that he be the leader because he's the head boy of his choir.

They decide to vote for chief: although Jack seems the most obvious leader

and Piggy the most obviously intelligent, Ralph has a sense of stillness

and gravity. He is elected chief, but concedes that Jack can lead his

choir, who will be hunters. Ralph decides that everyone should stay there

while three boys will find out whether they are on an island. Ralph chooses

one of the boys, Simon, while Jack insists that he comes along. When Piggy

offers to go, Jack dismisses the idea, humiliating Piggy, who is still

ashamed that Ralph revealed his hated nickname. The three boys search the

island, climbing up the mountain to survey it. On the way up, they push

down the mountain a large rock that blocks their way. When they finally

reach the top and determine that they are on an island, Ralph looks upon

everything and says "this belongs to us." The three decide that they need

food to eat, and find a piglet caught in a curtain of creepers. Jack draws

his knife, but pauses before he has a chance to stab the pig, which frees

itself and runs away. Jack could not stab the pig because of the great

violence involved, but he vows that he would show no mercy next time.

Chapter Two: Fire on the Mountain:

Ralph called another meeting that night. The sunburned children had

put on clothing once more, while the choir was more disheveled, having

abandoned their cloaks. Ralph announces that they are on an uninhabited

island, but Jack interjects and insists that they need an army to hunt the

pigs. Ralph sets the rules of order for the meeting: only the person who

has the conch shell may speak. Jack relishes having rules, and even more

so, having punishment for breaking them. Piggy reprimands Jack. He says

that nobody knows where they are and that they may be there a long time.

Ralph reassures them, telling them that the island is theirs, and until the

grown-ups come they will have fun. A small boy is about to cry; he wonders

what they will do about a snake-thing. Ralph suggests that they build a

fire on the top of the mountain, for the smoke will signal their presence.

Jack summons the boys to come build a fire, leaving only Piggy and Ralph.

Piggy shows disgust at their childish behavior as Ralph catches up and

helps them bring piles of wood to the top.

Eventually it proves too difficult for some of the smaller boys, who

lose interest and search for fruit to eat. When they gather enough wood,

Ralph and Jack wonder how to start a fire. Piggy arrives, and Jack suggests

that they use his glasses. Jack snatches them from Piggy, who can barely

see without them. Eventually they use the glasses to reflect the rays of

the sun, starting a fire. The boys are mesmerized by the fire, but it soon

burns out. Ralph insists that they have rules, and Jack agrees, since they

are English, and the English are the best at everything so must do the

right things. Ralph says they might never be saved, and Piggy claims that

he has been saying that, but nobody has listened. They get the fire going

once more. While Piggy has the conch, he loses his temper, telling the

other boys how they should have listened to his orders to build shelters

first and how a fire is a secondary consideration. Piggy worries that they

still don't know exactly how many boys there are, and mentions the snakes.

Suddenly, one of the trees catches on fire, and one of the boy screams

about snakes. Piggy thinks that one of the boys is missing.

Chapter Three: Huts on the Beach:

Jack scans the oppressively silent forest. A bird startles him as he

progresses along the trail. He raises his spear and hurls it at a group of

pigs, driving them away. He eventually comes upon Ralph near the lagoon.

Ralph complains that the boys are not working hard to build the shelters.

The little ones are hopeless, spending most of their time bathing or

eating. Jack says that Ralph is chief, so he should just order them to do

so. Ralph admits that they could call a meeting, vow to build something,

whether a hut or a submarine, start building it for five minutes then quit.

Ralph tells Jack that most of his hunters spent the afternoon swimming. A

madness comes to Ralph's eyes as he admits that he might kill something

soon. Ralph insists that they need shelters more than anything. Ralph

notices that the other boys are frightened. Jack says that when he is

hunting he often feels as if he is being hunted, but admits that this is

irrational. Only Simon has been helping Ralph, but he leaves, presumably to

have a bath. Jack and Ralph go to the bathing pool, but do not find Simon

there. Simon had followed Jack and Ralph, then turned into the forest with

a sense of purpose. He is a tall, skinny boy with a coarse mop of black

hair. He walks through the acres of fruit trees and finds fruit that the

littlest boys cannot reach. He gives the boys fruit them goes along the

path into the jungle. He finds an open space and looks to see whether he is

alone. This open space contains great aromatic bushes, a bowl of heat and


Chapter Four: Painted Faces and Long Hair:

The boys quickly become accustomed to the progression of the day on

the island, including the strange point at midday when the sea would rise.

Piggy discounts the midday illusions as mere mirages. The northern European

tradition of work, play and food right through the day made it possible for

the boys to adjust themselves to the new rhythm. The smaller boys were

known by the generic title of "littluns," including Percival, the smallest

boy on the island, who had stayed in a small shelter for two days and had

only recently emerged, peaked, red-eyed and miserable. The littluns spend

most of the day searching for fruit to eat, and since they choose it

indiscriminately suffer from chronic diarrhea. They cry for their mothers

less often than expected, and spend time with the older boys only during

Ralph's assemblies. They build castles in the sand. One of the biggest of

the littluns is Henry, a distant relative of the boy who disappeared. Two

other boys, Roger and Maurice, come out of the forest for a swim and kick

down the sand castles. Maurice, remembering how his mother chastised him,

feels guilty when he gets sand in Percival's eye. Henry is fascinated by

the small creatures on the beach. Roger picks up a stone to throw at Henry,

but deliberately misses him, recalling the taboos of earlier life. Jack

thinks about why he is still unsuccessful as a hunter. He thinks that the

animals see him, so he wants to find some way to camouflage himself. Jack

rubs his face with charcoal, and laughs with a bloodthirsty snarl when he

sees himself. From behind the mask Jack seems liberated from shame and self-


Piggy thinks about making a sundial so that they can tell time, but

Ralph dismisses the idea. The idea that Piggy is an outsider is tacitly

accepted. Ralph believes that he sees smoke along the horizon coming from a

ship, but there is not enough smoke from the mountain to signal it. Ralph

starts to run to the up the mountain, but cannot reach it in time. Their

own fire is dead. Ralph screams for the ship to come back, but it passes

without seeing them. Ralph finds that the hunters have found a pig, but

Ralph admonishes them for letting the fire go out. Jack is overjoyed by

their kill. Piggy begins to cry at their lost opportunity, and blames Jack

for letting the fire go out. The two argue, and finally Jack punches Piggy

in the stomach. Piggy's glasses fly off and break on the rocks. Jack

eventually does apologize about the fire, but Ralph resents Jack's

misbehavior. Jack considers not letting Piggy have any meat, but orders

everyone to eat. Maurice pretends to be a pig, and the hunters circle

around him, dancing and singing "Kill the pig. Cut her throat. Bash her

in." Ralph vows to call an assembly.

Chapter Five: Beast From Water:

Ralph goes to the beach because he needs a place to think and is

overcome with astonishment. He understands the weariness of life, where

everything requires improvisation. He calls a meeting near the bathing

pool, realizing that he must think and must make a decision but that he

lacks Piggy's ability to think. He begins the assembly seriously, telling

them that they are there not for making jokes or for cleverness. He reminds

them that everyone built the first shelter, which is the most sturdy, while

the third one, built only by Simon and Ralph, is unstable. He admonishes

them for not using the appropriate areas for the lavatory, and reminds them

that the fire is the most important thing on the island, for it is their

means of escape. He claims that they ought to die before they let the fire

out. He directs this at the hunters, in particular. He makes the rule that

the only place where they will have a fire is on the mountain. Ralph then

speaks on their fear. He admits that he is frightened himself, but their

fear is unfounded. Jack stands up, takes the conch, and yells at the

littluns for screaming like babies and not hunting or building or helping.

Jack tells them that there is no beast on the island. Piggy does agree

with Jack on that point, telling the kids that there is no beasts and there

is no real fear, unless they get frightened of people. A littlun, Phil,

tells how he had a nightmare and, when he awoke, how he saw something big

and horrid moving among the trees. Ralph dismisses it as nothing. Simon

admits that he was walking in the jungle at night. Percival speaks next,

and as he gives his name he recites his address and telephone number; this

reminder of home causes him to break out into tears. All of the littluns

join him. Percival claims that the beast comes out of the sea, and tells

them about squids. Simon says that maybe there is a beast, and the boys

speak about ghosts. Piggy says he does not believe in ghosts, but Jack

attempts to start a fight again. Ralph stops the fight, and asks the boys

how many of them believe in ghosts. Piggy yells at the boys, asking whether

they are humans or animals or savages. Jack threatens him again, and Ralph

intercedes once more, complaining that they are breaking the rules. When

Jack asks "who cares?" Ralph says that the rules are the only thing that

they have. Jack says that they will hunt the beast down. The assembly

breaks up as Jack leads them on a hunt. Only Ralph, Piggy and Simon remain.

Ralph says that if he blows the conch to summon them back and they refuse,

then they will become like animals and will never be rescued. He does ask

Piggy whether there are ghosts or beasts, but Piggy reassures him. Piggy

warns him that if Ralph steps down as chief Jack will do nothing but hunt,

and they will never be rescued. The three reminisce on the majesty of adult

life. The three hear Percival still sobbing his address.

Chapter Six: Beast From Air:

Ralph and Simon pick up Percival and carry him to a shelter. That

night, over the horizon, there is an aerial battle. A pilot drops from a

parachute, sweeping across the reef toward the mountain. The dead pilot

sits on the mountain-top. Early the next morning, there are noises by a

rock down the side of the mountain. The twins Sam and Eric, the two boys on

duty at the fire, awake and add kindling to the fire. Just then they spot

something at the top of the mountain and crouch in fear. They scramble down

the mountain and wake Ralph. They claim that they saw the beast. Eric tells

the boys that they saw the beast, which has teeth and claws and even

followed them. Jack calls for a hunt, but Piggy says that they should stay

there, for the beast may not come near them. When Piggy says that he has

the right to speak because of the conch, Jack says that they don't need the

conch anymore. Ralph becomes exasperated at Jack, accusing him of not

wanting to be rescued, and Jack takes a swing at him. Ralph decides that he

will go with the hunters to search for the beast, which may be around a

rocky area of the mountain. Simon, wanting to show that he is accepted,

travels with Ralph, who wishes only for solitude. Jack gets the hunters

lost on the way around the mountain. They continue along a narrow wall of

rocks that forms a bridge between parts of the island, reaching the open

sea. As some of the boys spend time rolling rocks around the bridge, Ralph

decides that it would be better to climb the mountain and rekindle the

fire, but Jack wishes to stay where they can build a fort.

Chapter Seven: Shadows and Tall Trees:

Ralph notices how long his hair is and how dirty and unclean he has

become. He had followed the hunters across the island. On this other side

of the island, the view is utterly different. The horizon is hard, clipped

blue and the sea crashes against the rocks. Simon and Ralph watch the sea,

and Simon reassures him that they will leave the island eventually. Ralph

is somewhat doubtful, but Simon says that it is simply his opinion. Roger

calls for Ralph, telling him that they need to continue hunting. A boar

appears; Jack stabs it with a spear, but the boar escapes. Jack is wounded

on his left forearm, so Simon tells him he should suck the wound. The

hunters go into a frenzy once more, chanting "kill the pig" again. Roger

and Jack talk about their chanting, and Jack says that someone should dress

up as a pig and pretend to knock him over. Robert says that Jack wants a

real pig so that he can actually kill, but Jack says that he could just use

a littlun. The boys start climbing up the mountain once more, but Ralph

realizes that they cannot leave the littluns alone with Piggy all night.

Jack mocks Ralph for his concern for Piggy. Simon says that he can go back

himself. Ralph tells Jack that there isn't enough light to go hunting for

pigs. Out of the new understanding that Piggy has given him, Ralph asks

Jack why he hates him. Jack has no answer. The boys are tired and afraid,

but Jack vows that he will go up the mountain to look for the beast. Jack

mocks Ralph for not wanting to go up the mountain, claiming that he is

afraid. Jack claims he saw something bulge on the mountain. Since Jack

seems for the first time somewhat afraid, Ralph says that they will look

for it then. The boys see a rock-like hump and something like a great ape

sitting asleep with its head between its knees. At its sight, the boys run


Chapter Eight: Gift for the Darkness:

When Ralph tells Piggy what they saw, he is quite skeptical. Ralph

tells him that the beast had teeth and big black eyes. Jack says that his

hunters can defeat the beast, but Ralph dismisses them as boys with sticks.

Jack tells the other boys that the beast is a hunter, and says that Ralph

thinks that the boys are cowards. Jack says that Ralph isn't a proper

chief, for he is a coward himself. Jack asks the boys who wants Ralph not

to be chief. Nobody agrees with Jack, so he runs off in tears. He says that

he is not going to be part of Ralph's lot. Jack leaves them. Piggy says

that they can do without Jack, but they should stay close to the platform.

Simon suggests that they climb the mountain. Piggy says that if they

climb the mountain they can start the fire again, but then suggests that

they start a fire down by the beach. Piggy organizes the new fire by the

beach. Ralph notices that several of the boys are missing. Piggy says that

they will do well enough if they behave with common sense, and proposes a

feast. They wonder where Simon has gone; he might be climbing the mountain.

Simon had left to sit in the open space he had found earlier. Far off along

the beach, Jack says that he will be chief of the hunters, and will forget

the beast. He says that they might go later to the castle rock, but now

will kill a pig and give a feast. They find a group of pigs and kill a

large sow. Jack rubs the blood over Maurice's cheeks, while Roger laughs

that the fatal blow against the sow was up her ass. They cut off the pig's

head and leave it on a stick as a gift for the beast at the mountain-top.

Simon sees the head, with flies buzzing around it. Ralph worries that the

boys will die if they are not rescued soon. Ralph and Piggy realize that it

is Jack who causes things to break up. The forest near them suddenly bursts

into uproar. The littluns run off as Jack approaches, naked except for

paint and a belt, while hunters take burning branches from the fire. Jack

tells them that he and his hunters are living along the beach by a flat

rock, where they hunt and feast and have fun. He invites the boys to join

his tribe. When Jack leaves, Ralph says that he thought Jack was going to

take the conch, which Ralph holds as a symbol of ritual and order. They

reiterate that the fire is the most important thing, but Bill suggests that

they go to the hunters' feast and tell them that the fire is hard on them.

At the top of the mountain remains the pig's head, which Simon has dubbed

the Lord of the Flies. Simon believes that the pig's head speaks to him,

calling him a silly little boy. The Lord of the Flies tells Simon that he'd

better run off and play with the others, who think that he is crazy. The

Lord of the Flies claims that he is the Beast, and laughs at the idea that

the Beast is something that could be hunted and killed. Simon falls down

and loses consciousness.

Chapter Nine: A View to a Death:

Simon's fit passes into the weariness of sleep. Simon speaks aloud to

himself, asking "What else is there to do?" Simon sees the Beast the body

of the soldier who parachuted onto the island and realizes what it

actually is. He staggers down the mountain to tell them what he has found.

Ralph notices the clouds overhead and estimates that it will rain again.

Ralph and Piggy play in the lagoon, and Piggy gets mad when Ralph squirts

water on him, getting his glasses wet. They wonder where most of the other

boys have gone, and remark that they are with the hunters for the fun of

pretending to be a tribe and putting on war paint. They decide that they

should find them to make sure that nothing happens. They find the other

boys grouped together, laughing and eating. Jack sits on a great log,

painted and garlanded as an idol. Jack orders the boys to give Ralph and

Piggy some eat, then orders a boy to give him a drink. Jack asks all of the

boys who will join his tribe, for he gave them food and his hunters will

protect them. Ralph and Jack argue over who will be chief. Ralph says that

he has the conch, but Jack says that it doesn't count on this side of the

island. Piggy tells Ralph that they should go before there is trouble.

Ralph warns them that a storm is coming and asks where there shelters are.

The littluns are frightened, so Jack says that they should do their pig

dance. As the storm begins, Simon rushes from the jungle, crying out about

the dead body on the mountain. The boys rush after him, striking him and

killing him. Meanwhile, on the mountain, the storm blows the parachute and

the body attached to it into the sea. That night, Simon's body washes out

to sea.

Chapter Ten: The Shell and the Glasses:

Back on the other side of the island, Ralph and Piggy discuss Simon,

and Piggy reminds him that he is still chief, or at least chief over them.

Piggy tries to stop Ralph from talking about Simon's murder. Piggy says

that he took part in the murder because he was scared, but Ralph says that

he wasn't scared. He doesn't know what came over him. They try to justify

the death as an accident caused by Simon's crazy behavior. Piggy asks Ralph

not to reveal to Sam and Eric that they were in on the killing. Sam and

Eric return, dragging a long out of the forest. All four appear nervous as

they discuss where they have been, trying to avoid the subject of Simon's

murder. Roger arrives at castle rock, where Robert makes him declare

himself before he can enter. The boys have set a log so they can easily

cause a rock to tumble down. Roger and Robert discuss how Jack had Wilfred

tied up for no apparent reason. Jack sits on a log, nearly naked with a

painted face. He declares that tomorrow they will hunt again. He warns them

about the beast and about intruders. Bill asks what they will use to light

the fire, and Jack blushes. He finally answers that they shall take fire

from the others. Piggy gives Ralph his glasses to start the fire. They wish

that they could make a radio or a boat, but Ralph says that they might be

captured by the Reds. Eric stops himself before he admits that it would be

better than being captured by Jack's hunters. Ralph wonders about what

Simon said about a dead man. The boys become tired by pulling wood for the

fire, but Ralph resolves that they must keep it going. Ralph nearly forgets

what their objective is for the fire, and they realize that two people are

needed to keep the fire burning at all times. This would require that they

each spend twelve hours a day devoted to it. They finally give up the fire

for the night. Ralph reminisces about the safety of home, and he and Piggy

conclude that they will go insane. They laugh at a small joke that Piggy

makes. Jack and his hunters arrive and attack the shelter where Ralph,

Piggy and the twins are. They fight them off, but still suffer considerable

injuries. Piggy thought that they wanted the conch, but realizes that they

came for something else. Instead, Jack had come for Piggy's broken glasses.

Chapter Eleven: Castle Rock:

The four boys gather around where the fire had been, bloody and

wounded. Ralph calls a meeting for the boys who remain with them, and Piggy

asks Ralph to tell them what could be done. Ralph says that all they need

is a fire, and if they had kept the fire burning they might have been

rescued already. Ralph, Sam and Eric think that they should go to the

Castle Rock with spears, but Piggy refuses to take one. Piggy says that

he's going to go find Jack himself. Piggy says that he will appeal to a

sense of justice. A tear falls down his cheek as he speaks. Ralph says that

they should make themselves look presentable, with clothes, to not look

like savages. They set off along the beach, limping. When they approach the

Castle Rock, Ralph blows the conch. He approaches the other boys

tentatively, and Sam and Eric rush near him, leaving Piggy alone. Jack

arrives from hunting, and tells Ralph to leave them alone. Ralph finally

calls Jack a thief, and Jack responds by trying to stab Ralph with his

spear, which Ralph deflects. They fight each other while Piggy reminds

Ralph what they came to do. Ralph stops fighting and says that they have to

give back Piggy's glasses and reminds them about the fire. He calls them

painted fools. Jack orders the boys to grab Sam and Eric. They take the

spears from the twins and Jack orders them to be tied up. Ralph screams at

Jack, calling him a beast and a swine and a thief. They fight again, but

Piggy asks to speak as the other boys jeer. Piggy asks them whether it is

better to be a pack of painted Indians or to be sensible like Ralph, to

have rules and agree or to hunt and kill. Roger leans his weight on the

lever, causing a great rock to crash down on Piggy, crushing the conch and

sending Piggy down a cliff, where he lands on the beach, killing him. Jack

declares himself chief, and hurls his spear at Ralph, which tears the skin

and flesh over his ribs, then shears off and falls into the water. Ralph

turns and runs, but Sam and Eric remain. Jack orders them to join the

tribe, but when they only wish to be let go he pokes them in the ribs with

a spear.

Chapter Twelve: Cry of the Hunters:

Ralph hides, wondering about his wounds. He is not far from the Castle

Rock. He thinks he sees Bill in the distance, but realizes that it is not

actually Bill anymore, for he is now a savage and not the boy in shorts and

shirt he once knew. He concludes that Jack will never leave Ralph alone.

Ralph can see the Lord of the Flies, now a skull with the skin and meat

eaten away. Ralph can still hear the chant "Kill the beast. Cut his throat.

Spill his blood." He crawls to the lookout near Castle Rock and calls to

Sam and Eric. Sam gives him a chunk of meat and tells him to leave. They

tell him that Roger has sharpened a stick at both ends, but Ralph cannot

attach a meaning to this. Ralph crawls away to a slope where he can safely

sleep. When he awakes he can hear Jack and Roger outside the thicket where

he hides. They are trying to find out where Ralph is hiding. The other boys

are rolling rocks down the mountain. Ralph finally runs away, not knowing

what he should do. He decides to hide again, then realizes that Jack and

his boys were sitting the island on fire to smoke Ralph out, a move that

would destroy whatever fruit was left on the island. Ralph rushes toward

the beach, where he finds a naval officer. His ship saw the smoke and came

to the island. The officer thinks that the boys have been only playing

games. The other boys begin to appear from the forest. Percival tries to

announce his name and address, but cannot say what was once so natural.

Ralph says that he is boss, and the officer asks how many there are. He

scolds them for not knowing exactly how many there are and for not being

organized, as the British are supposed to be. Ralph says that they were

like that at first. Ralph begins to weep for the first time on the island.

He weeps for the end of innocence and the darkness of man's heart, and for

the fall of Piggy. The officer turns away, embarrassed, while the other

boys await the cruiser in the distance.

Middlemarch by G.Eliot

Chapter 1:

The novel begins in the upper-class Brooke household in Tipton,

inhabited by Mr. Brooke and his two nieces, Dorothea and Celia. Dorothea

and her sister Celia are well-connected, sensible girls from a good family;

they believe in economy of dress and are rather mainstream in their beliefs

and behavior. Dorothea is drawn to sacrifice and grand, intellectual

things, while Celia has fewer aspirations in the world of academics and

religion. Their uncle, Mr. Brooke, is careful with his money, and rather

Puritan in his disposition, which Dorothea is also.

Two suitors, Sir Chettam and Mr. Casaubon, make visits to the house;

Sir Chettam likes Dorothea, but Dorothea believes he is more inclined

toward her sister. Celia has more sense than her sister, but Dorothea is

very steadfast in her Puritan ways.

Chapter 2:

Sir James and Casaubon are over for supper, with Sir James trying to

appeal to Dorothea, while Dorothea begins to admire Casaubon. Dorothea

hopes that Sir James will try to appeal to her sister Celia, rather than to

herself, and Dorothea continues her perverse fascination with Casaubon.

Chapter 3:

Dorothea continues to admire Casaubon, especially admiring his vast

studies and knowledge. She understands that Casaubon has some regard for

her, and feels honored, despite Casaubon's complete inability to show

emotion. She is blind to the fact that he wants to marry her to fulfill his

needs, and is taking advantage of her naivete in this decision. Casaubon

actually tries to show consideration for her in the things he chooses to

speak to her about, and in the way he regards her. Still, Dorothea's

refusal to see Casaubon as anything other than a beacon of knowledge and

good, and Sir James as an annoyance who is useful for carrying out her

plans, shows how her stubbornness blinds her in judging people's

characters, and in making important decisions as well.

Chapter 4:

Sir James has acted on Dorothea's plan, and made new, more pleasant

cottages for his poor tenants; Dorothea is still determined not to think

highly of him, though Celia is rather fond of Sir James. Dorothea admits to

her sister that she does not like Sir James, although he plainly likes her;

Celia cannot believe that Dorothea could so easily dismiss a man who loves

her. When Dorothea gets back, her uncle tells her that he went to visit

Casaubon, and Casaubon inquired about marrying Dorothea. Mr. Brooke is

against it, because of Casaubon's tendency to mope about and live in books;

but, when Dorothea says that she would accept Casaubon over Sir Chettam,

Mr. Brooke speaks diplomatically, while laying out before her the realities

of marriage. Though Dorothea listens, she does not seem to absorb all the

important things he says. Mr. Brooke has brought back a letter of proposal

to Dorothea, and she is determined to accept.

Chapter 5:

Dorothea reads Casaubon's letter, and is touched by it; she

immediately writes out an acceptance, taking the letter to mean that he

feels the same about her as she does about him. Celia has no idea what has

happened until Casaubon joins them all for dinner, and she, at least, knows

that her sister has made a serious mistake, and perhaps can be swayed from

it. Dorothea, however, is convinced that she has made the right choice;

Casaubon expresses happiness at their engagement, and Dorothea completely

overlooks his lack of passion.

Chapter 6:

Mrs. Cadwallader is finally introduced, a shrewd, somewhat

manipulative, and meddling woman whom Mr. Brooke has little affection for.

Mrs. Casaubon and Mr. Brooke talk politics for a little while, which Mr.

Brooke does not want to do; finally, Celia tells Mrs. Cadwallader that

Dorothea is going to marry Casaubon, which displeases Mrs. Cadwallader, a

great advocate for Sir James, greatly. Sir James finds out, and is greatly

displeased; but Mrs. Cadwallader tells him that Celia admires him greatly,

and won't give him as much trouble. Mrs. Cadwallader is the archetype of

the country woman, with her narrow interests, her meddling ways, and her

great concern in anything involving people she knows. Sir James is able to

conquer his disappointment, and realizes that courting Celia is what he

should begin to do.

Chapter 7:

Casaubon has exhausted his meager reserves of passion already, and

looks forward to married life, which he expects will be more pleasant and

fulfilled. Not once does he stop and consider his duties for Dorothea,

showing himself to be an unsuitable partner who will be hard-pressed to

make her happy. Dorothea is eager to begin learning, out of her own desire

to be able to understand and know things. Mr. Brooke cautions Casaubon that

Dorothea, as a woman, might not be capable of such learning; Dorothea

resents such talk, and tries to ignore it.

Chapter 8:

Sir James, in spite of Dorothea's engagement, begins to like visiting

the Grange, her home, once again; he is stung by her rejection, and cannot

understand her attraction to Casaubon at all. He goes to speak to Mr.

Cadwallader, a great friend, to clear his mind about this issue. Sir James

cannot help his great pride, but at least he is very civil to Dorothea, and

does not let his distaste for her marriage interfere with his plans to make

the cottages she proposed.

Chapter 9:

Dorothea gets her new home, Lowick, ready for her impending residence

there. The house is rather big, but not particularly cheery; in fact, it

rather resembles Casaubon in its looks. Dorothea, however, finds it

agreeable, as she finds Casaubon also; but, chances are, she will soon find

that she is mistaken, as the newness and novelty of this entire situation

wears off. Celia herself dislikes anything that Dorothea accepts, and as

such, dislikes Lowick and Casaubon equally.

Casaubon introduces the party to Will Ladislaw, his cousin; he

dislikes Dorothea immediately, because of the way she speaks poorly of

herself before others, and because she is marrying his sour, humorless

cousin. Will is young, rather handsome, and an artist as well; he seems

much better suited to Dorothea, though a better match than Casaubon is

certainly not hard to find. Ladislaw is without occupation, so Casaubon is,

reluctantly, providing for him; but Casaubon and his cousin seem not to get

along at all.

Chapter 10:

Ladislaw leaves suddenly for Europe; he has a view of life and work

completely opposed to Casaubon's, and is much more impulsive and full of

passion than his dull cousin. Casaubon, to his credit, does try to be more

joyful about his marriage, and to understand his young bride better; but,

he is fundamentally unsuited to this relationship, and cannot make himself

more amenable to it. They decide to go to Rome on their honeymoon, a

decision partially motivated by Casaubon's single-minded pursuit of

information, to the detriment of his fragile relationship with Dorothea.

Casaubon and Dorothea attend a local dinner party, where many of the

prominent citizens of the town are discussing their displeasure at Casaubon

and Dorothea's marriage, and the arrival of the new doctor, Lydgate. Many

of the townspeople prove completely pedestrian in their opinions, liking

decorative, weak-willed women, and disapproving of any experimentation,

especially relating to medicine. These are people who like routine and

tradition, and will be hard-pressed to accept any progress or any outsiders

in their community.

Chapter 11:

Lydgate, the new doctor, is already enamoured of Rosamond Vincy, the

mayor's daughter. She is attractive and affable, but he is not economically

set for marriage yet. Lydgate believes that women should be quiet,

obedient, and beautiful; he is not looking for a partner, but rather an

adornment, for a wife. Rosamond seems determined to escape from the tangled

web of Middlemarch marriages, in which case Lydgate seems suited to her.

Rosamond's brother, Fred Vincy, is an aimless young man who failed to get

his degree at college, and seems to do very little besides hang about the

house and bother his sister.

Chapter 12:

Fred and Rosamond travel to Stone Court, the house of their wealthy

uncle, Mr. Featherstone. Mrs. Waule, Mr. Featherstone's sister, is there;

and though she is also well off, she tries to get even more money from her

brother. Mary Garth is Mr. Featherstone's servant, and Fred admires her

very much. Mrs. Waule's visit is to lobby for more money in Mr.

Featherstone's will, and she tries to discredit Fred, of whom Mr.

Featherstone is very fond, by alluding to rumors about Fred's gambling

debts. Mr. Featherstone bothers Fred on this subject, and Fred insists he

has done nothing of the sort; Mr. Featherstone continues to shame and

embarrass Fred, and finally insist that he get proof in writing from

Bulstrode, who started this rumor, that it is indeed false.

Mary Garth is plain and amiable, and very honest and kind. Rosamond

continues to be supremely interested in Lydgate, whom Mary has met and does

not think terribly highly of. Lydgate and Rosamond finally meet, and it

seems like their romance has already been destined to occur.

Chapter 13:

Mr. Vincy goes to see Mr. Bulstrode at the bank on his son Fred's

behalf; Lydgate is already there with Bulstrode, talking about the

construction of a new hospital in town. Bulstrode likes Lydgate, and

expects that he will make reforms and improve medical care in the town, but

both are aware of the professional jealousy that will arise from Lydgate's

new position, if he is indeed elected as head of the hospital. Bulstrode,

for some reason, wants a man named Mr. Tyke to be chaplain of the new

hospital, in place of another man named Mr. Farebrother.

Mr. Vincy enters, and broaches the subject of Fred and his need for

Bulstrode's reassurances; Mr. Bulstrode does not want to be involved.

Bulstrode criticizes Fred's upbringing and personal qualities, making the

matter more personal than it needs to be. This matter is complicated by the

fact that Bulstrode and Vincy are brothers-in-law, and Vincy believes it is

Bulstrode's family obligation to comply, though Bulstrode does not.

Chapter 14:

Bulstrode writes out a letter to the effect that Fred has not borrowed

money on his inheritance from Featherstone, because his wife Harriet,

Fred's aunt, wishes him to do so. In fact, Fred is in debt, and is given

some money by Featherstone on the spot, though it is not enough to unburden

him. Fred is grateful, but not as grateful as he could be; Featherstone

takes pleasure in the fact that the young man depends on him for funds, and

uses this to threaten Fred as well. Fred tries to talk to Mary Garth, whom

he has feelings for, about his living and his feelings for her as well.

Mary is realistic about his prospects, and knows that he cannot marry until

he finds a living and a stable income.

Chapter 15:

Eliot begins the chapter with a bit of narration about the scope of

the book, and then begins to delve into Lydgate's background. Lydgate was

very intelligent as a young man, and fell in love with anatomy at a young

age. He is a hard worker, driven to succeed in his field and make

innovations, and to help people get better rather than make money, which

seems to be the focus of many doctors of the time.

Chapter 16:

Mr. Bulstrode's power becomes plain; as a banker, he has some control

over those he lends money to, and he defends people in return for certain

expected favors. There is a debate going on whether Bulstrode's choice of

Mr. Tyke for the chaplain's position at the hospital is indeed correct;

Lydgate, Mr. Vincy, Mr. Chichely, and Dr. Sprague debate this question,

with Mr. Vincy firmly supporting Farebrother. Lydgate is soon able to sneak

away and talk with Rosamond, whom he finds very refined and beautiful. He

meets Farebrother, whom he also finds agreeable. Lydgate is in no hurry to

marry, since he has no money yet; but he will certainly keep Rosamond in

mind in the meantime. Rosamond, however, is sure that Lydgate is in love

with her; and, with little else to think about, she sets her mind on

marrying Lydgate.

Chapter 17:

Lydgate goes to see Farebrother at home, and observes his domestic

situation. Farebrother's mother engages Lydgate in a debate about changes

in religion, which Farebrother and Lydgate seem to espouse. Farebrother is

a man of science, like Lydgate; they get along well, which makes Lydgate

question Bulstrode's championing of Mr. Tyke even more. However,

Farebrother is knowledgeable about Middlemarch politics, and knows that

Lydgate must vote with Bulstrode if he wants to get ahead; Lydgate listens

to this advice, but wants to vote with his conscience instead.

Chapter 18:

Lydgate is compelled to vote for Farebrother, at the expense of any

help from Bulstrode; he debates this with himself, and the outcomes of

either decision. Lydgate wants to secure Farebrother the much needed money,

but also wants to keep in Bulstrode's good graces, and knows that Tyke

might be better suited to the position. The voting meeting begins, with

Lydgate still waffling; people have their various reasons for voting for

Farebrother or for Lydgate, and they all vary widely. Lydgate finally

decides upon Mr. Tyke.

Chapter 19:

Dorothea is at last in Rome on her honeymoon, and Will Ladislaw is

there too, spotting her but not daring to approach. Will's friend, Naumann,

is there too, is taken with her beauty and wants to paint her picture; Will

is still under the influence of his negative first impression of her, and

does not want to see her at the risk of finding her as unpleasant as he


Chapter 20:

Dorothea is in shock by the combination of lately having become a

wife, being in a place so foreign to her as Rome, and being completely

alone, with the absence of her husband due to his study. Dorothea appeals

to her husband to let her help, so that he may get his work finished and

published; in her desperation for some emotional response, she sobs, which

immediately makes Casaubon even more remote. Casaubon wants her support and

affection, which she is giving him, but not in the way he wishes. They have

a fundamental communication block, which upsets both of them, especially

since it is their honeymoon. Casaubon continues his studies, and nothing is


Chapter 21:

Just as Dorothea is beginning to despair again, Will Ladislaw comes to

visit her. Will is surprised to find that she is nice, friendly, and far

better than his dried-up old cousin could ever deserve; Will's bad first

impression is proven completely wrong. They discuss art, which Dorothea

can't understand; Will admits that he has not found his calling in art, and

Dorothea is bewildered by his ability to be at leisure all the time. Will

also realizes that Dorothea holds Casaubon in unnaturally high regard; he

resents this, and wants to get her to realize how she is mistaken. Casaubon

returns home, and is not pleased by his cousin's presence. Nevertheless, he

invites Will back, and Dorothea senses that she has found a valuable


Chapter 22:

Will impresses Dorothea with the way he is able to listen to Casaubon

and make him feel at ease; Will is also able to engage Dorothea in the

conversation, and draw some statements out of her that make Casaubon proud

of his well-spoken wife. Will gets Casaubon to agree to bring Dorothea to

the studio; once there, Naumann gets Casaubon to sit as a model for Thomas

Aquinas, which allows Naumann to also paint Dorothea without Casaubon

feeling slighted. Will goes to visit Dorothea later, when Casaubon is not

at home; they speak, and Will tells her plainly that she will not be happy

with Casaubon, and that her piety is completely unnatural.

Chapter 23:

Fred still has a debt to pay, and the money he got from Featherstone

will not cover the balance; even worse, his dear Mary's brother, Caleb, co-

signed on Fred's debt and will be held responsible if he defaults. Fred

decides to make money to pay his debt by speculating on horses;

unfortunately, he buys a horse that lames itself in a stable accident, and

has even less money with which to pay his debt. Fred is a fool to risk all

that he has on such an uncertain plan; but the boy is slow to learn, and

cannot help himself.

Chapter 24:

Fred finally feels very sorry about his debt, and the fact that he has

only fifty pounds and five days to pay up. Fred is most sorry because

Mary's father is going to have to pay, and he feels this will jeopardize

his chances with Mary. Fred goes to the Garth household to tell Caleb

Garth, whose wife is very fond of Fred, but probably will not be after he

tells her. Mrs. Garth is teaching her children their lessons in the

kitchen, and Fred sits down and tells her and Mr. Garth the news. Mrs.

Garth will have to give up the money she was saving to send her son to

school; Fred feels terrible, as he should, knowing that his

irresponsibility is costing them so much. Mr. Garth knows then that he was

a fool to trust Fred, and they believe that there is little chance Mary

will regard him so highly when she finds out.

Chapter 25:

Fred goes to Stone Court to tell Mary the news; he is not as repentant

as he should be, and wants comforting words from Mary about his

irresponsibility. He still doesn't see the entire magnitude of what he did;

he tries to rationalize things with his good intentions, and by claiming

that he is not so bad, compared to what other people do. Mary is upset, and

says that she cannot trust him, and that he should be more sorry for what

he did. Caleb comes later, to ask for whatever she has saved up; Mary gives

it gladly. Caleb Garth is worried that his daughter has some feelings for

Chapter 26:

Fred is foolish enough to go back in search of his old horse, and ends

up with an even worse one. He soon becomes ill, and after their regular

doctor tries to help and fails, Lydgate is brought in and says he has

scarlet fever. Mr. and Mrs. Vincy get angry at their regular doctor, Mr.

Wrench, for failing to catch such a serious illness; Mr. Wrench is in turn

angry at Lydgate for interfering, and very uncivil to the new doctor.

Rumors spread about the confrontation between Mr. Wrench and the Vincys,

and between Mr. Wrench and Lydgate. Various opinions and stories surface

about the alleged scuffles, leaving everyone worse off as subjects of

untrue gossip.

Chapter 27:

Mrs. Vincy becomes completely consumed by Fred and his illness, to an

unhealthy extent; Lydgate is around the house frequently, and sees a good

bit of Rosamond as well. Lydgate's attentions to Rosamond are causing some

resentment in the neighborhood, as rivals for her affection become jealous

of him; Rosamond continues to believe that Lydgate is in love with her and

intends marriage, while Lydgate merely enjoys her pleasant company. At the

end of the chapter, Lydgate receives a summons from Sir James Chettam, who

he has not attended to before.

Chapter 28:

Dorothea arrives at Lowick with her husband in January, after their

honeymoon. Dorothea, who had been so dejected during their honeymoon, feels

revived by being home, in familiar surroundings. However, she is still

haunted by the knowledge that her vision of marriage is yet unfulfilled,

and the depressing atmosphere of Lowick. Her sister Celia finally arrives,

brightening up the place with her presence; Celia tells Dorothea of her

engagement to Sir James, and Dorothea is very happy for her sister.

Chapter 29:

Mr. Casaubon's beliefs about marriage are reiterated; he wanted to

marry someone young and impressionable, so that she would be pleasant and

able to help him with his work and be taught by him. He also believed that

marriage would make him happy for the first time; but marriage could never

instantly change his disposition, and his hopes for his union were too

high, as were Dorothea's. Casaubon and Dorothea have a bit of a tiff, as

Casaubon tells her that he does not want Ladislaw to visit, and Dorothea

resents the condescending and mean-natured tone he takes with her. Casaubon

is weakened, and Dorothea strengthened by this altercation; it seems like

this relationship is going to make her stronger, though it will definitely

not work out.

Chapter 30:

Lydgate comes to check on Casaubon, and cannot find anything

immediately wrong; he asks that Casaubon give up his studies for the time

being, and focus on leisurely pursuits. Dorothea is informed as to the

details of whatever ails Casaubon; Lydgate says that he must be kept from

any stresses, or else his condition might be aggravated, and his life cut

short. Dorothea is sad, but not sure exactly what to think; Ladislaw is

supposed to be arriving there in a few days, and she asks Mr. Brooke to

write Ladislaw a letter saying that Casaubon is ill, and not to visit. Mr.

Brooke does write a letter, but the contents are nothing like Dorothea

intends; Mr. Brooke invites Ladislaw, and also proposes that he might work

for Mr. Brooke's newspaper, since Mr. Brooke has been favorably impressed

with what he has heard.

Chapter 31:

Lydgate and Rosamond become closer, as Lydgate is about to be sucked

into a relationship which he is unprepared for because of the nature of

Middlemarch society. Mrs. Bulstrode and Mrs. Plymdale gossip about

Rosamond's pride, and how Lydgate might suit her; Mrs. Plymdale thinks that

the match would be unwise for Lydgate, since Rosamond has expensive habits,

and Mrs. Bulstrode goes to speak to Rosamond out of concern. When Mrs.

Bulstrode sees Rosamond and her fine garments, she knows that Mrs. Plymdale

was at least right about that one point. Mrs. Bulstrode speaks to her,

telling her that if she marries Lydgate, she will not be able to keep her

expensive habits; Rosamond admits that he has made no offer of marriage to

her, and seems intent on ignoring her aunt's good advice. Then, Mrs.

Bulstrode approaches Lydgate, and tells him that he should not press his

advantages as a romantic-seeming outsider with the Middlemarch girls;

Lydgate sees that others believe him to be engaged to Rosamond, and wants

to avoid marriage at all costs.

However, Lydgate ends up going by the house after an absence of two

weeks, to deliver bad news about Mr. Featherstone's health; Rosamond cries

when she sees him again, and this display of affection touches him enough

to abandon his plans and reasonable thinking, and propose to her. Rosamond

accepts, and they are engaged.

Chapter 32:

Mr. Featherstone's relatives begin to pop out and appear, and all

expect that he will die soon, and will leave them some bit of money, since

he is their rich relation. They all expect that he should do something for

them, that he owes them money because they are relatives; they do not

consider that they have done nothing for him, but are like vultures

circling, waiting to pick up his money once he dies.

Mr. Featherstone wants to see none of the greedy, crowding relatives;

Mary Garth has to try and turn them away, but doesn't have the heart for

the task. Mrs. Vincy hovers around, sure that Fred will receive most of the

property and money anyway, as Featherstone regards and treats them so much

better than his other relatives. Trumbull, an auctioneer and assistant to

Featherstone in business matters, is the other person who Featherstone

shows any regard for; on the basis of behavior alone, it would seem that

these people would receive most from Featherstone's will. Mary Garth must

put up with the various visitors and their varying degrees of rudeness, but

manages to stay calm and make the constant crush of daytime visitors as

comfortable as she can.

Chapter 33:

Mary Garth is sitting with Mr. Featherstone at night, as she usually

does, reflecting on the events of the day, and sitting in silence, for the

most part. She figures that the issue of Featherstone's will shall

disappoint everyone involved. Mr. Featherstone suddenly tells her to open

the chest with his will in it, and burn one of them; Mary refuses, even

when she is offered a sizeable amount of money to do so. Mary is scared of

his sudden energy, and does not think that he is in his right mind; Mr.

Featherstone drifts off to sleep, and by the morning he is dead.

Chapter 34:

Mr. Featherstone is finally buried, with many relatives whom he did

not like there; the occasion is a rather expensive one, for although

Featherstone was miserly in many respects, he liked to show off his money

when it could impress many people. Dorothea and Celia, along with Sir

James, watch the proceedings from their house, as he is being buried at the

church that is on Casaubon's land. Will Ladislaw appears again, and Mr.

Brooke reveals that Will is his guest, and has brought the picture that

Casaubon sat for in Rome. Casaubon is shocked and upset, and Mr. Brooke

explains that he wrote to Ladislaw when Casaubon was ill, not Dorothea; Mr.

Brooke continues to speak of his fondness for Will, as Casaubon tries to

hide his displeasure, and Dorothea becomes alarmed.

Chapter 35:

The funeral is over, and people are waiting anxiously for the will to

be read and the sums they are to receive to be announced. There is a

stranger among them, though, who makes them nervous; his name is Rig, he is

in his early 30's, and no one is quite sure of who he is or where he comes

from. A lawyer is there, named Standout, who went through the will with two

witnesses; he reads through the two wills that Featherstone left, regarding

the last one as the most correct. Mary Garth is nervous, and somewhat

excited, since her refusal to burn one of the documents has led to this

outcome. The first leaves Fred a good bit of money, and gives something to

most of the relatives; the second, which is considered the correct one,

gives everything to Mr. Rig, who doesn't seem surprised.

Upon hearing this, many of the relatives start complaining about the

expense of traveling to the funeral, and how they should not have come if

they were to get nothing. Mrs. Vincy cries, and Fred seems upset as well,

to have a large bequest announced, and then taken back. No one seems very

fond of Mr. Rig, who takes the name Featherstone as requested in the will.

But, it seems that all the greedy relatives, and the expectant Vincys, have

all rotten their just desserts; the Garths could have been better served,

but overall, people do get exactly what they deserve.

Chapter 36:

Fred is sorely disappointed with not getting any money; he expected

that he would get a large amount, and would not have to work. Now, he will

likely have to join the clergy, or find some form of work; he will finally

have to stop being idle, as his father will tolerate his idleness no

longer. Mr. Vincy also says that Rosamond will have to postpone her

marriage, until the family are in a better position to pay for it; Mrs.

Vincy, Fred, and Rosamond are all spendthrifts, expecting that the money

they need will somehow drop into their laps. Rosamond takes the issue up

with her father, and he caves in; Mr. Vincy doesn't have the heart to stand

up to his daughter, though she clearly needs some reasonable advice on the

subject of her marriage.

It seems that only Mrs. Bulstrode knows better on the subject of

Rosamond and Lydgate's engagement; she knows how difficult it will be for

Rosamond to live on little money, and how extravagant she is, and how ill

prepared Lydgate is to live with a flighty girl like her. However, no one

will listen to her; her advice, though it will prove correct, is unheeded.

Rosamond tells Lydgate that her father wishes their marriage to be

postponed; Rosamond says that she refused, not so much out of love for

Lydgate, but out of stubbornness. Lydgate urges her that they be married

soon; Rosamond agrees to six weeks, and manages to convince her father.

Lydgate soon starts buying new things for the house, though he has little

money to do so; already, he is spending beyond his means, a dangerous

habit. They will go to his uncle's estate for their honeymoon; he is a

baronet, and wealthy, which boosts Lydgate's hopes for a better position.

Chapter 37:

Middlemarch politics assert themselves once again, in the rivalry of

the two papers of the region. It is revealed that Mr. Brooke has bought one

of the papers, The Pioneer, and has inserted his unorthodox political views

into it. Will Ladislaw has been hired to head the paper, and Mr. Brooke is

very pleased with his work, and his coverage of the Middlemarch political

situation. Casaubon continues to resent Will, and Will grows more angry

that Casaubon married someone as young and naive as Dorothea, dragging her

down into Casaubon's dull, dry world of academia. Will's affection for

Dorothea continues to grow, and Dorothea becomes more and more fond of Will

in return.

Will goes to Lowick to sketch; luckily for him, it begins to rain, and

when he takes refuge in the house, he finds only Dorothea at home. They

begin to speak as they did in Rome, very happy to be alone in each other's

company; Dorothea becomes more aware of her husband's failings, but also

learns of his generosity toward Will's family. Will tells Dorothea that he

has a job at Mr. Brooke's paper, if he wants it; Dorothea says she would

like him to stay in the neighbourhood very much, but then realises that

Casaubon would disagree with her.

Dorothea tells Casaubon, who of course is not in the least supportive.

Casaubon writes Will a letter, telling him he should not take the position,

nor should he call at the house any longer. Casaubon's letter seems to be

motivated not out of embarrassment for having a relative of lower status

nearby, but out of some jealousy perhaps for his friendship with Dorothea.

Dorothea becomes consumed by the case of Will's grandmother, and her unfair

disinheritance when she married; she believes that Will is owed a good part

of what Casaubon has because his family was impoverished unfairly, and

wants to bring that up to Casaubon, though it will upset him.

Casaubon is not suspicious that Dorothea is being influenced by Will,

but he thinks that it might happen; his insecurity and jealousy lead him to

contrive secret hindrances for Will. He dislikes his cousin more than ever,

because he imagines that Dorothea would like Will more than she likes him.

Chapter 38:

Mr. Brooke is making enemies through his advocacy for the Whig party,

when Middlemarch is a predominantly conservative, Tory area. Bulstrode is

allied with Brooke politically, but many of the neighbors disapprove,

including Sir James. Sir James, Mrs. Cadwallader, and others are gossiping

about Brooke and Will Ladislaw, Brooke's need to take care of his parish,

and other subjects. Brooke comes by, in the middle of being discussed; they

inquire about the state of his tenants, attacks that have been made on him,


Brooke, however, does not wish to enter into any arguments, or listen

to see if they do have any valid points to make amid the rumors they are

discussing. Brooke runs out quickly, and the others wish that maybe he

could see if he was doing something wrong, and act on that.

Chapter 39:

Sir James becomes more judicious in his appraisal of Brooke's

situation, and decides that Brooke needs to invest in improvements for his

tenants if he wants to evade the scathing criticisms of the other

Middlemarch paper, The Trumpet. Dorothea is the key to convincing him,

figures Sir James, since she is a great advocate for improvements. Dorothea

goes to visit her uncle, and Will Ladislaw turns out to be there; she tells

her uncle that Sir James told her that Tipton was to be managed by Caleb

Garth, and improvements made. Dorothea is very passionate that this should

be done; however, her uncle will not commit. She and Will find a moment

alone, to explain a bit more of themselves; Will seems to be falling in

love with her, as their relationship becomes stronger.

Mr. Brooke goes to visit a tenant whose son has been poaching on Brooke's

land, and is chastised by the tenant. Brooke, who liked to fancy himself a

favorite of his tenants, is shocked; also, the house looks worse now that

Dorothea has made her criticisms. It looks like Mr. Brooke will give in,

and turn the management of the estate over to Mr. Garth after all.

Chapter 40:

Focus moves to the Garths, who are gathered at the table, reading

letters. Mary is looking for another position, and has decided to take a

place at a school in York, though it does not please her, or her parents,

too well. However, Mr. Garth reads a letter from Sir James that asks him

whether Mr. Garth would start managing Freshitt, and mentions that Mr.

Brooke might want his services again as well. This would double the Garths'

income, and means that Mary can stay at home; but Mr. Garth will need an

assistant, and none of his sons are in the position to do so. The whole

family is happy, Caleb Garth most of all because he will be able to do good

work to help even more people.

Mr. Farebrother comes to visit; he has some interest in Mary Garth,

and also likes to visit and spend time with the family. He has been talking

to Fred Vincy, and informs them of Fred's situation, telling them Fred is

going back to study, and still cannot pay off his debt to them.

Chapter 41:

It is not long since Mr. Rigg Featherstone has gained the estate of

Stone Court, and already there is word that he wishes to sell the place to

Mr. Bulstrode. It is revealed that Mr. Rigg is Featherstone's illegitimate

child, who was brought up far away from Middlemarch, with very little

money. Someone named John Raffles is there, his mother's new husband; he

wants money to start a tobacco shop from Mr. Rigg's new-found fortune. Rigg

refuses, because Raffles, he alleges, was very cruel to him as a child,

took money from his mother, and left them poor and miserable. He says that

he will continue to send his mother an allowance, but will give Mr. Raffles

nothing. Rigg gives him money to get back home, and some liquor, but not

before Mr. Raffles makes use of an important paper, signed by Mr.

Bulstrode, to keep his flask from falling apart.

Chapter 42:

Lydgate is at least back from his honeymoon with Rosamond, and is

immediately called to Casaubon, whose health seems to be getting worse. He

is also haunted by the idea that he has never been given credit for his

studies, and that the Key to All Mythologies will never be finished; he is

starting to admit that he has failed in his life-long project. Casaubon is

disappointed also with Dorothea; she does all her duties as a wife, but he

suspects that she is critical of him secretly, and this disturbs him a

great deal.

Casaubon's vitriol against Will, and against Dorothea's suspected

affection for Will, takes him over; he concedes to write a passage into his

will "protecting" Dorothea from marrying eager, potentially deceptive

suitors like Will. Lydgate finally arrives, and Casaubon asks that he be

told exactly what his condition is. Lydgate tells him that he has a heart

ailment, but cannot be sure that it will cut his life short, or have any

immediate effect. Lydgate goes once Casaubon has heard enough, and Dorothea

comes out to fetch him; he withdraws from her, and soon she becomes angry

at him for treating her so. Dorothea realizes that she has reduced herself

in order to try and please him, but he seems to be satisfied with nothing;

she is tired of not being herself, and resents him greatly. However, when

he says that he needs her help, she forgets her anger, and goes to join


Chapter 43:

Dorothea decides to seek out Lydgate, and ask him if there has been a

serious change in her husband's condition, or else why he has been so

troubled since Lydgate's visit. She goes to his house, and finds Rosamond

there; but Will is also there, which makes Dorothea panic, and she

immediately leaves to find Lydgate at his hospital. Will fears that

Dorothea will think badly of him because she has found him in the company

of another woman, and not totally devoted to her; but she acted the way she

did because she likes him, and knows that her husband doesn't approve of

the friendship, and that it is some kind of betrayal as well.

Rosamond begins to get ideas about perhaps attracting other admirers, in

order to appease her vanity, and allay her fears about Lydgate's fondness

for her growing weaker. It seems like she might try to win Mr. Ladislaw's

affections, and seems a little jealous that he likes Dorothea rather than

her. She also seems to suspect that maybe her husband has a soft spot for

Dorothea, and that might have been part of the reason she was searching for


Chapter 44:

Dorothea finally talks to Lydgate, and Lydgate tells her that Casaubon

now knows about his condition, and he is probably upset by it. Lydgate

turns her attention to the new hospital; Bulstrode has been one of the few

supporting it, and so many are against the hospital because they do not

like Bulstrode. Dorothea says that she would like to do something for such

a good cause, and pledges money from her yearly allowance; she is happier

that she is able to make a significant contribution, but still her

husband's illness and behavior bother her.

Chapter 45:

Lydgate's practice seems to be at the mercy of rumor, hearsay, and

general sentiment; people go to him because they have heard about "miracle

cures" that he has done, or stay away because they have heard he is

newfangled, and they like their present practitioner just fine. The

backward Middlemarch way of doing and deciding has helped Lydgate's

reputation and practice to spread, but opinion could turn against him just

as rapidly, and dry up his practice. Lydgate is unlucky enough to come into

Middlemarch at a time when old ways are becoming contested in other

regions, and reforms have started to creep into Middlemarch as well; a few

believe that maybe his way is best, but others have been roused to defend

the old, and are more militant about this point than usual. Lydgate is also

disliked because he has taken on cases from other doctors, given a

different diagnosis, and been able to cure them; this wounds the vanity of

the old-guard doctors, and increases their personal dislike for Lydgate.

Mr. Bulstrode is on the side of progress, with Lydgate; this means

that many prominent, wealthy citizens, who dislike both Bulstrode and

innovation, refuse to donate to the new hospital. Lydgate is becoming too

closely tied to the widely disliked Bulstrode that his reputation is

beginning to suffer; Farebrother tells him so, and hopefully Lydgate will

distance himself some. Farebrother also warns Lydgate against having too

many debts.

Lydgate thinks that he might be among the great innovators of

medicine, and this necessitates making enemies, and having opinion turn

against you; in this, he is a little conceited, since there is no way he

can claim an advance as great as those of his hero, Vesalius. It is fine

for Lydgate to try and change the outdated medical practice around him; but

his egotism and his visions of greatness could easily hamper his progress,

and get him into even more trouble with his peers and patients.

Chapter 46:

An issue of reform is coming before Parliament, which Will supports,

and Brooke decides to as well. Will seems to have a good deal of insight

into British national politics, as he can make sense of issues and

candidates, and make a convincing case for his opinion. Mr. Brooke,

however, doesn't seem to be able to put his thoughts in a convincing

argument; he is rather flippant in setting out his opinion, and is easily

swayed by Ladislaw's better-formed opinions. Will is not winning any fans

because of his unconventional behavior and views, as most people dislike

his speeches and his writing because they are different.

Will wants Mr. Brooke to be elected to Parliament; however, with the

uncomplimentary way in which Mr. Brooke is regarded in much of the

neighborhood, this is unlikely. Will is perhaps a bit idealistic in

believing that Mr. Brooke could actually win; he might assume that the

citizens of Middlemarch are more sensible than they really are, in which

case his plans would fail. Lydgate makes some points about area politics

that perhaps he should take into account regarding his own situation; the

two argue for a bit about these political issues, then Ladislaw leaves

after they have tried to patch things up.

Chapter 47:

Will, who cares little what people think, stops to consider how his

employment with Mr. Brooke, and his involvement with Mr. Brooke's politics,

might be hindering him and making him look foolish. Even more important is

whether he really is a fool for following along with Brooke; Will does

think that the relation has cost him some of his dignity and individuality.

All the same, he wants to stay in Middlemarch, at that position, in order

to be near Dorothea; but he considers whether he is a fool with her too,

and his hopeless devotion will amount to nothing if he gains no proof that

she shares his affection.

Will has also become aware of what his cousin Casaubon thinks of him

being friends with Dorothea; he knows that Casaubon might think that Will

means dishonor in his interest in her, but Will really does not. Will

decides to go to Lowick church to see her, aware that Casaubon will be

upset. However, his doubt is only reinforced; Dorothea shows no happiness

to see him, instead seeming pained; Will is saddened by the whole affair,

and seems close to calling it quits on the whole affair.

Chapter 48:

Dorothea is actually happy that Will showed up at church, and wishes

for his company, since she is often alone at home. Dorothea is not allowing

her husband's disapproval to stifle her feelings for Will, though it will

be difficult for her to see him. Casaubon is, all of a sudden, requesting

Dorothea's help with his studies, and being kinder to her; perhaps this is

a result of his talk with Lydgate, and he wants to get his work in order

finally, and be on better terms with his wife, in case he dies suddenly.

However, Casaubon next asks her if she will follow his wishes for her after

he dies, whenever that is; Dorothea has to consider, since she is reluctant

to promise to do something, when she does not know what it is. She secretly

suspects that it may have something to do with Will, but consciously

considers that it has to do with finishing Casaubon's work, which she does

not want to devote years to.

However, before she can make an answer, Casaubon dies. Dorothea is at first

in denial, and tells Lydgate everything, and to tell her husband that she

has an answer. It might be a good thing for her that she does not have to

hold herself to any answer she made; but she still does not know what

Casaubon's wish was.

Chapter 49:

Sir James and Mr. Brooke are supposedly discussing Casaubon's last

wish; they decide that whatever was in the will should be hidden from

Dorothea until she is strong enough to hear of it, and until then she

should be with her sister and her new baby. Sir James wants Will sent out

of the country, which means that he had something to do with Casaubon's

last wish; Mr. Brooke refuses to act so hastily, since Will has done very

good work for him. They reveal that Casaubon added a codicil to his will,

saying that if Dorothea marries Will, she will forfeit the land and money

that Casaubon has left to her. The whole thing looks very bad, as if there

was something sordid going on between Will and Dorothea. Sir James and Mr.

Brooke come to the conclusion that if they sent Will away, it would make

the situation look worse, and that they could not make him go unless he

wanted to. Sir James is bent upon protecting Dorothea now however, as he

could not do with her first marriage; she will be sent to Freshitt to live

with Sir James and her sister for a while, and then more will be decided


Chapter 50:

Dorothea is at Freshitt, but not a week has passed before she is

interested in the will, and what she will do with Lowick. She insists on

going to Lowick, to look after the papers; after Mr. Brooke tells her she

cannot, Celia finally tells her about the codicil, and tries to soothe her.

Dorothea realizes how her life is changing, and wants to be with Will even


Dorothea still has the problem of what to do with Lowick, and the

vacant position at the church; she thinks of giving it to Mr. Tyke, but

Lydgate recommends Farebrother, and says to ask Will about his character.

Dorothea decides to give him a try, and wonders how Will is faring through

all of this.

Chapter 51:

Will is upset, because Mr. Brooke is no longer inviting him to the

Grange, and he feels that maybe he is being avoided out of concern for

Dorothea. Still, he has heard nothing about the will yet. Will believes

that he and Dorothea are divided forever; still, he cannot leave

Middlemarch, because he needs to help Mr. Brooke get ready for the coming

election. Mr. Brooke is running for the Independent party, and needs Will's

help if he is able to have a chance.

However, Mr. Brooke's main speech goes terribly; he is mocked and

egged, hung in effigy, and is disgusted so much by the whole thing that he

quits the election. He also decides to quit the paper too, and urges Will

to do the same. However, Will has been thinking on his future; he will

become a political writer, raise himself up, if he knows that Dorothea

would marry him after he achieved these things. He decides to seek some

sign from her, and in the meantime, stay at the paper. He has some idea

that Mr. Brooke and others are trying to get rid of him for Dorothea's

sake, but will not go unless she doesn't care for him.

Chapter 52:

Farebrother finds out that Dorothea has given him the living at

Lowick; he is glad since this will increase his income, and give him more

freedom in his living. His sister will now be allowed to marry, as they can

afford a dowry, and Farebrother too can afford to have a wife. However, the

only woman he wants to marry is Mary Garth; and Fred in newly back from

finishing college, and wants nothing more than for Mary to love him.

Farebrother, as Fred's confidant in this situation, does a very good job of

being impartial, giving fair advice without the prejudice of his own heart.

However, it pains Farebrother that the only woman he would like to marry is

marked for someone else, who is less stable and responsible than he.

Fred thinks that he might have to go into the clergy, since he can

think of no other profession to join. However, he knows that Mary is

against this; so, he recruits Farebrother to go and speak to her about all

of this, so that he might know what he should do. Farebrother does, and

speaks to her plainly, and fairly; Mary says that it would be wrong of Fred

to be in the clergy, but she would marry him if he found another stable

profession. Mary says that she will remain single for Fred, and loves only

him; Farebrother's hopes are finally dashed, of which Mary is sorry, though

she has told the truth of her heart.

Chapter 53:

Stone Court has finally been transferred to Bulstrode, Rigg having

relieved himself of the estate and grounds. Bulstrode is not pleased that

Farebrother, rather than Tyke, is the new preacher at Lowick, but can do

nothing about it. Rigg's fate is not at Middlemarch, and so he departs with

little ceremony. Raffles comes to Stone Court, looking for Bulstrode, an

old acquaintance; he found out that Bulstrode took his stepson Rigg's place

at Stone court by the crumpled paper he took, and so has sought Bulstrode

out there. Bulstrode is displeased to see Raffles, and doesn't want anyone

to know that he is there, or the real purpose why.

It seems that Bulstrode and Raffles had some shady dealings a while

back, that Bulstrode does not want discovered. Bulstrode's family

connections are questionable as well, as Raffles knows; Raffles takes

advantage and asks Bulstrode for money, on threat of exposing him to

general knowledge. Bulstrode pays him off, and Raffles remembers that

Bulstrode is related to someone named Ladislaw whom he has not seen in

years‹but Raffles does not know who Will is, and also does not tell


Chapter 54:

Dorothea is tired of staying at her sister's, having nothing to do but

stare at Celia's baby, whom Celia worships, but Dorothea couldn't be more

indifferent to. She longs to get back to Lowick and set things in order;

her sister and Sir James do not believe she should go, but she is

determined to, because she can stand Celia's no longer. Others also wish

that Dorothea go to live with someone, so she should not be lonely, but she

refuses. She also refuses to finish Casaubon's work, since her interest in

it has been obliterated by his death, and before that his behavior toward


Will finally does visit her, to see if she does have some affection to

encourage him with. Their meeting is heated, however, with both of them

being frustrated by not being able to admit their affection, and then their

pride clashing on the subject of their division from each other. Will

leaves, with Dorothea trying to show little emotion, especially because Sir

James is there, and disapproves of the whole relationship.

Chapter 55:

Dorothea seems more grieved at Will's departure than she was at her

husband's death‹and rightly so, for she loved Will more than she ever loved

her husband. She goes to Celia, where the company brings up the subject of

marriage; it is openly suggested that Dorothea marry again, though that is

the last thing Dorothea wishes. Dorothea decides to turn her attention

toward public projects again, and will ask Caleb Garth's help in achieving

her goals.

Chapter 56:

Mr. Garth and Dorothea prove to be natural allies on the subject of

improvements and social projects; Mr. Garth is very impressed With

Dorothea's determination and her great mind, though Mrs. Garth is more

concerned with her feminine virtues. Railroads are being built across

England, and this becomes a topic in Middlemarch as the trains grow closer.

Mr. Garth and Dorothea have nothing against them, and decide to sell an

outer part of Dorothea's land to the railroads for a good price. Some men

attack Caleb Garth and his assistant as they are doing some surveying for

the railroad; they are as afraid of the unknown as anybody, but Caleb

teaches them better.

Fred enjoys helping Caleb after his assistant is hurt; he asks Mr.

Garth if perhaps he would be able to learn his business, though Caleb Garth

believes that Fred is going to enter the clergy. Fred confides in him about

his trepidation about entering the clergy, and his love for Mary and wishes

to please her. Mr. Garth bears Fred no ill will about the debt he owes

them, nor is he upset at Fred being in love with Mary; he decides to

consult his wife about Fred becoming his helper, and about a possible match

between Fred and Mary. Caleb decides to bring Fred into the business, and

if he succeeds, then he is worthy of Mary as well. Fred tells his parents,

who are disappointed at Fred's waste of education. They also lament

Rosamond's marriage, which is seeming less attractive as Lydgate gets into

more and more debt.

Chapter 57:

Fred has gone to the Garths, to consult them about his change in

situation, and also to see if his wishes that Mary marry him are accepted

by the family, and Mary as well. However, Mrs. Garth is still not assured

of Fred's worth, and his character; yes, he means well, but he has never

held a stable job or proven himself to be responsible. Mrs. Garth is still

angry at Fred for the issue of his debt; but she cannot tell him directly,

so she admonishes him for being unfeeling of others, and of having no

regard for Farebrother's feelings for Mary too. Fred then thinks that it is

very possible that Mary prefers Farebrother to him, and that Mary will

become engaged to him; when Fred tells Mary this, Mary gets very upset at

him. Mary thinks the allegation unfair, and scolds Fred for his jealousy;

but, as many unpleasing qualities as Fred has, she cannot help but love

him, and still plans to be married to Fred.

Chapter 58:

She and Lydgate get a visit from his cousin, Captain Lydgate, which

thrills Rosamond; Lydgate thinks his cousin foppish and stupid, and would

rather him leave. Rosamond gets a little upset with Lydgate on this issue,

though Lydgate insists he is not the only one who dislikes his cousin.

Rosamond's baby is born premature because of an accident on a horse, and

dies soon after; she would not have been riding if she had listened to her

husband's advice, but stubbornly refused to listen to him. Lydgate is also

troubled by his growing debt, especially since it was incurred buying

things which he, though perhaps not Rosamond, could have done without.

Lydgate finally has to put up the furniture of the house as security

against his debt; he tries to speak to Rosamond about keeping expenses down

and buying less expensive things, but he is too soft-hearted to really tell

her anything. Rosamond proves to be very silly and naive, and even thinks

to herself that she would not have married Lydgate if she knew he was to

have little money, and that she could not have lived as she was used to.

Rosamond decides to go and ask her father for money, against Lydgate's

wishes; Lydgate is saddened that this issue will come up again and again,

and he will have to struggle to keep Rosamond from wasting too much money.

Chapter 59:

Gossip has gone around the neighborhood about the codicil in

Casaubon's will; Fred finds out about it from the Farebrothers, and then

proceeds to tell his sister. Rosamond is profoundly silly, and decides,

unwisely, to tease Will about knowing something he doesn't, then make a

joke of it all. Will grasps what she means to say, and gets the truth out

of her; Rosamond still tries to spin the whole thing in lighthearted way,

but Will is very upset, and perhaps understands more about Dorothea's


Chapter 60:

Mr. Larcher, one of the wealthiest people in Middlemarch, is

auctioning off some furniture he does not need before he moves into a new,

bigger, furnished home. The event is like a carnival, with everyone in

Middlemarch in attendance; there is plenty of food and drink, drink

especially so that people might make higher bids for things. Not everybody

buys things, but everyone is there for this social, outdoor occasion

anyway. Will is asked by Mr. Bulstrode to go and acquire a particular

painting for him; Will goes, though he is determined to leave the town

soon. Still, Will does not want to leave without seeing Dorothea again, so

his departure will have to wait on that.

A good many things are sold before the particular painting comes up;

Will bids for the painting, and gets it for the Bulstrodes for a decent bit

of money. Mr. Raffles turns up there, having found Will Ladislaw by

inquiring somehow; Will is a bit put-off by him, and Mr. Raffles starts

speaking of Will's family. Will cannot tell what Raffles' intentions are,

so he gets away, and tries to forget about him; but it seems that Raffles

has some less-than-desirable stories to tell about Will's family, which

gives Will even more of a reason to leave, before stories like those could

besmirch his name even more.

Chapter 61:

Sure enough, Raffles has been back to Bulstrode's home, and refuses to

go away until Bulstrode sees him. Raffles finds Bulstrode at the bank, as

he tells his wife; but he is afraid to tell his wife much, lest she lose

her confidence in him. It is revealed that Bulstrode married Will's

maternal grandmother, after hiding from her that her daughter, Will's

mother, was alive and had a son that the grandmother's riches were supposed

to go to. However, Bulstrode prevented this from happening, for his own

sake; and when the woman died, Bulstrode was left with the entire fortune,

and Will and his mother with none. Bulstrode was also involved in various

questionable trades, and these are the things that could destroy his

reputation in Middlemarch. Bulstrode decides that he must do something to

satisfy fate, and slow his own demise; he decides to speak to Will

Ladislaw, and perhaps set things straight with him.

Will, however, is still unsettled by being approached by Raffles. He

is shocked to discover the tenuous relation between Bulstrode and himself,

and even more shocked when Bulstrode goes on to claim that he wants to be

generous toward Will. Bulstrode tries to make it sound as if he is doing

something out of generosity and his natural goodness, though it is more out

of guilt and the thought that this good deed might save him. However, Will

knows that Bulstrode made his money in a dishonest way, and is too proud to

accept money from him, especially since that money is tainted by

Bulstrode's wrongs. Bulstrode is saddened by the judgment on him, but is

aware that Will won't tell anyone.

Chapter 62:

Will sends a letter to Dorothea, saying that he cannot leave

Middlemarch until he has seen her again. He already declared that he was

leaving two months before, which is a point of suspicion with Sir James,

who guards Dorothea jealously. Dorothea, however, is out when the letter

comes, preparing for Mr. Brooke to come back to the Grange. She goes to

Freshitt, to speak to her sister and Sir James, and Sir James tries to take

the opportunity to dissuade Dorothea from seeing Will again. He and Mrs.

Cadwallader make a few unkind remarks about Will, which makes Dorothea

angry, and she goes home to find Will there, looking for some sketches he

had left.

Will tells Dorothea that he knows about Casaubon's will, and Dorothea

tries to reassure him that it had nothing to do with her wishes. Will gets

angry at her about the whole thing, and says that everything prevents him

from being with her. Dorothea realizes that he has acted honorably in every

possible way, and is glad for this; but still, she is unable to show any

signs that she loves Will, and he goes without this assurance.

Chapter 63:

Farebrother notices some talk of Lydgate's practice declining, how his

expenses much be more than he can really afford, and how he shouldn't have

married a girl of such fine tastes. Farebrother really makes nothing of

this talk, until he sees Lydgate again, and notices how nervous and strange

his friend is acting. All are invited to a dinner party at the Vincys, and

there seems to be some strain in Lydgate and Rosamond's marriage; she tries

her best to ignore him, and they are not speaking at all. Even Rosamond's

father is avoiding Lydgate. Farebrother, Fred, and Mary are all there,

which means that Fred is worried about Mary liking Farebrother; Mrs. Vincy

hopes that Farebrother and Mary will become engaged, because she doesn't

want such a plain girl as a daughter-in-law.

Chapter 64:

Lydgate's money situation is certainly not getting any better, and

Rosamond is very sour and inconsiderate whenever he mentions cutting down

household expenses. He begins to resent the fact that she will not learn

that they only have a limited amount of money, and cannot spend any more;

she pouts like a sullen child, and acts like he has all the money in the

world, he is only too mean to spend it on her. He decides that they should

sell the house and the furniture, and move somewhere cheaper to live;

Rosamond, of course, takes badly to this suggestion. Ned Plymdale is to be

married, and Ned's mother rubs in that Ned has a lot more money than

Lydgate, meaning that Rosamond was wrong to turn him down.

Rosamond decides to handle matters herself; she makes sure that the

house cannot be sold to Ned Plymdale as her husband wishes, and writes his

relatives for money without telling him. She tells her husband that she

stopped the sale of the house, but not about the letters; Lydgate realizes

that she will be unhappy if they move, and dreads that. He decides to apply

to his rich uncle for money, not knowing that his wife has already done so.

Chapter 65:

Lydgate finds out, from a letter written by his uncle Godwin, that

Rosamond wrote him for money behind his back. Lydgate is enraged that

Rosamond would do such a thing, and also because he was about to go to see

his uncle, and may have gotten some money, rather than a complete denial.

However, when Lydgate gets angry at her for deceiving him and playing him

false, she does what she always does‹look pretty, shed a tear, and act with

composure. Lydgate is weakened by this, meaning that he will always be in

debt, and will allow his wife to be selfish, stupid, and vain, even if it

means their financial ruin. Rosamond hits new lows of shallowness when she

proclaims that she would rather have died in childbirth than have to give

up her house and furniture.

Chapter 66:

Lydgate, out of desperation for money and foolish hope that some will

come to him, begins to gamble. Usually this is something which he treats

with contempt, but in the situation he is in, he decides to go to the Green

Dragon and play billiards. He is very good at first, winning a good bit of

money; Fred Vincy and a friend come in, and Fred is surprised, and

displeased, to find his brother-in-law there. Fred has been working hard

for six months and spending little, and figures he has a little bit to

spare at gambling; but when he sees Lydgate there, he thinks better of it.

Lydgate's luck changes and he begins to lose, and Fred is good enough to

draw him away, and suggest that they see Farebrother, who is right


Farebrother is there to speak to Fred rather than Lydgate; he tells

Fred not to slip back into his old ways, lest he lose Mary and his position

with Mr. Garth. He says that he, too, loves Mary, and that if Fred messes

things up this time, he is not sure to win Mary back. Farebrother does not

mean that he will steal Mary, he is simply warning Fred that he should try

to deserve her, and make her happy too. Fred takes the point, and hopefully

will try to be more careful and more devoted to her.

Chapter 67:

Luckily, after losing at the Green Dragon, Lydgate feels no more

desire to gamble. But, he is still in danger of losing his furniture

because of his debt, and decides that he must apply to Bulstrode for money.

Lydgate delays; and soon, Bulstrode has called on him to see to some health

concerns of his. Bulstrode is feeling unwell probably because of the

Raffles situation; but he also wants to speak of Lydgate about withdrawing

his support from the hospital and moving away. Mrs. Casaubon, he says,

would take his place as major supporter, though it would be best to merge

the old Infirmary with the new hospital. Lydgate objects, because he knows

that the people who run the Infirmary dislike him. Then, he takes the

plunge, and tells Bulstrode that he needs a thousand pounds to discharge

his debts and keep himself going; Bulstrode says that it would be better to

declare bankruptcy, which Lydgate resents. Lydgate is still left with no

way out, and his debt to the town tradespeople is very nearly due.

Chapter 68:

Raffles comes again to Bulstrode's, and Bulstrode must let him stay at

the house for fear that he might go into the town and tell people about

Bulstrode's story. Bulstrode tries his best to conceal who the man is and

what he is doing there from his wife, but he still causes alarm throughout

the household; his wife may not know exactly who Raffles is, but surely she

has some idea that he is a friend from Bulstrode's less honest past.

Bulstrode tells Raffles that he may get money from Bulstrode as long as he

does not come back to Middlemarch; he takes Raffles to a nearby town, gives

him money, and tells him to leave. He knows this might not be a permanent

solution, but it is the best that Bulstrode can come up with at this given


Bulstrode tries to dispose of all his businesses and such, including

the bank; he also gives Caleb Garth the management of Stone Court in his

absence. Caleb, in turn, sees that it could be a good opportunity for Fred

to learn more about the business, and gain his own experience; Mrs. Garth

is a bit wary, but Caleb is decided. Fred is also allowed to live at Stone

Court while he manages it, and hopefully will be able to afford to wed Mary

sometime soon.

Chapter 69:

Mr. Garth comes to Bulstrode, to tell him that he found Raffles, very

ill, near Stone Court; Raffles asks for a doctor, but also told Mr. Garth

some things about Bulstrode. On account of these things, Caleb Garth says

that he can no longer manage any of Bulstrode's property, and must give up

the appointment to manage Stone Court as well. However, Caleb says, he will

not spread around anything that he heard. Bulstrode then believes that all

has happened with the aid of providence, and that Raffles might die, and

leave him in peace.

Lydgate sees Raffles, and determines that though the case is grave,

yet Raffles will probably survive. He decides that it must be a case of an

alcohol-caused disease, and that Raffles must be an odd charity case for

Bulstrode. There seems to be no escape from ruin for Lydgate; the furniture

is about to be taken for his debts, and his relationship with Rosamond is

in shreds because of it. Lydgate cannot stand Rosamond's repeated crying,

and blaming him for her unhappiness. Now, he wishes he had married a woman

of a like mind and spirit, so that their union might have survived this

setback; instead, he is chained to Rosamond, when the union can no longer

make either of them happy.

Chapter 70:

Bulstrode is with Raffles, tending to him according to Lydgate's

orders, though wishing at the same time that Raffles would just die and

leave him in peace. Bulstrode still thinks that fate is on his side, that

Raffles will die and he will be free; he is not sorry for anything he has

done, but is more intent on getting away with everything. Bulstrode decides

that maybe another "good" deed will save him; he decides to give Lydgate

the money he needs, thinking that this action will clear his conscience,

and in case Raffles says something unpalatable, Lydgate will be obligated

not to repeat it.

Raffles dies only a few days after coming to Bulstrode; Lydgate is

there when he dies, and does not think to say that perhaps neglect led

somehow to the man's death. Lydgate knows he is obligated to Bulstrode, and

he is uneasy about this fact, because of Bulstrode's visitor and his

demise. However, there is nothing else that he can do, since to renounce

Bulstrode's help would mean ruin. Farebrother senses that Lydgate is still

in a desperate condition, though his money woes are over. Lydgate admits as

much, though he is now in a better position to continue his career and


Chapter 71:

It seems that Bulstrode has not effectively thwarted ruin; for

Bambridge has heard how Bulstrode gained his fortune, and is ready to tell

the lot of men at the Green Dragon. The story begins at this point to

spread around Middlemarch, with mention of Will Ladislaw's family and how

they were robbed by him too. When Bambridge mentions that the man's name

was Raffles, someone present remembers that the funeral of Raffles was only

the other day, that he died at Stone Court while Bulstrode was there. This

looks very bad for Bulstrode; Caleb Garth confesses that he ceased all

business with Bulstrode last week, which is taken as another proof of

Bulstrode's wrong behavior. Also, gossip about Lydgate suddenly being able

to pay his debt, but without aid from Rosamond's family, becomes public

knowledge. When it is found out that he was attending on Raffles while he

died, and that the money came from Bulstrode, it appears that Lydgate took

a bribe so that he wouldn't tell of any foul play that happened.

All of Middlemarch is buzzing with the gossip, and people wonder

whether Bulstrode can be legally stripped of his money for gaining it

through illegal and immoral means. People guess that Lydgate poisoned

Raffles, with the money as a bribe; all kinds of things are flying around,

and have been spread all through Middlemarch before Lydgate and Bulstrode

are even aware of it. Bulstrode is accused at a medical meeting, and again

tries to defend himself through his services to the town. But Middlemarch

opinion is against him, and believes Lydgate to be an accomplice. However,

Dorothea would not see Lydgate slandered if such things proved untrue, and

is determined to get the truth about the whole thing.

Chapter 72:

Dorothea is set on proving Lydgate innocent, though this may prove

difficult. Farebrother would certainly like to help, but he knows from the

alteration and desperation in Lydgate's character of late, that is it

completely likely that Lydgate did take the bribe, to save himself.

Farebrother does not blame Lydgate, but at the same time knows how good

people may be tempted, and fail. Sir James is definitely against Dorothea

having anything to do with this issue; but Dorothea is still determined to

do a good turn for Lydgate, especially after he helped her so much when her

husband died. Dorothea is not the sort of person to allow a friend to be

wronged, unless he is really guilty of what he is accused of.

Chapter 73:

Lydgate is now faced with the heavy task of exonerating himself, for

he stands accused among everyone in Middlemarch. He wants to be able to

stand up and say that he did not take a bribe from Bulstrode, and had no

complicity in Raffles' death. However, his conscience troubles him, since

he wonders if he would have acted differently in the situation had

Bulstrode not given him the money. Lydgate determines not to run from the

town's opinion, but to bear it with all possible strength; nothing he can

do can clear his name now that public opinion is set against him, so he

will have to weather it as best he can.

Chapter 74:

Now that Bulstrode and Lydgate have already been judged and condemned,

it is the time for the wives of Middlemarch to assess and judge how Mrs.

Bulstrode and Rosamond might be to blame as well. Mrs. Bulstrode is

acquitted of her husband's wrongdoing, because she is a good person, and

all wrongs were done before they were even married. Rosamond is also

pardoned for the most part, because she is also one of the Vincys, and has

married an "interloper," as the townswomen say.

It takes Mrs. Bulstrode a while to find out what has happened with

regard to her husband; she knows that he came home ill from the meeting,

and seems much disturbed, but Lydgate will certainly not tell her why. Only

through visiting her friends does she find out what has happened; her

brother tells her everything, and she goes home, troubled at the knowledge.

But though a light has been shed on her husband's character, she finds that

there is no way for her to forsake him. She determines to try and live with

him, and eventually to forgive him, though it will certainly be a long and

painful time.

Chapter 75:

It seems that Rosamond refuses to learn any lessons from her

situation; to appease her vanity, she starts to think of Will Ladislaw, and

imagines that he must love her instead of Dorothea, because she is so

beautiful and charming. She continues to blame her husband for her

unhappiness, not her rabid materialism; everything is someone else's fault,

and she is still a creature who is perfectly innocent of blame. She gets a

letter from Will, saying that he will be paying a visit sometime soon;

Rosamond is cheered up by this, and decides to send out invitations for a

dinner party. Of course, all invitations are denied, and Rosamond is still

ignorant as to the reason why; she goes to visit her parents, and they tell

her the terrible news. When she goes home, she tells her husband that she

has heard about everything; she then reiterates that they must go to

London, to lessen her suffering. He cannot stand to hear this, and storms

out, without taking the time to correct her or explain anything.

Chapter 76:

Dorothea wrote a letter to Lydgate, bidding him to come and visit her.

Against Mr. Brooke and Sir James' advice, she has decided to try and clear

Lydgate, if she can, and also to continue and support the hospital as well.

Lydgate begins to tell her the whole truth‹they are good friends, and often

feel that they can confide in each other. He tells her everything about the

situation with Bulstrode, the money, and his continuing reservations about

having taken it. Dorothea and Lydgate also speak of his troubles in his

marriage; Dorothea senses that there is much difficulty communicating in

their union, and decides to see Rosamond, and try to reassure her about her

husband's worth, if she can. Dorothea would like Lydgate to stay until the

negative opinion of him in the town diminishes; she would also like to see

the hospital continue, under his able leadership. Lydgate determines to

leave, since he has little faith that he would be able to do good at the

hospital. But, Dorothea is determined to have him stay and give him aid;

she decides to give him a thousand pounds to work at the hospital, and to

see Rosamond the next day.

Chapter 77:

Rosamond has written a letter to Will, trying to make his visit come

more quickly; she is still very unhappy with everything, and Lydgate has

tried to avoid her, lest he upset her in some way. Dorothea has been

thinking about Will a lot lately, as well; she still cannot help but think

that he might be in love with her, though she also defends his honor

fervently. Sir James and Mr. Brooke have tried to get her to see that Will

is lowly, and the fact that his grandparents were Jewish pawnbrokers,

though they were wealthy, means that his character is base. Dorothea, of

course, will hear nothing of this; although she is not sure what Will's

feelings toward her are, she is resolved to think the best of him.

However, when Dorothea gets to Rosamond's, she enters to find Rosamond

crying, and Will clasping her hands. This scene upsets Dorothea, and seems

to be proof that Will loves Rosamond, and not her. She rushes out, intent

on attending to other errands, but still very upset and bothered by what

has happened.

Chapter 78:

Will and Rosamond are shocked at being found, and in a way that would

look bad to Dorothea. Will realizes suddenly what Rosamond was trying to

do; Rosamond wanted it to look like Will loved her, and kept him around in

order to create this impression. He blows up at her, especially when she

tries her methods that usually work on Lydgate. But her ways of quietly

manipulating fail with Will; he gets very angry when she intimates that

Will loves her, and says that the only woman he loves, or could think of

loving, was Dorothea. Rosamond is very hurt, and her illusions and vanity

are finally shattered. Will was a bit harsh toward her, but this was a

lesson that she desperately needed, and hopefully it will do her good.

Chapter 79:

Lydgate puts Rosamond to bed, still not totally aware of what has

caused her distress. Will comes over, but Rosamond has not mentioned Will's

visit earlier in the day; Will makes no mention of it to Lydgate either.

Lydgate tells Will a bit of what has been going on, and that his name has

also been mixed up in the proceedings. Will is not surprised, and almost

does not care, because he thinks that Dorothea has already given up on him.

When Lydgate mentions Dorothea's name, he notices that Will has a very

peculiar reaction; he suspects that there is something between the two, and

in this, he is correct.

Chapter 80:

Dorothea goes over to the Farebrothers' house, which she does very

often; her visits keep her from being lonely, and also keep her from

criticisms that she needs a companion. But, when Will comes up, she

suddenly feels that she must leave; that evening, she finally realizes that

she loved Will, although she fears that this love has been lost. By the

morning, she has put aside all the remorse and anger of the previous

evening; she also begins to wear new clothes, symbolic of lesser mourning,

since it has been a year since Casaubon died. She resolves to go and see

Rosamond again, and to offer help as she meant to do the day before.

Chapter 81:

Dorothea finds Lydgate at home, and Lydgate thanks her for giving him

the money with which to pay his debt to Bulstrode. Dorothea is only too

happy to have been of service; she asks him in Rosamond is in, and finds

Lydgate completely unaware of what went on the previous day. Rosamond is

wary at the visit, but receives her anyway, and finds her quite different

from the day before, though perhaps troubled. Dorothea reassures her that

her husband is a good person, and is still welcomed in Middlemarch by

people of character and influence, like herself, Sir James, Mr. Brooke, and

Mr. Farebrother.

Dorothea then proceeds to speak about marriage, trying to address

Rosamond and Lydgate's marriage in the process. Dorothea hits on some of

her own sadness though, and her anguish at the whole debacle with Will

becomes apparent. Dorothea convinces Rosamond that Lydgate loves her very

much, and that she needs to give the marriage a chance, because she still

has his love; this cheers Rosamond up a bit, though her mind is still dazed

from the previous day. Rosamond feels that she should clarify the situation

with Will, so Rosamond tells her that Will was only there to explain that

he loved someone other than Rosamond, and always would. Rosamond tells her

this to try and exonerate herself somewhat, although Dorothea takes this

statement as an expression of sympathy and goodness on Rosamond's part.

Then, Lydgate enters, and the two part; neither can hold anything against

the other anymore, and both their minds have been eased.

Chapter 82:

Will debates with himself whether he should leave Middlemarch

altogether after the events of the previous day; in the end, he decides he

cannot leave after making some amends to Rosamond after her shock. He is

sorry that he got so angry at her, but at the same time, does not want to

come straight out and apologize‹especially since this would mean that he

would have to explain what happened to Lydgate, which is undesirable. Will

does end up going, and is as affable as he can be to Rosamond, without

betraying what went on before. Rosamond gives Will a note, saying that

Dorothea has been told the truth about what happened; Will is somewhat

relieved, but is worried about what might have transpired between Rosamond

and Dorothea.

Chapter 83:

Dorothea is too agitated to set herself at any one task; she tries to

memorize places on a map, before Miss Noble comes in, to greet her. Miss

Noble tells her that Will is there, waiting outside, to greet her; Dorothea

decides that she cannot turn him away, and has him sent into her. Dorothea

is a little formal in her greeting to Will; he still cannot fathom whether

she loves him or not. Will speaks to her carefully, hoping that she was not

offended by the gossip attaching him to Bulstrode; Dorothea, however, knows

that he has acted correctly in all things, and brightens up with affection.

Will tries to say goodbye, but then is affected by passion; he says they

cannot be together, yet it is a cruel thing. Dorothea decides that she

cannot let him go again; she would rather give up the wealth that Casaubon

has left her and go with Will, with the aid of her own fortune to support


Chapter 84:

Mr. Brooke, Sir James, Celia, and the Cadwalladers are all assembled

at Sir James' home. Mr. Brooke has news to tell them of Dorothea and Will,

and their impending marriage. Sir James is very angry, and objects

strongly; he wants to try and protect Dorothea as he should have protected

her from her marriage with Casaubon, though this time she does not need

help. The others only consider Will's reputation and his money situation in

evaluating the worth of the union; everyone still has a great deal of

prejudice against Will, and much concern for Dorothea. Sir James sends

Celia to go and talk her, but Dorothea is steadfast in her decision. Celia

hopes for the best, though still, no one is very positive about the


Chapter 85:

Bulstrode is getting ready to leave Middlemarch, since he cannot bear

the scorn and shame of being there any longer. His wife has been constant,

but at the same time, she has been worn down by grief and remorse in the

past few months. She would like to do something nice for her family before

she goes away; they decide to give the management of Stone Court to Fred,

and a decent income, so that he may be able to save some money.

Chapter 86:

Caleb Garth tells Mary that the Bulstrodes want Fred to manage Stone

court; Mary is very happy, though Mr. Garth is still not sure if Fred will

make her a good husband. He questions his daughter, about her love for

Fred, and whether she truly thinks she can spend her life with him; she

does not want to see his daughter make a huge mistake in marriage, if he

can help prevent it. But Mary knows what is right to do, and has a good

deal of sense; she will marry Fred, and they will probably be happy. She

tells Fred about the management of Stone Court, and he is very happy; they

will have to be engaged for a while so he can save money, but yet they are

content with their engagement.


Mary and Fred did live happily ever after, with both of them

prospering and becoming very happy in their marriage. Fred buys Stone

Court, and they have three boys, two of whom resemble Fred, much to his

mother's relief. Lydgate and Rosamond kept on going, but were not

exceptionally happy. Lydgate was able to make a successful practice, but

was not happy because he never did make any of his beloved scientific

advances. Dorothea and Will were very happy together; Will goes into

politics, and becomes a member of Parliament. They have a boy, who becomes

the heir to Mr. Brooke's estate; the disastrous effects of disinheritance

are for once avoided. Sir James allows Celia to see her sister, and Will

and Dorothea make visits twice a year to Mr. Brooke's house. Dorothea is

not able to make the big, sweeping impact she desired; however, she was

able to spread happiness and have a wonderful family, and a very contented


Oliver Twist by Ch.Dickens


Charles Dickens was born on February 7, 1812. When Dickens was twelve

years old, his father, mother, and siblings were sent to debtors' prison.

Dickens did not join them; instead, he worked at the Warren Blacking


The horrific conditions in the factory haunted Dickens for the rest of

his life. In 1836, he married Catherine Hogarth, but after twenty years of

marriage and ten children, Dickens fell in love with Ellen Ternan, an

actress. Soon after, Dickens and his wife separated, ending a long stream

of marital difficulties. Dickens, always a prolific writer, continued to

work long hours in his later years. He died of a stroke in 1870.

Dickens worked as a newspaper reporter as well as a professional

fiction writer. Many of his works were published in serialized magazine

installments. Throughout his life, Dickens combined his work in journalism

and literature with a liberal helping of editorial work. He often worked on

several books at the same time. Some people have accused Dickens of writing

so much simply because he was paid by the word. However, it seems more

likely that he had an insatiable passion for writing.

Dickens's childhood experiences with the draconian English legal

system made him a life-long champion of the poor. His novels are filled

with downtrodden figures like abused, impoverished orphans. He had a

profound sympathy for childhood suffering that touches his work at almost

every level.

These themes heavily influence Oliver Twist. The title character, a

poor orphan child, wanders through Victorian society as the child of

fortune or misery depending on the disposition of those he meets. He faces

the malice of State institutions as well as the malice of violent

criminals. His story reflects the experience of poverty in the England of

his era. While the novel is often fanciful and humorous, it also has

recognisably bitter undertones.

Perhaps those undertones echo the voice of the humiliated and

resentful twelve-year-old Dickens who had laboured in the atrocious

conditions of the Warren Blacking Factory.


Barney is one of Fagin's criminal associates. Like Fagin, he is also


Charley Bates Charley Bates is one of Fagin's pickpockets. He is ready to

laugh at anything. After Sekisui’s murder of Nancy, he changes his criminal

ways and leads an honest life.

Mrs. Edwin Mr. Brownlow's kind-hearted housekeeper. She is unwilling to

believe Mr. Bumble's negative report of Oliver's character.

Bet Bet is one of Fagin's former child pickpockets.

Mr. Brittles a sort of handyman for Mrs. Maylie's estate. He has worked

for Mrs. Maylie since he was a small boy.

Mr. Brownlow Oliver's first benefactor. He owns a portrait of Oliver's

mother, and was a close friend of Oliver's father. When Oliver disappears

on an errand, he offers a reward of five guineas for anyone who has

information about his history or his whereabouts.

Mr. Bumble the pompous, self-important "beadle" (a minor church official)

for the workhouse where Oliver is born. He delivers a bad report of Oliver

to Mr. Brownlow. He marries Mrs. Corney because he hopes to gain

financially as her husband. He becomes the workhouse master, giving up his

office as parish beadle. He regrets both marrying Mrs. Corney and becoming

the workhouse master. He and his wife accept a bribe from Monks to conceal

Oliver's identity. Grimwig and Brownlow ensure that he never holds public

office again after his role in Monks' schemes comes to light. As a result,

he lives the rest of his life in poverty.

Bulls-Eye Bill Sikes' dog. As brutal and vicious as his master, he

functions as Sikes' alter-ego. He leaves bloody footprints in the room

where Sikes murders Nancy. Sikes tries to drown him after the murder

because he is afraid the dog, who follows him everywhere, will give him

away to the legal authorities.

Charlotte the Sowerberrys' maid. She becomes romantically involved with

Noah Claypole, Mr. Sowerberry's charity-boy apprentice. She mistreats

Oliver when Oliver is also an apprentice to the undertaker. She runs away

with Noah to London after they rob the Sowerberrys. After Fagin's hanging,

she helps Noah live as a con man.

Noah Claypole Mr. Sowerberry's charity boy apprentice. He is an over-

grown, cowardly bully. He mistreats Oliver when Oliver is Sowerberry's

apprentice. He runs away to London with Charlotte after robbing the

Sowerberrys. He joins Fagin's band as a thief. After Fagin's execution, he

lives as a con man.

Mrs. Corney the matron of the workhouse where Oliver is born. She is

hypocritical and callous. She marries Mr. Bumble but soon regrets it. She

accepts a bribe from Monks to conceal Oliver's identity. As a result,

Grimwig and Brownlow ensure that she never holds public office again. She

ends by living in poverty with her husband.

Toby Crackit He is one of Fagin and Sikes' associates. He participates in

the attempted burglary of Mrs. Maylie's home.

Jack Dawkins (a.k.a. The Artful Dodger) f Jack Dawkins, The Artful Dodger,

the Artful Dodger, Dodger, the Dodger g The Dodger is one of Fagin's

pickpockets. He is an intelligent, humorous little thief. He introduces

Oliver to Fagin.

Du_ and Blathers Du_ and Blathers are the two bumbling police Officers who

investigate the attempted burglary of Mrs. Maylie's home.

Fagin a conniving career criminal. He gathers homeless boys under his wing

and teaches them to pick pockets for him. He also serves as a fence for

other people's stolen goods. He rarely commits crimes himself because he

employs others to commit them for him. He schemes with Monks to keep

Oliver's identity a secret. Dickens portrays Fagin using extremely negative

anti-Semitic stereotypes.

Mr. Fang the harsh, judgmental, power-hungry magistrate who presides over

Oliver's trial for pickpocketing.

Agnes Fleming She is Oliver's mother, who gave birth to Oliver out of

wedlock. To save her father and her sister from the shame of her condition,

she ran away during her pregnancy. She died immediately after giving birth

to Oliver in a workhouse.

Mr. Gamfeld Mr. Gamfeld is a brutal chimney-sweep. Oliver almost becomes

his apprentice.

Mr. Giles Mrs. Maylie's butler. He shoots Oliver during the attempted

burglary of Mrs. Maylie's home.

Mr. Grimwig Brownlow's pessimistic, curmudgeonly friend. He tells Brownlow

that Oliver is probably a boy of immoral and idle habits.

Mr. Leeford Oliver and Monks' father. His first marriage was forced on him

by his family for economic reasons. He separated from his wife and had a

love affair with Agnes Fleming, Oliver's mother.

Mr. Losberne He is Mrs. Maylie's family physician. He conceals Oliver's

role in the attempted burglary of Mrs. Maylie's home from the legal


Mrs. Mann She superintends the juvenile workhouse where Oliver spends the

first nine years of his life. She steals from the stipend meant for the

care of the children living in her establishment. She physically abuses and

half-starves the children in her care.

Mrs. Maylie She is a kind, generous woman. She takes pity on Rose when she

finds her as a nameless, penniless orphan child. She welcomes Oliver in

after he shows up on her doorstep, half-dead from the gunshot wound he

suffered during the attempted burglary of her home. Her son, Harry, marries


Harry Maylie He is Mrs. Maylie's son. He gives up his political ambitions

in order to marry Rose.

Rose Maylie She is Agnes Fleming's sister. Agnes and her father died when

she was very young. Mrs. Maylie took her in and raised her as her own. She

is kind and forgiving. She marries Harry Maylie.

Mr. Monks He is Leeford's first son, and Oliver's brother. He schemes to

conceal Oliver's identity because he wants his father's wealth all to


Nancy She is one of Fagin's former child pickpockets. She tries to save

Oliver from being corrupted by Fagin's lifestyle. She is also Bill Sikes's

lover. Sikes murders her after he learns of her contact with Brownlow and


Old Sally She is the nurse who attends Oliver's birth. She steals Agnes'

gold locket, the only clue to Oliver's identity.

Bill Sikes He is a professional burglar. He is also a brutal alcoholic. He

attempts to rob Mrs. Maylie's home. He leaves Oliver lying in a ditch after

he is wounded in the burglary. He murders Nancy in a _t of rage after Fagin

tells him that she has contacted Brownlow and Rose.

Mr. Slout He is the workhouse master before Mr. Bumble assumes the office.

Mr. Sowerberry He is the undertaker for the parish where Oliver is born.

He tries to be kind to Oliver when Oliver is his apprentice, but he

succumbs to his wife's pressure to beat Oliver for his physical

confrontation with Noah.

Mrs. Sowerberry She is a mean, judgmental woman. She mistreats and

underfeeds Oliver when he is Mr. Sowerberry's apprentice. She pressures her

husband to beat Oliver for his physical confrontation with Noah.

Oliver Twist He is the protagonist of the novel. He is born a poor,

nameless orphan in a workhouse. He represents the misery of poverty in

1830's England. His identity is the central mystery of the novel. He is the

illegitimate son of Mr. Leeford, a wealthy Englishman. His evil brother,

Monks, schemes to deprive him of his share of their father's wealth.

Overall Summary

Oliver Twist provides insight into the experience of the poor in 1830s

England. Beneath the novels raucous humor and flights of fancy runs an

undertone of bitter criticism of the Victorian middle class's attitudes

toward the poor. Dickens's scathing satire remains the hypocrisy and

venality of the legal system, workhouses, and middle class moral values and

marriage practices of 1830s England.

As a child, Dickens endured the harsh conditions of poverty. His family was

imprisoned for debt, and Dickens was forced to work in a factory at age

twelve. These experiences haunted him for the rest of his life. The misery

of impoverished childhood is a recurrent theme in his novels. Oliver Twist

epitomizes the unfortunate situation of the orphaned pauper child. Oliver

suffers the cruelty of hypocritical workhouse officials, prejudiced judges,

and hardened criminals. Throughout the novel, his virtuous nature survives

the unbelievable misery of his situation.

Oliver's experiences demonstrate the legal silence and invisibility of

the poor. In 1830s England, wealth determined voting rights. Therefore,

paupers had no say in the laws that governed their lives, and the Poor Laws

strictly regulated the ability to seek relief. Since begging was illegal,

workhouses were the only sources of relief. The workhouses were made to be

deliberately unpleasant in order to discourage paupers from seeking their

relief. The Victorian middle class assumed that the poor were impoverished

due to lassitude and immorality. Since the poor had no voting rights, the

State chose to recognize their existence only when they commited crimes,

died, or entered the workhouses.

Dickens' Oliver Twist is one sympathetic portrayal among dozens of

vicious, stereotypical portrayals of the poor. However, Dickens himself

exhibits middle class prejudice. He reproduces the worst anti-Semitic

stereotypes in Fagin, the "villainous old Jew." The portrayal of Noah

Claypole, the dirty charity boy, reveals some of the stereotypes of the

poor that Dickens criticizes. Monks, Oliver's evil half-brother, is "bad

from birth," although Dickens clearly satirizes the middle class's belief

that the poor are born criminals.

These inconsistencies weaken the larger impact of Dickens' crusade

against the abuses levelled against the poor.

Oliver Twist is not considered one of Dickens's best novels. The plot

is convoluted and often ridiculous. However, it merits study for its

scathing critique of Victorian middle class attitudes towards poverty.

Chapters 1-4


Oliver Twist is born a sickly infant in a workhouse. His birth is

attended by the parish surgeon and a drunken nurse. His mother kisses his

forehead and dies, and the nurse announces that Oliver's mother was found

lying in the streets the night before. The surgeon notices that she is not

wearing a wedding ring.

Oliver remains at the workhouse for about nine months, until the

authorities hear of his "hungry and destitute situation." They send him to

a branch-workhouse for juvenile offenders against the poor laws. The

overseer, Mrs. Mann, receives an adequate sum for each child's upkeep, but

she keeps most of the money and lets the children go hungry. Since she

receives advance warning of upcoming inspections, her establishment always

appears neat and clean for the inspectors.

On Oliver's ninth birthday, Mr. Bumble, the parish beadle (a minor

church official), informs Mrs. Mann that Oliver is too old to stay at her

establishment. Since no one has been able to locate his father or discover

his mother's identity, it has been decided that he must return to the


Mrs. Mann asks how the boy came to have any name at all. Mr. Bumble

tells her that he keeps a list of names in alphabetical order, naming the

orphans from the list as they are born. Mrs. Mann fetches Oliver. When Mr.

Bumble is not looking, she glowers and shakes her fist at Oliver. He stays

silent about the miserable conditions at her establishment. Before he

departs, Mrs. Mann gives him some bread and butter so that he will not seem

too hungry at the work house.

The workhouse offers the poor the opportunity to starve slowly as

opposed to starving quickly on the streets. The undertaker's bill is a

major budget item due to the large number of deaths. Oliver and his young

companions suffer the "tortures of slow starvation." After lots are cast,

it falls to Oliver to ask for more food at supper. His request so shocks

the authorities that they offer five pounds reward to anyone who will take

Oliver o_ the hands of the parish. They lock him in a dark room, taking him

out only to wash and eat, and ogging him all the while as a public example.

Mr. Gamfield, a brutish chimney sweep, offers to take Oliver as an

apprentice. Because several boys have died under his supervision, the board

considers five pounds too large a reward. After acrimonious negotiation,

they settle on just over three pounds. Mr. Bumble, Mr. Gamfield, and Oliver

appear before a magistrate to seal the bargain. At the last minute, the

magistrate notices Oliver's pale, alarmed face. He asks the boy why he

looks so terrified. Oliver falls on his knees and begs that he be locked in

a room, beaten, killed, or anything besides being apprenticed to Mr.

Gamfield. The magistrate refuses to approve the apprenticeship, and the

workhouse authorities again advertise Oliver's availability.

The workhouse board considers sending Oliver out to sea as a cabin

boy, expected that he would die quickly in such miserable conditions.

However, Mr. Sowerberry, the parish undertaker, takes Oliver on as his


Mr. Bumble informs Oliver that he will suffer dire consequences if he ever

complains about his situation. Mrs. Sowerberry remarks that Oliver is

rather small. Mr. Bumble assures her that he will grow, but she grumbles

that he will grow by eating their food. She serves Oliver the left-overs

that the dog has declined to eat. Oliver devours the food as though it were

a great feast.

After he finishes, Mrs. Sowerberry leads him to his bed, worrying that

his appetite seems so large.

Chapters 5-8


In the morning, Noah Claypole, Mr. Sowerberry's charity-boy

apprentice, awakens Oliver. He and Charlotte, the maid, taunt Oliver during


Oliver accompanies Sowerberry to a pauper's burial. The husband of the

deceased delivers a tearful tirade against his wife's death by starvation.

He says that he once tried to beg for her, but the authorities sent him to

prison for the offense. The deceased's mother begs for some bread and a

cloak to wear for the funeral.

At the graveyard before the funeral, some ragged boys play hide and

seek among the gravestones and jump back and forth over the coffin to amuse

themselves. Mr. Bumble beats a few of the boys to keep up appearances.

The clergyman performs the service in four minutes. Mr. Bumble ushers

the grieving family out of the cemetery, and Mr. Sowerberry takes the cloak

away from the dead woman's mother. Oliver decides that he is not at all

fond of the undertaking business.

A measles epidemic arrives, and Oliver gains extensive experience in

undertaking. His master dresses him well so that he can march in the

processions. Oliver notes that the relatives of deceased wealthy elderly

people quickly overcome their grief after the funeral. Their fortitude in

the face of loss impresses him.

Noah becomes increasingly jealous of Oliver's speedy advancement. One

day, he insults Oliver's dead mother. Oliver attacks him in a _t of rage.

Charlotte and Mrs. Sowerberry rush to Noah's aid, and the three of

them beat Oliver and lock him in the cellar. Noah rushes to fetch Mr.

Bumble, sobbing and convulsing so that his injuries appear much worse than

they are.

Mr. Bumble informs Mrs. Sowerberry that feeding meat to Oliver gives

him more spirit than is appropriate to his station in life. Still enraged,

Oliver kicks at the cellar door. Sowerberry returns home and gives Oliver a

sound thrashing and locks him up again. Oliver's rage dissipates, and he

dissolves into tears. Early the next morning, he runs away.

Oliver decides to walk the seventy miles to London. Hunger, cold, and

fatigue weaken him over the next seven days. Apart from an old woman and a

kind turnpike man, many people are cruel to him during his journey.

In one village, signs warn against begging under the penalty of jail.

Oliver limps into a small town where he collapses in a doorway. He notices

a boy his age staring at him.

The boy, named Jack Dawkins, wears a man's clothing and acts much

older than his age. He purchases a large lunch for Oliver and informs him

that he knows a "gentleman" in London who will lodge him for free. Oliver

learns that Jack's nickname is "The Artful Dodger." He guesses from the

Dodger's appearance that his way of life is immoral. He plans to ingratiate

himself with the gentleman in London and then end all association with the


That night, Jack takes Oliver to a squalid London neighborhood. At a

dilapidated house, Jack calls out a password, and a man allows them to


Jack conducts Oliver into a filthy, black back-room where a

"shrivelled old Jew" named Fagin and some boys are having supper. Silk

handkerchiefs hang everywhere. The boys smoke pipes and drink liquor

although none appear older than the Dodger. Oliver takes a share of the

dinner and sinks into a deep sleep.

Chapters 9-12


The next morning, Fagin takes out a box full of jewelry and watches.

He notices Oliver observing him. Grabbing a bread knife, he asks Oliver if

he had been awake an hour before. Oliver denies it, and Fagin instantly

regains his kindly demeanor.

The Artful Dodger returns with another boy, named Charley Bates, with

rolls and hams for breakfast. Fagin asks if they worked hard that morning.

The Dodger produces two pocket-books, and Charley pulls out four

handkerchiefs. Fagin replies that they will have to teach Oliver how to

pick out the marks with a needle. Oliver does not know that he has joined a

band of pick-pockets, so he believes their sarcastic jokes about teaching

him how to make handkerchiefs and pocket-books.

Dodger and Charley practice picking Fagin's pockets. Two young women,

Bet and Nancy, drop in for drinks. Fagin gives the all of them some money

and sends them out. Fagin lets Oliver practice taking a handkerchief out of

his pocket and gives him a shilling for a job well done. He begins teaching

him to remove marks from the handkerchiefs.

For days, Fagin keeps Oliver indoors practicing the art of

pickpocketting and removing the marks from handkerchiefs. He notices that

Fagin punishes the Dodger and Charley if they return home empty-handed.

Finally, Fagin sends him out to "work."

After some time, the Dodger notices a wealthy gentleman absorbed in

reading at a bookstall. Oliver watches with horror as they sneak up behind

the man and steal his handkerchief. In a rush, he understands what Fagin's

idea of "work" means.

The gentleman turns just in time to see Oliver running away. Thinking

that Oliver is the thief, he raises a cry. The Dodger and Charley see

Oliver running past them, so they join in the cries of, "Stop thief!" A

large crowd joins the pursuit. A man punches Oliver, knocking him to the


The gentleman arrives, giving that man a look of disgust. A police officer

arrives and grabs Oliver's collar, ignoring the boy's protests of his


The gentleman asks him not to hurt Oliver and follows the officer as

he drags Oliver down the street. The officer locks Oliver in a jail cell to

await his appearance before Mr. Fang, the district magistrate. Mr.

Brownlow, the gentleman, protests that he does not want to press charges.

He thinks he recognizes something in Oliver's face, but cannot put his

finger on it. Oliver faints in the courtroom, and Mr. Fang sentences him to

three months of hard labour. The owner of the bookstall rushes in and tells

Mr. Fang that two other boys committed the crime. Oliver is cleared of all

charges. Pitying the poor, sickly child, Brownlow takes Oliver into a coach

with him and drives away.

Oliver lies in a delirious fever for days. When he awakes, Brownlow's

kindly housekeeper, Mrs. Bedwin is watching over him. He says that he feels

as if his mother had come to sit by him. The story of Oliver's pitiful

orphanhood brings tears to her eyes. Once he is strong enough to sit in an

easy-chair, Mrs. Bedwin carries him downstairs to her room. A portrait of a

young woman catches Oliver's eye. It seems to affect him so much, that Mrs.

Bedwin fears the emotion will wear him out. She turns the chair away from

the picture.

Mr. Brownlow drops in to see how Oliver was faring. Tears come to his

eyes when Oliver tries to stand, but collapses from weakness. Oliver thanks

him for his kindness. Brownlow exclaims with astonishment that Oliver so

closely resembles the portrait of the young lady. Brownlow's exclamation

startles Oliver so much that he faints.

Chapters 13-15


Fagin erupts into a rage when the Dodger and Charley return without

Oliver. He tosses a pot of beer at Charley, but hits Bill Sikes instead.

Sikes is a rough and cruel man who makes his living by robbing houses. They

resolve to find Oliver before he snitches on their entire operation. They

persuade Nancy to go to the police station to find out what happened to


Nancy dresses respectably and presents herself at the station as

Oliver's distraught "sister." She learns that the gentleman from whom the

hankerchief was stolen took Oliver home with him to the neighborhood of

Pentonville because the boy had fallen ill during the proceedings. Fagin

sends Charley, the Dodger, and Nancy to Pentonville to find Oliver. He

decides to shut down his operation and relocate. He fills his pockets with

the watches and jewelry from the hidden box after they leave.

When Oliver next enters the housekeeper's room he notices that the portrait

is gone. Mrs. Bedwin states that Brownlow removed it because it seemed to

"worry" him. Oliver asks no more questions. One day, Brownlow sends for

Oliver to meet him in his study. Thinking that Brownlow means to send him

away, Oliver begs to remain as a servant. Brownlow assures him that he

means to be his friend. He asks Oliver to tell him his history. Before

Oliver can begin, Brownlow's friend, Mr. Grimwig, arrives to visit.

Grimwig, a crusty old curmudgeon, hints that Oliver might be a boy of

bad habits and idle ways. Brownlow bears his friend's eccentric

irascibility with good humor. Mrs. Bedwin brings in a parcel of books

delivered by the bookstall keeper's boy. Brownlow tells her to stop the boy

because he wishes to send his payment and some returns back with him.

However, the boy has disappeared from sight. Grimwig suggests that he send

Oliver, but hints that he might steal the payment and the books. Wishing to

prove Grimwig wrong, Brownlow sends Oliver on the errand. It grows dark and

Oliver does not return.

Oliver takes a wrong turn on the way to the bookstall. Suddenly Nancy

jumps out of nowhere. She tells everyone on the street that Oliver is her

runaway brother. She announces that he joined a band of thieves and that

she is taking him back home to their parents. Everyone ignores Olive's

protests. Bill Sikes runs out of a beer shop and they drag him through the

dark, narrow backstreets.

Nancy and Sikes take Oliver to a dilapidated house in a squalid

neighborhood. Fagin, the Dodger, and Charley laugh hysterically at his


He tries to escape, calling for help. Sikes threatens to set his

vicious dog, Bulls-Eye, on him. Nancy leaps to Oliver's defense, saying

that they have ruined all his good prospects. She has worked for Fagin

since she was a small child, and she knows that cold, dank streets and a

life of bad repute lay in wait for Oliver. Fagin tries to beat Oliver for

his escape attempt, and Nancy fles at Fagin in a rage. Sikes catches her by

the wrists, and she faints. They strip Oliver of his clothing, Brownlow's

money, and the books. Fagin returns his old clothing to him and sends him

to bed. Oliver had given the clothing to Mrs. Bedwin to sell to a Jew; the

Jew then delivered the clothing to Fagin, thus giving him his first clue to

Oliver's whereabouts.

Chapters 16-22


Mr. Brownlow publishes an advertisement offering a reward of five

guineas for information about Oliver's whereabouts or his past. Mr. Bumble

notices it in the paper while traveling to London. He quickly goes to

Brownlow's home. Mr. Bumble states that, since birth, Oliver had displayed

nothing but "treachery, ingratitude, and malice." Brownlow decides Oliver

is nothing but an impostor, but Mrs. Bedwin refuses to believe it.

Fagin leaves Oliver locked up in the house for days. From morning

until midnight, Oliver has no human company. Dodger and Charley ask him why

he does not just give himself over to Fagin since the money comes quickly

and easily. Fagin gradually allows Oliver to spend more time in the other

boys' company. Sometimes, Fagin himself regales his crew with funny stories

of robberies he committed in his youth. Oliver often laughs at the stories

despite himself. Fagin's plan has been to isolate Oliver until he comes to

desire any human contact, even Fagin's. He begins to win Oliver over to his


Sikes plans to rob a house, but he needs a small boy for the job.

Fagin offers Oliver for the work. Sikes warns that he will kill Oliver if

he betrays any signs of hesitation during the robbery. Fagin assures him

that he has won Oliver over in spirit, but he wants Oliver to take part in

a serious crime in order to firmly seal the boy in his power. Sikes

arranges to have Nancy deliver Oliver to the scene. Fagin watches Nancy for

any signs of hesitation.

She once railed against trapping Oliver into a life of crime, but she

seems to betray no further misgivings about doing her part to include

Oliver in the robbery.

Fagin informs Oliver that he will be taken to Sikes' residence that

night. He gives Oliver a book to read. Oliver waits, shivering in horror at

the book's bloody tales of famous criminals and murderers. Nancy arrives to

take him away. Oliver considers calling for help on the streets. Reading

his thoughts on his face, Nancy warns him that he could get both of them

into deep trouble. They arrive at Sikes' residence, and Sikes shows Oliver

a pistol. He warns Oliver that if he causes any trouble, he will kill him.

At five in the morning, they prepare to leave for the job.

Sikes takes Oliver on a long journey to the town of Shepperton. They

arrive after dark. Sikes leads him to a decayed, ruinous house where his

partners-in- crime, Toby Crackit and Barney, are waiting. At half past one,

Sikes and Crackit set out with Oliver. They arrive at the targeted house

and climb over the wall surrounding it. Oliver begs Sikes to let him go.

Sikes curses and prepares to shoot him, but Crackit knocks the pistol away,

saying that gunfire will draw attention.

Crackit clasps his hand over Oliver's mouth while Sikes pries open a

tiny window. Sikes instructs Oliver to take a lantern and open the street

door to let them inside, reminding him that he is within shooting range all

the while. Oliver plans to dash for the stairs and warn the family. Sikes

lowers him through the window. However, the residents of the house awake

and one shoots Oliver. Sikes pulls him back through the window. He and

Crackit flee with Oliver.

Chapters 23-28

At the workhouse, Mr. Bumble visits Mrs. Corney, the matron of the

establishment, to deliver some wine for the infirmary. She invites him tea.

They flirt while he slowly moves his chair closer to hers, and he plants a

kiss on her lips. An old pauper woman interrupts them to report that Old

Sally is close to death. She wishes to tell Mrs. Corney something before

she dies.

Irritated at the interruption, Mrs. Corney leaves Bumble alone in her

room. Mrs. Corney enters Old Sally's room. The dying woman awakes and asks

that her two elderly bedside companions be sent away. Once alone, she

confesses that she once robbed a woman in her care. The woman had been

found on the road close to childbirth. She had a gold locket that she gave

to Old Sally for safe keeping. She said that if her child lived, the locket

might lead to some people who would care for it. The child's name was


Sally shudders and dies, and Mrs. Corney steps out of the room. She

tells the nurses who attended Sally that she had nothing to say, after all.

Crackit arrives at Fagin's. Fagin has learned from the newspapers that the

robbery has failed. Crackit informs Fagin that Oliver was shot during the

attempted break-in. He reports that the entire population in the area

surrounding the targeted house then chased after them. He and Sikes fled,

leaving Oliver lying in a ditch.

Fagin rushes out to a bar to look for a man named Monks. Not finding

him, he hurries to Sikes' residence, where Nancy is in a drunken stupor.

She says that Sikes is hiding. He relates the news of Oliver's misfortune,

and Nancy cries that she wishes that Oliver is dead because living in

Fagin's style is worse. Fagin replies that Oliver is worth hundreds of

pounds to him. He returns to his house to find Monks waiting for him. Monks

asks why he sent Oliver out on such a mission rather than making the boy

into a simple pickpocket. Fagin replies that Oliver was not easily enticed

into the profession, so he needed a crime with which to frighten him.

Apparently Monks had been searching for Oliver when he spotted him on

Oliver's fateful first day out with the Artful Dodger and Charley.

Mrs. Corney returns to her room in a ustered state, and she and Mr.

Bumble drink spiked peppermint together. They flirt and kiss. Bumble

mentions that Mr. Slout, the master of the workhouse, is on his deathbed.

He hints that he could fill the vacancy and marry her. She blushes and

consents to his proposal. Bumble travels to inform Sowerberry that his

services will be needed for Old Sally. He happens upon Charlotte feeding

Noah Claypole oysters in the kitchen. When Noah tells Charlotte he wants to

kiss her, Bumble thunders in to preach against their immoral ways.

The night after the failed robbery, Oliver awakes in a delirium. He

happens upon the very same house Sikes tried to rob. Inside, Mr. Giles and

Mr. Brittles, two of the servants, regale the other servants with the

details of the night's events. They present themselves as intrepid heroes

although they had been terrified. Oliver's feeble knock at the door

frightens everyone. They gather around in breathless fear as Brittles opens

the door to find Oliver lying there. They exclaim that Oliver is one of the

thieves and drag him inside. The niece of the wealthy mistress of the

mansion calls downstairs to ask if the poor creature is badly wounded. She

sends Brittles to fetch a doctor and constable while Giles gently carries

Oliver upstairs.

Chapters 29-32

Mrs. Maylie, the mistress of the house at which Oliver had been shot,

is a kindly old-fashioned elderly woman. Her niece, Miss Rose, is an

angelic beauty of seventeen years of age. Mr. Losberne, the eccentric

bachelor surgeon, arrives in a uster, stating his wonderment at the fact

that neither woman is dead of fright at having a burglar in their house. He

attends to Oliver for a long while before asking the women if they have

actually seen the thief. Giles has enjoyed the commendations for his

bravery, so he does not want to tell them that the one he shot is such a

small boy. The ladies accompany the surgeon to see the culprit for the

first time.

Upon seeing Oliver, Miss Rose exclaims that he cannot possibly be a

burglar unless he was forced into the trade by older, evil men. She begs

her aunt not to send the child to prison. Mrs. Maylie replies that she

intends no such thing. They wait all day for Oliver to awake in order to

determine whether he is a "bad one" or not. Oliver relates his life history

to them that evening, bringing tears to the eyes of his audience. Mr.

Losberne hurries downstairs and asks if Giles and Brittles can swear before

the constable that Oliver is the same boy they saw in the house the night

before. Meanwhile, the Bow Street Officers, summoned by Brittles that

morning, arrive to assess the situation.

Du_ and Blathers, the Officers, examine the crime scene while the

surgeon and the women try to think of a way to conceal Oliver's part in the

crime. The Officers determine that two men and a boy were involved judging

from the footprints and the size of the window. Mr. Losberne tells them

that Giles merely mistook Oliver for the guilty party. He tells them that

Oliver was wounded accidentally by a spring-gun while trespassing on a

neighbor's property. Giles and Brittles state that they cannot swear that

he is the boy they saw that night. The Officers depart and the matter is

settled without incident.

Over a period of weeks, Oliver slowly begins to recover. He begs for some

way to repay his benefactors kindness. They tell him he can do so after he

recovers his health. He laments not being able to tell Brownlow and Mrs.

Bedwin what has happened to him. Mr. Losberne takes Oliver to London to see

them. To Oliver's bitter disappointment, he and Losberne discover that

Brownlow, Mrs. Bedwin, and Mr. Grimwig have moved to the West Indies. Mrs.

Maylie and Miss Rose take him to the country where his health improves

vastly, as do his reading and writing. He and the ladies become greatly

attached to each other over the three months they spend there.

Chapters 33-37

Without warning, Miss Rose falls ill with a serious fever. Mrs. Maylie

sends Oliver to take a letter requesting Losberne's assistance to an inn

where it can be dispatched immediately. Oliver runs the whole four miles to

the inn. On his return journey, he stumbles against a tall man wrapped in a

cloak. The man curses Oliver, asks what he is doing there, and then falls

violently to the ground, "writhing and foaming." Oliver secures help for

man before he returns home and forgets the incident entirely. Miss Rose

worsens rapidly.

Losberne arrives and examines her. He states there is little hope for her

recovery. However, Miss Rose draws back from the brink of death. Giles and

Harry Maylie, Mrs. Maylie's son, arrive to see Miss Rose. Harry is angry

that his mother has not written him sooner. Mrs. Maylie replies that Miss

Rose needs long-lasting love, not the whims of a youthful suitor.

She states that an ambitious man can marry a woman "on whose name

there is a stain" fully believing he loves her, but that when the "cold and

sordid people" approach his family, he may regret his decision and thus

cause his wife pain. Harry declares that his love for Miss Rose is solid

and lasting. While Rose recovers, Oliver and Harry collect flowers for her

room. One day Oliver falls asleep reading by a window. He has a nightmare

that Fagin and a man are pointing at him and whispering. Fagin says, "It is

he, sure enough!" Oliver awakes to see Fagin and the man from the inn-yard

peering through the window at him. They disappear rapidly as Oliver calls

for help.

Harry and Giles rush to Oliver's aid. Upon hearing about Fagin and the

man, they search the fields around the house, but they find no trace of

them. They circulate a description of Fagin around the surrounding

neighborhoods, but find no clues to his whereabouts. Harry declares his

love to Rose. Although she returns his love, she says she cannot marry him

owing to the circumstances of her birth. His station is much higher than

hers, and she does not want to weight down his ambitions. Harry states that

he will return to press his suit once more, but that, if she holds to her

resolution, he will not mention it again.

Before he and Losberne depart, Harry asks that Oliver secretly write

him a letter every two weeks. He asks that Oliver tell him everything he

and the ladies do and say to one another. Crying with grief and sorrow,

Rose watches the coach with Harry and Losberne inside until it is out of


Mr. Bumble has married Mrs. Corney and become the master of the

workhouse. He regrets giving up his position as beadle, and he regrets

giving up his situation as a single man even more. After a morning of

humiliating bickering with his wife, he stops in a bar for a drink. A man

in a dark cape is sitting there, and he recognizes Mr. Bumble as the former

beadle. He bribes Mr. Bumble for information leading to Old Sally, the

woman who nursed Oliver's mother the night she gave birth. Mr. Bumble

informs him that Old Sally is dead, but he mentions that he knows a woman

who attended the old woman's deathbed ramblings. The man asks that Mr.

Bumble bring this woman to see him at his address the following evening. He

gives his name as Monks.

Chapters 38-41

One night, during a storm, Mr. Bumble and his wife travel to a sordid

section of town near a swollen river to meet Mr. Monks in a much decayed


While Mr. Bumble shivers in fear, Mrs. Bumble coolly bargains with

Monks for the price of her information . They settle on a price of twenty-

five gold pounds. Mrs. Bumble relates the information of Old Sally's

robbery of Oliver's mother. Mrs. Bumble had discovered a ragged, dirty

pawnbroker's receipt in Sally's clutching, dead hands, and had redeemed the

receipt for the gold locket. She hands the locket to Monks. Inside, he

finds a wedding ring and two locks of hair. The name "Agnes" is engraved on

the ring along with a blank for the surname. A date that is less than a

year before Oliver's birth follows it. Monks ties the locket to a lead

weight and drops it into the swirling river.

Bill Sikes is ill with a terrible fever. Nancy nurses him anxiously

despite his abuse and surly attitude. Fagin and his crew drop in to deliver

some wine and food. Sikes demands that Fagin give him some money. Nancy and

Fagin travel to Fagin's haunt where Fagin is about to delve into his store

of cash when Monks arrives and asks to speak to Fagin alone. Fagin takes

his visitor to a secluded room, but Nancy follows them and eavesdrops.

After Monks departs, Fagin gives Nancy the money. Nancy, perturbed by

what she has heard, dashes into the streets in the opposite direction of

Sikes' residence. Thinking better of it, she returns to deliver the money

to Sikes.

Sikes does not notice her changed, nervous attitude until a few days

pass. Sensing something in the air, he demands that Nancy sit with him.

After he sinks into sleep, Nancy hastens to a hotel in a wealthy section of

town. She begs the servants to allow her to speak to Miss Maylie, who is

staying there.

They conduct her upstairs. Nancy confesses that she was the one who

kidnapped Oliver on his errand for Mr. Brownlow. She relates that she

overheard Monks tell Fagin that he is Oliver's older brother. Monks wants

Oliver's identity to remain unknown forever so that he has unchallenged

claim to his share of their inheritance. He would kill Oliver if he could

do so without endangering himself. He has also promised to pay a sum to

Fagin should Oliver ever be recovered. Miss Rose begs Nancy to accept her

help in leaving her life of crime behind. Nancy replies that she cannot

because she is drawn back to Sikes despite his abusive ways. She refuses to

accept any money. Before leaving, Nancy informs Miss Rose that she can be

found on London Bridge between eleven and twelve every Sunday night in case

Miss Rose should need her testimony again.

Oliver rushes in to tell Miss Rose that he saw Mr. Brownlow going into

a house. He and Mr. Giles have ascertained that Brownlow lives there, so

Miss Rose immediately takes Oliver to see his old benefactor. She meets Mr.

Brownlow in his parlor while Mr. Grimwig is visiting. Miss Rose tells him

that Oliver has wanted to see him and thank him for his kind help two years

past. Once they are alone, she relates Nancy's strange story.

Oliver is brought in to see Brownlow and Mrs. Bedwin. After their happy

reunion, Brownlow and Miss Rose relay Nancy's information to Mrs. Maylie

and Losberne. Brownlow asks if he can include Grimwig in the matter.

Losberne agrees on the condition that they include Harry. They agree to

keep everything a secret from Oliver and decide to contact Nancy the

following Sunday on London Bridge.

Chapters 42-48

Noah Claypole and Charlotte flee to London after robbing Mr.

Sowerberry. They take a room in an inn, where they meet Fagin and Barney.

Fagin invites Noah to join in the thieving trade. He gives him the

assignment of robbing children who are running errands for their mothers.

After meeting Fagin at his home, Noah learns that Fagin's best pick-pocket,

the Artful Dodger, has been arrested for stealing a handkerchief. Noah's

first job is to go to the police station to watch the Dodger's appearance

before the magistrate. The Dodger, joking and bantering all the while, is

convicted of the crime. Noah hurries back to tell Fagin the news.

Fagin and Sikes are talking when Nancy tries to leave at eleven on

Sunday to go to London Bridge. Out of pure obstinacy, Sikes refuses to let

her go. He drags her into another room and restrains her struggles for an

hour. When he departs, Fagin asks that Nancy light his way downstairs with

a candle. He whispers to her that he will help her leave the brute Sikes if

she wants.

Fagin imagines that Nancy had wanted to meet a new lover that night.

He hopes to bring her new love into the fold with her help, but he also

hopes to persuade Nancy to poison Sikes to death. In such a way, he can re-

establish his control over her and bring her back into the business. He

plans to watch her in order to discover the identity of her new love

because he hopes to blackmail Nancy into re-joining his crew with this


Fagin tells Noah he will pay him a pound to follow Nancy around and find

out where she goes and to whom she speaks. He waits until the following

Sunday to take Noah to Sikes' residence. At eleven, Nancy leaves the room

she shares with Sikes because he is out on a job that night. Noah follows

her down the street at a discreet distance.

Nancy meets Mr. Brownlow and Miss Rose and draws them into a dark,

secluded spot. Noah listens to Nancy beg them to ensure that none of her

associates get into trouble because of her choice to help Oliver. They

agree, and Nancy tells them when they will most likely see Monks visiting


They hope to catch Monks and force the truth of Oliver's history from

him. Nancy's description of Monks startles them. Miss Rose realizes that

Monks is the same man who, with Fagin, had startled Oliver awake by

watching him through the window at the country cottage. Brownlow begs Nancy

to accept their help, but she refuses, saying that she is chained to her

life. They leave Nancy alone and speed away. After Nancy makes her way

home, Noah runs as fast as he can to Fagin's house.

When Sikes delivers some stolen goods to Fagin that night, Fagin and

Noah relate the details of Nancy's trip to London bridge. In a rage, Sikes

rushes home and beats Nancy to death while she begs for mercy. In the

morning, he flees London, thinking that everyone looks at him suspiciously.

He stops at an inn to eat and drink. Seeing a blood-stain on Sikes's hat,

but not recognizing it for what it is, a salesman grabs it to demonstrate

the quality of his stain-remover. Sikes grabs it and flees the inn. He

overhears some men talking about a murdered woman in London at the post-

office. He wanders the road, hallucinating that Nancy's ghost is following

him. Sikes finally decides to return to London and hide. However, he knows

that his dog, Bulls-Eye, will give him away because everyone knows it

follows him everywhere. He tries to drown the animal, but it escapes.

Chapters 49-53

Meanwhile, Mr. Brownlow has captured Monks, whose real name is Edward

Leeford. Brownlow was a good friend of his father, Mr. Leeford, who was a

young man when his family forced him to marry a woman ten years older than

he. The couple eventually separated, and Monks and his mother went to

Paris. Leeford fell in love with a military man's daughter who became

pregnant with Oliver. The relative who had benefited most from Leeford's

forced marriage repented and left him a fortune. Leeford left a portrait of

his beloved in Brownlow's care while he went to take possession of his


His wife, hearing of his good fortune, travelled with Monks to meet

him there. However, Leeford took ill and died without a will, so his

newfound fortune fell to his wife and son. Brownlow reports that he knows

that Monks's mother Leeford had no will because his wife had actually

burned. Leeford's wife and son then lived in the West Indies on their ill-

gotten fortune which is where Brownlow went to find Monks after Oliver was

kidnapped, Oliver's startling resemblance to the woman in the portrait, his

mother, having bothered his conscience too much. Meanwhile, the search for

Sikes continues.

Crackit flees to Jacob's Island to hide after Fagin and Noah are

captured. They find Sikes' dog waiting for them in the house that serves as

their hiding place. Sikes follows soon thereafter. Charley Bates arrives

and attacks the murderer, calling for the others to help him. The search

party and an angry mob arrive demanding justice. Sikes climbs onto the roof

with a rope with the hopes of lowering himself to escape in the midst of

the confusion. However, he loses his balance when he imagines that Nancy's

ghost is after him. The rope catches around his neck, and he falls to his

death with his head in an accidental noose.

Oliver and his friends travel to the town of his birth, with Monks in

tow, to meet Mr. Grimwig. There, Monks reveals that he and his mother found

a letter and a will after his father's death, both of which they destroyed.

The letter was addressed to Agnes Fleming, Oliver's mother, and it

contained a confession from Leeford about his marriage. The will stated

that if his illegitimate child was born a girl, it was to inherit the

estate unconditionally.

If it was born a boy, it was to inherit the estate only if it

committed no illegal or guilty act. Otherwise, Monks and his mother were to

receive the fortune. Upon learning of his daughter's shame, Agnes' father

fled and changed his family's name. Agnes left to save her family the shame

of her condition, and her father died soon thereafter of a broken heart.

His other small daughter was taken in by a poor couple who died in their

own time. Mrs. Maylie took pity on the little girl and raised her as her

niece. That child is Miss Rose. Mr. Bumble and Mrs. Bumble (the former Mrs.

Corney) are forced to confess their part in concealing Oliver's history,

and Mr. Grimwig takes measure to ensure they never hold public office

again. Harry gives up his political ambitions and becomes a clergyman. He

persuades Rose to marry him.

Fagin is sentenced to death by hanging for being an accomplice to murder.

Noah receives a pardon for his testimony against Fagin. Charley eventually

turns to an honest life. Brownlow arranges for the remains of Monks'

property to be sold and the proceeds divided between Monks and Oliver.

Monks travels to the New World where he squanders his share and turns to a

life of vice for which he is arrested. He dies in a prison. Brownlow adopts

Oliver as his son. He, Losberne, and Grimwig t take up residence near

Harry's church.

The Poor Laws

Oliver Twist opens with a bitter invective directed at the nineteenth-

century English poor laws. The laws were a distorted manifestation of the

Victorian middle class emphasis on the virtues of "work." England in the

1830's was rapidly undergoing a transformation from an agricultural, rural

economy to an urban, industrial nation. The growing middle class had

achieved an economic influence equal to, if not greater than, the British


Class consciousness reached a peak for the middle class in the 1830's.

It was in this decade that the middle class clamored for a share in

political power with the landed gentry, bringing about a re-structuring of

the voting system. Parliament passed a Reform Act that granted the right to

vote to previously disenfranchised middle class citizens. The middle class

was eager to gain social legitimacy. This desire gave rise to the Puritan


religious movement and inspired sweeping economic and political change.

The ideal social class belonged to the "gentleman," an aristocrat who

could afford not to work for his living. The middle class were stigmatized

for having to work for a living. One way to alleviate the stigma attached

to middle class wealth was to establish work as a moral virtue. Between the

moral value attached to work and the insecurity of the middle class about

its own social legitimacy, the poor were subject to hatred and cruelty. The

middle class Puritan moral value system transformed earned wealth into a

sign of moral virtue. Victorian society interpreted economic success as a

sign that God favored the honest, moral virtue of the successful

individual's efforts. Thus, they interpreted the condition of poverty as a

sign of the weakness of the poor individual.

The sentiment behind the Poor Law of the 1830's reflected these

beliefs. The law allowed the poor to receive public assistance only through

established workhouses. Begging carried the punishment of imprisonment.

Debtors were sent to prison, often with their entire families, which

virtually ensured that they could not re-pay their debts. Workhouses were

deliberately made to be as miserable as possible in order to deter the poor

from relying on public assistance. The philosophy was that the miserable

conditions would prevent able-bodied paupers from being lazy and idle bums.

Anyone who could not support himself or herself was considered an

immoral, evil person. Therefore, such individuals should enjoy no comforts

or luxuries in their reliance on public assistance. In order to create the

misery needed to deter such immoral idleness, families were split apart

upon entering the workhouse. Husbands were permitted no contact with their

wives, lest they should breed more paupers. Mothers were separated from

children, lest they impart their immoral ways to their children. Brothers

were separated from their sisters because the middle class patrons of

workhouses feared the lower class's "natural" inclination towards incest.

In short, the State undertook to become the surrogate "parents" of

workhouse children, whether or not they were orphans. Moreover, meals

served to workhouse residents were deliberately inadequate so as to

encourage the residents to find work and support themselves.

Because of the great stigma attached to workhouse relief, many poor

people chose to die in the streets rather than seek public "aid." The

workhouse was supposed to demonstrate the virtue of gainful employment to

the poor.

In order to receive public assistance, they had to pay in suffering

and misery. Puritan values stressed the moral virtue of suffering and

privation, and the workhouse residents were made to experience these

"virtues" many times over.

Rather that improving the "questionable morals" of the able-bodied poor,

the Poor Laws punished the most defenseless and helpless members of the

lower class. The old, the sick, and the very young suffered more than the

able-bodied benefited from these laws. Dickens meant to demonstrate this

with the figure of Oliver Twist, an orphan born and raised in a workhouse

for the first ten years of his life. He represents the hypocrisy of the

petty middle class bureaucrats, who treat a small child cruelly while

voicing their belief in the Christian virtue of giving charity to the less


Dickens was a life-long champion of the poor. He himself suffered the

harsh abuse of the English legal system's treatment of the poor. In England

in the 1830's, the poor truly had no voice, either politically or

economically. In Oliver Twist, Dickens presents the everyday existence of

the lowest members of English society. He went far beyond the experiences

of the workhouse, extending his depiction of poverty to London's squalid

streets, dark houses and thieves' dens. He gave voice to those who had no

voice, establishing a close link between politics and literature.

What does the phrase "justice is blind" normally mean?

The phrase "justice is blind" normally means that the law treats all

individuals equally. It means that the law is not biased. The phrase is

ironic because the legal system portrayed in Oliver Twist is heavily biased

in favor f individuals who belong to the middle and upper classes. Oliver

enters he courtroom twice in the novel. The magistrate who presides over

Gamfeld's petition to take Oliver on as an apprentice is half-blind. He

asks the workhouse officials if Oliver wants to be a chimney sweep, and

they assure him that he does. The law essentially does not recognize any

legal right for Oliver to speak for himself. The magistrate deigns to ask

for his opinion only after he notices Oliver's terrified expression. Oliver

is saved from Gamfield's brutal treatment, but only by a stroke of luck.

Hence, the phrase "justice is blind" is ironic when applied to the hearing.

The magistrate's half-blindness serves as a metaphor for the half-

blindness of middle class Victorians and their institutions. Although there

are glimmers of hope for mercy and kindness towards the poor, there are

still huge obstacles to change because the law is biased against the poor.

Oliver's trial for stealing a handkerchief highlights the precarious

position of the poor in the eyes of the law. In 1830's England, the right

to vote was based on wealth. Therefore, the law was designed to protect the

interests of people wealthy enough to own property.

Hence, the penalties for stealing were unbelievably harsh. Mr. Fang, the

presiding magistrate, is an aptly named representative of the English legal

system. The law has fangs ready to devour any unfortunate pauper brought to

face "justice." Without hard evidence, without witnesses, and even despite

Brownlow's testimony that Oliver is not the thief, Mr. Fang convicts Oliver

and sentences him to three months hard labour. Mr. Fang is biased against

Oliver from the moment he steps into the courtroom. He does not view Oliver

as an individual, but as the representative of the "criminal poor."

Therefore he views Oliver through the vicious prejudices of the Victorian

middle class.

Again, the phrase "justice is blind" is ironic when applied to Oliver

Twist. The magistrate is blinded by biased stereo types, and the legal

system he represents is biased against the poor. How is Fagin an anti-

Semitic stereotype? How does Dickens's anti-Semitism manifest itself ?

Consider Dickens's habit of referring to Fagin as "the Jew" or "the old

Jew." Consider Fagin's obsession with gold.

Victorians stereotyped the Jews as naturally avaricious beings who

worship gold for its own sake. Fagin's eyes "glisten" as he takes out a

"magnificent gold watch, sparkling with jewels." True to the anti-Semitic

stereotype, his wealth his obtained through thievery. Furthermore, Fagin's

psychological warfare on Oliver's basically virtuous nature reflects the

anti-Semitic stereotype of Jews as conniving, cunning conspirators. Dickens

characterizes Fagin's manipulation of Oliver as a slow poison meant to

corrupt Oliver's sense of right and wrong. Unlike an ordinary villain, the

Jewish villain is far worse. He presents a face of kindness over his true

nature as twisted brain-washer. When Oliver sees Fagin and Monks staring at

him through Mrs. Maylie's window, he cries, "The Jew! The Jew!" He does not

shout Fagin's name, so he does not consider Fagin's villainy as an

individual quality particular to Fagin. He names it as a Jewish quality.

Clearly, Dickens does not portray Fagin as a villain who happens to be

Jewish. He portrays Fagin as a villain because he's Jewish. The continual

habit of referring to Fagin as "the Jew" makes him an abstraction of anti-

Semitic stereotypes, not an individual.

The Victorian middle class's stereotypes of the poor.

Throughout Oliver Twist, Dickens levels a strident criticism at the

Victorian middle class's representation of the poor as hereditary

criminals. Dickens goes to great lengths to criticize the attitude that the

poor are inherently immoral from birth. However, he portrays Monks in the

very same light.

Brownlow tells Monks, "You . . . from your cradle were gall and

bitterness to your own father's heart, and . . . all evil passions, vice,

and profligacy, festered [in you]." Basically, Monks was a b ad one from

the cradle. Why should the unfortunate child of an unhappy, forced marriage

be the very paragon of evil?

A Passage to India by E.M.Forster

Part One: Mosque

Chapter One:

Forster begins A Passage to India with a short description of

Chandrapore, a city along that Ganges that is not notable except for the

nearby Marabar caves. Chandrapore is a city of gardens with few fine houses

from the imperial period of Upper India; it is primarily a "forest sparsely

scattered with huts."

Chapter Two:

Dr. Aziz arrives by bicycle at the house of Hamidullah, where

Hamidullah and Mr. Mahmoud Ali are smoking hookah and arguing about whether

it is possible to be friends with an Englishman. Hamidullah, educated at

Cambridge, claims that it is possibly only in England, and the three gossip

about English elites in India. Hamidullah Begum, a distant aunt of Aziz,

asks him when he will be married, but he responds that once is enough. A

servant arrives, bearing a note from the Civil Surgeon; Callendar wishes to

see Aziz at his bungalow about a medical case. Aziz leaves, traveling down

the various streets named after victorious English generals, to reach Major

Callendar's compound. The servant at the compound snubs Aziz, telling him

the major has no message. Two English ladies, Mrs. Callendar and Mrs.

Lesley, take Aziz's tonga (carriage), thinking that his ride is their own.

Aziz then leaves to go to the nearly mosque paved with broken slabs. The

Islamic temple awakens Aziz's sense of beauty; for Aziz, Islam is more than

a mere Faith, but an attitude towards life. Suddenly, an elderly

Englishwoman arrives at the mosque. He reprimands her, telling her that she

has no right to be there and that she should have taken off her shoes, but

she tells him that she did remember to take them off. Aziz then apologizes

for assuming that she would have forgotten. She introduces herself as Mrs.

Moore, and tells Aziz that she is newly arrived in India and has come from

the club. He warns her about walking alone at night, because of poisonous

snakes and insects. Mrs. Moore is visiting her son, Mr. Heaslop, who is the

City Magistrate. They find that they have much in common: both were married

twice and have two sons and a daughter. He escorts Mrs. Moore back to the

club, but tells her that Indians are not allowed into the Chandrapore Club,

even as guests.

Chapter Three:

Mrs. Moore returns to the Chandrapore Club, where she meets Adela

Quested, her companion from England who may marry her son Ronny Heaslop;

Adela wishes to see "the real India." She complains that they have seen

nothing of India, but rather a replica of England. After the play at the

Club ends, the orchestra plays the anthem of the Army of Occupation, a

reminder of every club member that he or she is a British in exile.

Fielding, the schoolmaster of Government College, suggests that if they

want to see India they should actually see Indians. Mrs. Callendar says

that the kindest thing one can do to a native is to let him die. The

Collector suggests that they have a Bridge Party (a party to bridge the

gulf between east and west). When Mrs. Moore tells Ronny about her trip to

the mosque, he scolds her for speaking to a Mohammedan and suspects the

worst, but Mrs. Moore defends Dr. Aziz. Ronny worries that Aziz does not

tolerate the English (the "brutal conqueror, the sun-dried bureaucrat" as

he describes them). When she tells him that Aziz dislikes the Callendars,

Ronny decides that he must pass that information on to them and tells her

that Aziz abused them in order to impress her. When she tells Ronny that he

never judged people in this way at home, Ronny rudely replies that India is

not home. Finally Ronny agrees not to say anything to Major Callendar.

Chapter Four:

Mr. Turton, the Collector, issues invitations to numerous Indian

gentlemen in the neighborhood for the Bridge Party. While he argues with

Mr. Ram Chand and the elderly and distinguished Nawab Bahadur, Mahmoud Ali

claims that the Bridge Party is due to actions from the Lieutenant

Governor, for Turton would never do this unless compelled. The Nawab

Bahadur is a large proprietor and philanthropist; his decision to attend

the Bridge party carries great weight. Mr. Graysford and Mr. Sorley, the

missionaries who live nearby, argue that no one should be turned away by

God, but cannot decide whether divine hospitality should end at monkeys or

jackals or wasps or even bacteria. They conclude that someone must be

excluded or they shall be left with nothing.

Chapter Five:

Neither Mrs. Moore nor Adela Quested consider the Bridge Party to be a

success. The Indians for the most part adopt European costume, and the

conversations are uncomfortable. Mrs. Moore speaks to Mrs. Bhattacharya and

asks if she may call on her some day, but becomes distressed when she

believes that Mrs. Bhattacharya will postpone a trip to Calcutta for her.

During the party, Mr. Turton and Mr. Fielding are the only officials who

behave well toward the Indian guests. Mr. Fielding comes to respect Mrs.

Moore and Adela. Mr. Fielding suggests that Adela meet Dr. Aziz. Ronny and

Mrs. Moore discuss his behavior in India, and he tells her that he is not

there to be pleasant, for he has more important things to do there. Mrs.

Moore believes that Ronny reminds her of his public school days when he

talked like an intelligent and embittered boy. Mrs. Moore reminds him that

God put us on earth to love our neighbors, even in India. She feels it is a

mistake to mention God, but as she has aged she found him increasingly

difficult to avoid.

Chapter Six:

Aziz did not go to the Bridge Party, but instead he dealt with several

surgical cases. It was the anniversary of his wife's death; they married

before they had met and he did not love her at first, but that changed

after the birth of their first child. He feels that he will never get over

the death of his first wife. Dr. Panna Lal returns from the Bridge Party to

see Aziz and offers a paltry excuse for why he did not attend. Aziz worries

that he offended the Collector by absenting himself from the party. When

Aziz returns home he finds an invitation from Mr. Fielding to tea, which

revives his spirits.

Chapter Seven:

Mr. Fielding arrived in India late in his life, when he had already

passed forty, and was by that time a hard-bitten, good-tempered fellow with

a great enthusiasm for education. He has no racial feelings, because he had

matured in a different atmosphere where the herd instinct did not flourish.

The wives of the English officers dislike Fielding for his liberal racial

views, and Fielding discovers that it is possible to keep company with both

Indians and Englishmen, but to keep company with English women he must drop

Indians. Aziz arrives at Fielding's house for tea as Fielding is dressing

after a bath; since Fielding cannot see him, Aziz makes Fielding guess what

he looks like. Aziz offers Fielding his collar stud, for he has lost his.

When Fielding asks why people wear collars at all, Aziz responds that he

wears them to pass the Police, who take little notice of Indians in English

dress. Fielding tells Aziz that they will meet with Mrs. Moore and Adela,

as well as Professor Narayan Godbole, the Deccani Brahman. Mrs. Moore tells

Mr. Fielding that Mrs. Bhattacharya was to send a carriage for her this

morning, but did not, and worries that she offended her. Fielding, Aziz,

Mrs. Moore and Adela discuss mysteries. Mrs. Moore claims she likes

mysteries but hates muddles, but Mr. Fielding claims that a mystery is a

muddle, and that India itself is a muddle. Godbole arrives, a polite and

enigmatic yet eloquent man, elderly and wizened. His whole appearance

suggests harmony, as if he has reconciled the products of East and West,

mental as well as physical. They discuss how one can get mangoes in England

now, and Fielding remarks that India can be made in England just as England

is now made in India. They discuss the Marabar Caves, and Fielding takes

Mrs. Moore to see the college. Ronny arrives, annoyed to see Adela with

Aziz and Godbole. Ronny tells Fielding that he doesn't like to see an

English girl left smoking with two Indians, but he reminds him that Adela

made the decision herself.

Chapter Eight:

For Adela, Ronny's self-complacency and lack of subtlety grow more

vivid in India than in England. Adela tells Ronny that Fielding, Aziz and

Godbole are planning a picnic at the Marabar Caves for her and Mrs. Moore.

Ronny mocks Aziz for missing his collar stud, claiming that it is typical

of the Indian inattention to detail. Adela decides that she will not marry

Ronny, who is hurt by the news but tells her that they were never bound to

marry in the first place. She feels ashamed at his decency, and they decide

that they shall remain friends. Ronny suggests a car trip to see

Chandrapore, and the Nawab Bahadur offers to take them. There is a slight

accident, as the car swerves into a tree near an embankment. Adela thinks

that they ran into an animal, perhaps a hyena or a buffalo. When Miss Derek

finds them, she offers to drive all of them back into town except for Mr.

Harris, the Eurasian chauffeur. The Nawab Bahadur scolds Miss Derek for her

behavior. Adela tells Ronny that she takes back what she told him about

marriage. Ronny apologizes to his mother for his behavior at Mr. Fielding's

house. Mrs. Moore is now tired of India and wishes only for her passage

back to England. Ronny reminds her that she has dealt with three sets of

Indians today, and all three have let her down, but Mrs. Moore claims that

she likes Aziz. The Nawab Bahadur thinks that the accident was caused by a

ghost, for several years before he was in a car accident in which he killed

a drunken man.

Chapter Nine:

Aziz falls ill with fever, and Hamidullah discusses his illness with

Syed Mohammed, the assistant engineer, and Mr. Haq, a police inspector.

Rafi, the engineer's nephew, suggests that something suspicious occurred,

for Godbole also fell sick after Fielding's party, but Hamidullah dismisses

the idea. Mr. Fielding visits Aziz. They discuss Indian education, and Aziz

asks if it is fair that an Englishman holds a teaching position when

qualified Indians are available. Fielding cannot answer "England holds

India for her own good," the only answer to a conversation of this type.

Fielding instead says that he is delighted to be in India, and that is his

only excuse for working there. He suggests chucking out any Englishman who

does not appreciate being in India.

Chapter Ten:

Opposite Aziz's bungalow stands a large unfinished house belonging to

two brothers. A squirrel hangs on it, seeming to be the only occupant of

the house. More noises come from nearby animals. These animals make up the

majority of the living creatures of India, yet do not care how India is


Chapter Eleven:

Aziz shows Fielding a picture of his wife, a custom uncommon in

Islamic tradition. Aziz tells him that he believes in the purdah, but would

have told his wife that Fielding is his brother and thus she would have

seen him, just as Hamidullah and a small number of others had. Fielding

wonders what kindness he offered to Aziz to have such kindness offered back

to him. Aziz asks Fielding if he has any children, which he does not, and

asks why he does not marry Miss Quested. He claims that she is a prig, a

pathetic product of Western education who prattles on as if she were at a

lecture. He tells him that Adela is engaged to the City Magistrate. Aziz

then makes a derogatory comment about Miss Quested's small breasts. Aziz

discovers that Fielding was warm-hearted and unconventional, but not wise,

yet they are friends and brothers.

Part Two: Caves

Chapter Twelve:

This chapter is devoted solely to a description of the Marabar Caves.

Each of the caves include a tunnel about eight feet long, five feet high,

three feet wide that leads to a circular chamber about twenty feet in

diameter. Having seen one cave, one has essentially seen all of them. A

visitor who sees them returns to Chandrapore uncertain whether he has had

an interesting experience, a dull one, or even an experience at all. In one

of the caves there is rumored to be a boulder that swings on the summit of

the highest of the hills; this boulder sits on a pedestal known as the Kawa


Chapter Thirteen:

Adela Quested mentions the trip to the Marabar Caves to Miss Derek,

but she mentions that she is unsure whether the trip will occur because

Indians seem forgetful. A servant overhears them, and passes on the

information to Mahmoud Ali. Aziz therefore decides to push the matter

through, securing Fielding and Godbole for the trip and asking Fielding to

approach Miss Quested and Mrs. Moore. Aziz considers all aspects of the

trip, including food and alcohol, and worries about the cultural

differences. Mrs. Moore and Adela travel to the caves in a purdah carriage.

Aziz finds that Antony, the servant that the women are bringing, is not to

be trusted, so he suggests that he is unnecessary, but Antony insists that

Ronny wants him to go. Mohammed Latif bribes Antony not to go on the trip

with them. Ten minutes before the train is to leave, Fielding and Godbole

are not yet at the station. The train starts just as Fielding and Godbole

arrive; Godbole had miscalculated the length of his morning prayer. When

the two men miss the train, Aziz blames himself. Aziz feels that this trip

is a chance for him to demonstrate that Indians are capable of


Chapter Fourteen:

For the past two weeks in which they had been in India, Mrs. Moore and

Miss Quested had felt nothing, living inside cocoons; Mrs. Moore accepts

her apathy, but Adela resents hers. It is Adela's faith that the whole

stream of events is important and interesting, and if she grows bored she

blames herself severely. This is her only major insincerity. Mrs. Moore

feels increasingly that people are important, but relationships between

them are not and that in particular too much fuss has been made over

marriage. The train reaches its destination and they ride elephants to

reach the caves. None of the guests particularly want to see the caves.

Aziz overrates hospitality, mistaking it for intimacy and not seeing that

it is tainted with a sense of possession. It is only when Mrs. Moore and

Fielding are near that he knows that it is more blessed to receive than to

give. Miss Quested admits that it is inevitable that she will become an

Anglo-Indian, but Aziz protests. She hopes that she will not become like

Mrs. Turton and Mrs. Callendar, but admits that she does not have a special

force of character to stop that tendency. In one of the caves there is a

distinct echo, which alarms Mrs. Moore, who decides she must leave the

cave. Aziz appreciates the frankness with which Mrs. Moore treats him. Mrs.

Moore begins to write a letter to her son and daughter, but cannot because

she remains disturbed and frightened by the echo in the cave. She is

terrified because the universe no longer offers repose to her soul. She has

lost all interest, even in Aziz, and the affectionate and sincere words

that she had spoken seem foreign to her.

Chapter Fifteen:

Adela and Aziz and a guide continue along the tedious expedition. They

encounter several isolated caves which the guide persuades them to visit,

but there is really nothing for them to see. Aziz has little to say to Miss

Quested, for he likes her less than he does Mrs. Moore and greatly dislikes

that she is marrying a British official, while Adela has little to say to

Aziz. Adela realizes that she does not love Ronny, but is not sure whether

that is reason enough to break off her engagement. She asks Aziz if he is

married, and he tells her that he is, feeling that it is more artistic to

have his wife alive for a moment. She asks him if he has one wife or more

than one, a question which shocks him very much, but Adela is unaware that

she had said the wrong thing.

Chapter Sixteen:

Aziz waits in the cave, smoking, and when he returns he finds the

guide alone with his head on one side. The guide does not know exactly

which cave Miss Quested entered, and Aziz worries that she is lost. On his

way down the path to the car that had arrived from Chandrapore, Aziz finds

Miss Quested's field glasses lying at the verge of a cave and puts them in

his pocket. He sees Fielding, who arrived in Miss Derek's car, but neither

he nor anyone else knows where Adela has gone. The expedition ends, and the

train arrives to bring them back into Chandrapore. As they arrive in town,

Mr. Haq arrests Dr. Aziz, but he is under instructions not to say the

charge. Aziz refuses to go, but Fielding talks him into cooperating. Mr.

Turton leads Fielding off so that Aziz goes to prison alone.

Chapter Seventeen:

Fielding speaks to the Collector, who tells him that Miss Quested has

been insulted in one of the Marabar Caves and that he would not allow

Fielding to accompany Aziz to preserve him from scandal. Fielding thinks

that Adela is mad, a remark that Mr. Turton demands that he withdraw.

Fielding explains that he cannot believe that Aziz is guilty. Mr. Turton

tells Fielding that he has been in the country for twenty-five years, and

in that time he has never known anything but disaster whenever Indians and

the English interact socially. He tells Fielding that there will be an

informal meeting at the club that evening to discuss the situation.

Fielding keeps his head during the discussion; he does not rally to the

banner of race. The Collector goes to the platform, where he can see the

confusion about him. He takes in the situation with a glance, and his sense

of justice functions although he is insane with rage. When he sees coolies

asleep in the ditches or the shopkeepers rising to salute him, he says to

himself "I know what you're like at last; you shall pay for this, you shall


Chapter Eighteen:

Mr. McBryde, the District Superintendent of Police, is the most

reflective and best educated of the Chandrapore officials. He receives Aziz

with courtesy, but is shocked at his downfall. McBryde has a theory about

climatic zones: all unfortunate natives are criminals at heart, for the

simple reason that they live south of latitude 30. They are thus not to

blame, for they have not a dog's chance. McBryde, however, admits that he

seems to contradict this theory himself. The charge against Aziz is that he

followed her into the cave and made insulting advances; she hit him with

her field glasses, but he pulled at them and the strap broke, and that is

how she got away. They find that Aziz has the glasses. Fielding asks if he

may see Adela, but the request is denied. McBryde admits to Fielding that

she is in no state to see anyone, but Fielding believes that she's under a

hideous delusion and Aziz is innocent. Fielding explains that, if Aziz were

guilty, he would not have kept the field glasses. McBryde tells him that

the Indian criminal psychology is different, and shows Fielding the

contents of Aziz's pocket case, including a letter from a friend who keeps

a brothel. The police also find pictures of women in Aziz's bungalow, but

Fielding says that the picture is of Aziz's wife.

Chapter Nineteen:

Hamidullah waits outside the Superintendent's office; Fielding tells

him that evidence for Aziz's innocence will come. Hamidullah is convinced

that Aziz is innocent and throws his lot with the Indians, realizing the

profundity of the gulf that separates them. Hamidullah wants Aziz to have

Armitrao, a Hindu who is notoriously anti-British, as his lawyer. Fielding

feels this is too extreme. Fielding tells Hamidullah that he is on the side

of Aziz, but immediately regrets taking sides, for he wishes to slink

through India unlabelled. Fielding has a talk with Godbole, who is entirely

unaffected by Aziz's plight. He tells Fielding that he is leaving

Chandrapore to return to his birthplace in Central India to take charge of

education there. He wants to start a High School on sound English lines.

Godbole cannot say whether or not he thinks that Aziz is guilty; he says

that nothing can be performed in isolation, for when one performs a good

action, all do, and when an evil action is performed, all perform it. He

claims that good and evil are both aspects of the Lord. Fielding goes to

see Aziz, but finds him unapproachable through misery. Fielding wonders why

Miss Quested, such a dry, sensible girl without malice, would falsely

accuse an Indian.

Chapter Twenty:

Miss Quested's plight had brought her great support among the English

in India; she came out from her ennobled in sorrow. At the meeting at the

club, Fielding asks whether there is an official bulletin about Adela's

health, or whether the grave reports are due to gossip. Fielding makes an

error by speaking her name; others refer to both Adela and Aziz in vague

and impersonal terms. Each person feels that all he loved best was at stake

in the matter. The Collector tells them to assume that every Indian is an

angel. The event had made Ronny Heaslop a martyr, the recipient of all the

evil intended against them by the country they had tried to serve. As he

watches Fielding, the Collector says that responsibility is a very awful

thing, but he has no use for the man who shirks it. He claims that he is

against any show of force. Fielding addresses the meeting, telling them

that he believes that Aziz is innocent; if Aziz is found guilty, Fielding

vows to reign and leave India, but now he resigns from the club. When Ronny

enters, Fielding does not stand. The Collector insists that he apologize to

Ronny, but then orders Fielding to leave immediately.

Chapter Twenty-One:

Fielding spends the rest of the evening with the Nawab Bahadur,

Hamidullah, Mahmoud Ali, and others of the confederacy. Fielding has an

inclination to tell Professor Godbole of the tactical and moral error he

had made in being rude to Ronny Heaslop, but Godbole had already gone to


Chapter Twenty-Two:

Adela lay for several days in the McBryde's bungalow; others are over-

kind to her, the men too respectful and the women too sympathetic. The one

visitor she wants, Mrs. Moore, kept away. She tells that she went into a

detestable cave, remembers scratching the wall with her finger nail, and

then there was a shadow down the entrance tunnel, bottling her up. She hit

him with her glasses, he pulled her round the cave by the strap, it broke,

and she escaped. He never actually touched her. She refuses to cry, a

degradation worse than what occurred in the Marabar and a negation of her

advanced outlook. Adela feels that only Mrs. Moore can drive back the evil

that happened to her. Ronny tells her that she must appear in court, and

Adela asks if his mother can be there. He tells her that the case will come

before Mr. Das, the brother of Mrs. Bhattacharya and Ronny's assistant.

Ronny tells Adela that Fielding wrote her a letter (which he opened). He

tells her that the defense had got hold of Fielding, who has done the

community a great disservice. Adela worries that Mrs. Moore is ill, but

Ronny says that she is merely irritable at the moment. When she sees her,

Adela thinks that she repels Mrs. Moore, who has no inclination to be

helpful; Mrs. Moore appears slightly resentful, without her Christian

tenderness. Mrs. Moore refuses to be at all involved in the trial. She

tells that she will attend their marriage but not their trial. She vows to

go to England. Ronny tells her that she appears to want to be left out of

everything. She says that the human race would have become a single person

centuries ago if marriage were any use. Adela wonders whether she made a

mistake, and tells Ronny that he is innocent. She feels that Mrs. Moore has

told her that Aziz is innocent. Ronny tells her not to say such things,

because every servant he has is a spy. Mrs. Moore tells Adela that of

course Aziz is innocent. Mrs. Moore thinks that she is a bad woman, but she

will not help Ronny torture a man for what he never did. She claims that

there are different ways of evil, and she prefers her own to his. Ronny

thinks that Mrs. Moore must leave India, for she was doing no good to

herself or anyone else.

Chapter Twenty-Three:

Lady Mellanby, wife of the Lieutenant-Governor, had been gratified by

the appeal addressed to her by the ladies of Chandrapore, but she could do

nothing; she does agree to help Mrs. Moore get passage out of India in her

own cabin. Mrs. Moore got what she desired: she escaped the trial, the

marriage and the hot weather, and will return to England in comfort. Mrs.

Moore, however, has come to that state where the horror and the smallness

of the universe are visible. The echo in the cave was a revelation to Mrs.

Moore, insignificant though it may be. Mrs. Moore departs from Chandrapore

alone, for Ronny cannot leave the town.

Chapter Twenty-Four:

The heat accelerates after Mrs. Moore's departure until it seems a

punishment. Adela resumes her morning kneel to Christianity, imploring God

for a favorable verdict. Adela worries that she will break down during the

trial, but the Collector tells her that she is bound to win, but does not

tell her that Nawab Bahadur had financed the defense and would surely

appeal. The case is called, and the first person Adela notices in the Court

is the man who pulls the punkah; to Adela, this nearly naked man stands out

as divine as he pulls the rope. Mr. McBryde behaves casually, as if he

knows that Aziz will be found guilty. He remarks that the darker races are

physically attracted to the fairer, but not vice verse, and a voice is

heard from the crowd asking "even when the lady is so much uglier than the

man?" Mahmoud Ali claims that Mrs. Moore was sent away because she would

have testified that Aziz is innocent. The audience begins chanting Mrs.

Moore until her name seems to be Esmiss Esmoor, as if a Hindu goddess. The

magistrate scolds Armitrao and McBryde for presuming Mrs. Moore's presence

as a witness. Adela is the next to testify; a new sensation protects her

like a magnificent armor. When McBryde asks her whether Aziz followed her,

she say that she cannot be sure. Finally, she admits that she made a

mistake and Dr. Aziz never followed her. The Major attempts to stop the

proceedings on medical grounds, but Adela withdraws the charge. The Nawab

Bahadur declares in court that this is a scandal. Mr. Das rises and

releases the prisoner, as the man who pulls the punkah continues as if

nothing had occurred.

Chapter Twenty-Five:

Miss Quested renounces his own people and is drawn into a mass of

Indians and carried toward the public exit of the court. Fielding finds

her, and tells her that she cannot walk alone in Chandrapore, for there

will be a riot. She wonders if she should join the other English persons,

but Fielding puts her in his carriage. One of Fielding's students finds him

and gives him a garland of jasmine, but Fielding has wearied of his

students' adoration. The student vows to pull Fielding and Miss Quested in

a procession. Mahmoud Ali shouts "down with the Collector, down with the

Superintendent of Police," but the Nawab Bahadur reprimands him as unwise.

A riot nearly occurs, but Dr. Panna Lal calms the situation. Although Dr.

Lal was going to testify for the prosecution, he makes a public apology to

Aziz and secures the release of Nureddin, for there are rumors that he was

being tortured by the police.

Chapter Twenty-Six:

Fielding and Miss Quested remain isolated at the college and have the

first of several curious conversations. He asks her why she would make a

charge if she were to withdraw it, but she cannot give a definitive answer.

She tells him that she has been unwell since the caves and perhaps before

that, and wonders what gave her the hallucination. He offers four

explanations, but only gives three: Aziz is guilty, as her friends think;

she invented the charge out of malice, which is what Fielding's friends

think; or, she had a hallucination. He tells her that he believes that she

broke the strap of the field glasses and was alone in the cave the whole

time. She tells him that she first felt out of sorts at the party with Aziz

and Godbole, and tells him that she had a hallucination of a marriage

proposal when there was none. Fielding believes that McBryde exorcised her:

as soon as he asked a straightforward question, she gave a straightforward

answer and broke down. She asks what Aziz thinks of her, and Fielding tells

Adela that Aziz is not capable of thought in his misery, but is naturally

very bitter. An underlying feeling with Aziz is that he had been accused by

an ugly woman; Aziz is a sexual snob. Fielding offers the fourth

explanation: that it was the guide who assaulted Adela, but that option is

inconclusive. Hamidullah joins them, and alternately praises and reprimands

Adela. Fielding and Hamidullah are unsure where Adela could go, because no

place seems safe for her. Fielding has a new sympathy for Adela, who has

become a real person to him. Adela thinks that she must go to the Turtons,

for the Collector would take her in, if not his wife. Ronny arrives and

tells them that Mrs. Moore died at sea from the heat. Fielding tells him

that Adela will stay at the college but he will not be responsible for her


Chapter Twenty-Seven:

After the Victory Banquet at Mr. Zulfiqar's mansion, Aziz and Fielding

discuss the future. Aziz knows that Fielding wants him to not sue Adela,

for it will show him to be a gentleman, but Aziz says that he has become

anti-British and ought to have become so sooner. Aziz says that he will not

let Miss Quested off easily to make a better reputation for himself and

Indians generally, for it will be put down to weakness and the attempt to

gain promotion. Aziz decides that he will have nothing more to do with

British India and will seek service in some Moslem State. Fielding tells

Aziz that Adela is a prig, but perfectly genuine and very brave. He tells

Aziz what a momentous move she made. Fielding offers to be an intermediary

for an apology from Adela, and Aziz asks for an apology in which Adela

admits that she is an awful hag. Aziz finally agrees to consult Mrs. Moore.

However, when Fielding blurts out that she is dead, Aziz does not believe


Chapter Twenty-Eight:

The death of Mrs. Moore assumes more subtle and lasting shapes in

Chandrapore than in England. A legend sprang up that Ronny killed her for

trying to save Aziz's life, and there was sufficient truth in that legend

to trouble authorities. Ronny reminds himself that Mrs. Moore left India of

her own volition, but his conscience is not clear, for he behaved badly to

her. Adela will leave India and not marry Ronny, for that would mean the

end of his career.

Chapter Twenty-Nine:

Sir Gilbert, the Lieutenant-Governor of the Province, visits

Chandrapore. Fielding finds himself drawn more and more into Miss Quested's

affairs, and appreciates her fine loyal character and humility. Victory had

made the Indians aggressive, attempting to discover new grievances and

wrongs. Fielding uses Mrs. Moore as an attempt to persuade Aziz to let

Adela off paying. Adela admits to Fielding that she was thinking of Ronny

when she first entered the cave, and now she no longer wants love. Adela

leaves India. On her travel out of India, Antony tries to blackmail her by

claiming that she had an affair with Fielding, but she turns him away. When

Adela arrives in England, she vows to look up Ralph and Stella and to

return to her profession.

Chapter Thirty:

Another local consequence of the trial is a Hindu-Moslem entente. Mr.

Das visits Aziz, seeking favors; he asks Aziz to write poetry for the

magazine he publishes. Aziz accommodates him, but asks why he should

fulfill these when Mr. Das tried to send him to prison. Aziz thinks that

the magazine for which Mr. Das asks him to write is for Hindus only, but

Mr. Das tells him that it is for Indians in general. When Aziz says there

is no category of "Indian" (only Hindu and Moslem), Das says that after the

trial there may be. Hamidullah gossips with Aziz, telling him that Fielding

may have had an affair with Adela, but this does not faze Aziz, for he

claims that he has no friends and all are traitors, even his own children.

Chapter Thirty-One:

The sequence of the events had decided Aziz's emotions and his

friendship with Fielding began to cool. He assumes that the rumor about

Fielding and Adela is true and resents it. Aziz speaks to Fielding about

it, but Fielding tells him not to speak so melodramatically about "dismay

and anxiety." Aziz speaks about enemies, but Fielding seems to dismiss the

idea that either of them have great enemies. Fielding becomes angry that

Aziz thinks that he and Adela had an affair during such a difficult time,

but the two clear up the misunderstanding. Aziz and Fielding discuss their

future plans. Fielding is conscious of something hostile against him. He

leaves Chandrapore, with Aziz convinced that he will marry Miss Quested.

Chapter Thirty-Two:

Fielding leaves India for travels in other exotic parts of the world.

Fielding found Egypt charming, as well as Crete and Venice. He felt that

everything in Venice and Crete was right where everything in India was

wrong, such as the idol temples and lumpy hills. Elsewhere there is form

that India lacks.

Part Three: Temple

Chapter Thirty-Three:

Hundreds of miles west of the Marabar Hills, Professor Godbole stands

"in the presence of God" during a Hindu birth ceremony. Godbole prays at

the famous shrine at the palace at Mau. Godbole is now the Minister of

Education at Mau. He sings not to the god who confronts him during the

ritual, but to a saint. The ritual does not one thing that the non-Hindu

would consider dramatically correct. By chance, while thinking about a wasp

that he sees, Godbole remembers Mrs. Moore, even though she was not

important to him.

Chapter Thirty-Four:

Dr. Aziz, who had taken part in the ceremony, leaves the palace at the

same time as Godbole and sees the Professor, who tells him that Fielding

arrived at the European Guest House. Fielding is making an official visit;

he was transferred from Chandrapore and sent on a tour through Central

India to see what the more remote states are doing with regard to English

education. Fielding had married; Aziz assumes that his bride is Miss

Quested. In Mau the conflict is not between Indians and English, but

between Brahman and non-Brahman. Aziz had destroyed all the letters that

Fielding had wrote to him after he learned that Fielding had married

someone he knew. Unfortunately, Aziz never read any letters past the phrase

"someone he knew" and automatically assumed it was Miss Quested. Aziz still

remains under criminal investigation since the trial. Colonel Maggs, the

Political Agent for the area, is committed to investigating Aziz, still

convinced that he must be guilty based on events in Chandrapore. Aziz

receives a note from Fielding, but he tears it up.

Chapter Thirty-Five:

There are two shrines to a Mohammedan saint in Mau. These commemorate

a man who, upon his mother's order to "free prisoners," freed the inmates

at the local jail, but whose head was cut off by the police. These shrines

are the sites where the few Mohammedans in Mau pray. Aziz goes to the

Shrine of the Head with his children, Ahmed, Jemila and Karim. The children

see Fielding and his brother-in-law, and tell Aziz. They suggest throwing

stones at them, but Aziz scolds them. Aziz, who is fortunately in a good

temper, greets Fielding, although he had not intended to do so. Aziz greets

the brother-in-law as "Mr. Quested," but he says that his name is Ralph

Moore. Fielding had married Stella, the daughter of Mrs. Moore. Fielding

blames Mahmoud Ali for the ill will between them, for he knew definitively

that Fielding had married Stella. Aziz behaves aggressively and says that

he forgives Mahmoud Ali. He tells Fielding that his heart is for his own

people only. He leaves Fielding and returns to his house, excited and

happy, but realizes that he had promised Mrs. Moore to be kind to her

children, if he met them.

Chapter Thirty-Six:

The birth procession had not yet taken place, although the birth

ceremony finished earlier. All would culminate in the dance of the

milkmaidens before Krishna. Aziz could not understand the ceremony any more

than a Christian could, puzzled that during the ceremony the people in Mau

could be purged from suspicion and self-seeking. Godbole tells Aziz that he

has known that Fielding was married to Stella Moore for more than a year.

Aziz cannot be angry with Godbole, however, because it is not his way to

tell anybody anything. Aziz and Godbole continue in the procession as it

leads out of town. Aziz becomes cynical once again. He thinks that the pose

of "seeing India" is only a form of conquest. Aziz goes to the Guest House

where Fielding stays and reads two letters lying open on the piano. In the

East the sanctity of private correspondence does not exist. The letters

primarily concern Ralph Moore, who appears to be almost an imbecile, but

there is a letter from Adela to Stella in which she says that she hopes

Stella will enjoy India more than she did and says that she will never

repay a debt. Aziz notices the friendly intercourse between these people,

men and women, and believes that this is the strength of England. Ralph

Moore enters, and Aziz claims that he is there to bring salve for his bee

stings. Aziz abruptly prepares to leave, but apologizes. Ralph tells him

that his mother loved Aziz, and Aziz claims that Mrs. Moore was his best

friend in the world. Aziz offers to take Ralph Moore out on the river, as

an act of homage to Mrs. Moore. Ralph is curious about the procession,

which marks him as Mrs. Moore's son. The boat which Ralph and Aziz are in

collides with another boat carrying Fielding and Stella.

Chapter Thirty-Seven:

Fielding and Aziz are friends again, but aware that they can meet no

more. After the funny shipwreck there is no bitterness or nonsense. Aziz

admits how brave Miss Quested was, and claims that he wants to do kind

actions to wipe out the wretched business of the Marabar forever. Fielding

realizes that his wife does not love him as much as he loves her. They

realize that socially the two men have no meeting place. Fielding cannot

defy his own people for the sake of a stray Indian, and Aziz is but a

memento. Aziz explains what he can of the birthing ceremony to Fielding.

They discuss who should rule India. Fielding mockingly suggests the

Japanese, but Aziz wants his ancestors, the Afghans, to rule. To Aziz,

India will then become a nation. Aziz cries "down with the English. That's

certain," then states that only then will he and Fielding be friends.

Pride and Prejudice by J. Austen

Volume I, Chapter 1 Summary:

The novel begins with a conversation at Longbourn, the Bennet

household, regarding the impending arrival of Mr. Bingley, "a single man of

large fortune" to Netherfield Park, a nearby estate. Mrs. Bennet sees Mr.

Bingley as a potential suitor for her daughters, and attempts to persuade

Mr. Bingley to visit him. There are five daughters in the Bennet family.

Mr. Bennet seems to prefer Elizabeth, the second oldest, because of her

intelligence, while Mrs. Bennet seems fonder of the oldest, Jane, because

of her beauty, and the middle child, Lydia, because of her good humor.

Volume I, Chapter 2 Summary:

Without telling his family, Mr. Bennet pays a visit to Mr. Bingley. He

surprises his family by slipping the news unexpectedly into a conversation,

but disappoints them by eluding their barrage of questions about Bingley's


Volume I, Chapter 3 Summary:

The ladies of the household meet Mr. Bingley and his friend from

London, Mr. Darcy, at a ball at Meryton. Mr. Darcy is quickly judged as

"the proudest, most disagreeable man in the world" because of his reserve

and unwillingness to dance with anyone outside of his own party. When both

Darcy and Elizabeth are sitting out a dance and Bingley attempts to

persuade him to dance with her, Elizabeth overhears Darcy's reply "She is

tolerable; but not handsome enough to tempt me." Mr. Bingley, on the other

hand, is judged to be entirely amiable. He danced first with Charlotte

Lucas, Elizabeth's friend, but the only person with whom he danced twice

was Jane. Upon returning home, Mrs. Bennet attempts to explain the event of

the ball in detail to Mr. Bennet, but he is indifferent and even annoyed.

Volume I, Chapter 4 Summary:

When they are alone, Jane confides to Elizabeth that she admires Mr.

Bingley. Elizabeth approves of him, although she points out that Jane never

sees faults in others. While Elizabeth is critical of the snobbish behavior

of Bingley's sisters, Jane insists that they are pleasing in conversation.

Bingley has a long-standing friendship with Darcy, in spite of their

opposite personalities. Bingley is easy-going and open, while Darcy is

haughty and reserved. While Bingley found the company at the Meryton ball

to be quite amiable, Darcy saw no one with whom he wished to associate, and

even though he assents to Jane's beauty, he complains that she smiles too


Bingley's sisters also tell him that they like Jane, and he feels

"authorised by such commendation" to think what he likes of her.

Volume I, Chapter 5 Summary:

Sir William Lucas and his family live near Longbourn, and Sir

William's eldest daughter Charlotte is a close friend of Elizabeth. The day

after the ball Charlotte and Lady Lucas go visit the Miss Bennetts to talk

over the ball. They speak about general admiration for Jane's beauty and

Bingley's attraction to her, and then go on to criticize Darcy's pride and

his treatment of Elizabeth. Mary makes a remark about universality of pride

in human nature and its differentiation from vanity.

Volume I, Chapter 6 Summary:

Bingley's sisters, while not desirous of become better acquainted with

Mrs. Bennett and the younger Bennet sisters, begin to become better

acquainted with Jane and Elizabeth. Jane is pleased by their attention, but

Elizabeth is still critical of them. The mutual regard of Jane and Bingley

for one another is evident to Elizabeth, though Jane's composure and

"uniform cheerfulness of manner" prevent her regard for him from becoming


Charlotte remarks that it may not be such a good thing that Jane's

affection is guarded, because it may cause discouragement in Bingley.

Charlotte believes that a woman should show more affection than she feels

in order to make a man form an attachment to her, and thinks that

"happiness in marriage is entirely a matter of chance."

Mr. Darcy begins to take an interest in Elizabeth, attracted by her

dark eyes and the "easy playfulness" of her manners. Before conversing

directly with her, he listens on a conversation between Elizabeth and Sir

William Lucas. Elizabeth refuses to dance with Darcy, in spite of the

entreaties of Sir William. Darcy mentions his admiration for Elizabeth to

Miss Bingley, who is vainly attempting to attract his admiration to

herself. Miss Bingley responds by satirically criticizing Bennett family.

Volume I, Chapter 7 Summary:

Lydia and Catherine, the two youngest in the family, often go to visit

their aunt, Mrs. Phillips, in Meryton, where a militia regiment has

recently arrived. Mr. Bennet complains of his daughters' foolishness, but

Mrs. Bennet does not consider their obsession with the officers to be a

cause for concern.

Jane receives an invitation to have dinner with Bingley's sisters.

Rather than allowing her to use the carriage to go to Netherfield, Mrs.

Bingley tells Jane to go on horseback, hoping that it will rain and that

Jane will have to spend the night at Netherfield. Jane does not like the

scheme, but has no choice but to accept it.

The plan works all too well, however‹not only is Jane forced to spend

the night at Netherfield, but she falls ill as a result of getting soaked

in the rain, and has to stay at Netherfield until her recovery. Elizabeth

goes to Netherfield to visit Jane, and because there are no horses

available she walks. The Bingley sisters are scandalized that Elizabeth

walked such a distance in the mud. Jane's condition having intensified,

Elizabeth attends to her with great solicitude. Because Jane does not want

Elizabeth to leave, Miss Bingley invites her to stay at Netherfield.

Volume I, Chapter 8 Summary:

When Elizabeth leaves the dinner table to continue attending to Jane,

the Bingley sisters harshly criticize her pride and stubborn independence

for having walked to Netherfield alone, but Mr. Bingley and Darcy admire

Elizabeth's devotion to Jane. The Bingley sisters also deride the low

family connections of Jane and Elizabeth. Bingley does not seem to care

about their low connections, although Darcy considers it an impediment to

their marrying well.

In the evening after Jane has fallen asleep, Elizabeth joins the others in

the drawing room, and they have a conversation about what it means for a

woman to be accomplished. Darcy and Miss Bennett provide such unrealistic

criteria that Elizabeth claims she has never seen such a woman in her life.

Volume I, Chapter 9 Summary:

Elizabeth asks that her mother be summoned to come and see Elizabeth.

Mrs. Bennet is happy because she sees that Jane is not in danger but that

she is ill enough to continue her stay at Netherfield. Elizabeth is

thoroughly embarrassed by her mother's conduct in the conversation, and

particularly by her extreme rudeness to Darcy. Mrs. Bennet returns home and

Elizabeth continues to attend to Jane.

Volume I, Chapter 10 Summary:

That evening in the drawing room Darcy writes a letter to his sister

while Miss Bennet observes him and continually makes comments in admiration

of his letter-writing style. The group gets into a discussion about

Bingley's characters, which leads to Elizabeth's praise of someone who

yields to the persuasion of friends.

As the Bennet sisters sing and play the piano, Elizabeth notices how

frequently Mr. Darcy looks at her, but unable imagine that he might admire

her she assumes he is staring at her because of his disapproval of her.

Darcy asks her to dance a reel, but Elizabeth assumes that there is some

sarcasm in this invitation, and satirically declines the offer. Miss

Bingley notices, and begins to taunt Darcy by speaking about the

possibility of marrying into the Bennet family and emphasizing the

inferiority of her connections.

Volume I, Chapter 11 Summary:

After dinner Jane is feeling well enough to join the others in the

drawing room, and Elizabeth is delighted by the attention which Bingley

shows to her. Miss Bingley continues in her vain attempts to please Darcy,

and even feigns a love for reading, picking up the second volume of the

book which he is reading. She then begins to walk around the room,

attempting to catch Darcy's admiration. She fails, but as soon as she

invites Elizabeth to walk with her Mr. Darcy looks up and stops reading.

They begin to converse about Darcy's character, and Darcy admits that he

has a tendency to be resentful.

Volume I, Chapter 12 Summary:

Jane having recovered from her illness, she and Elizabeth resolve to

go home the next morning. Her mother is unwilling to send the carriage so

soon, wanting to extend Jane's stay as long as possible, but Elizabeth and

Jane are resolved to go and they ask for the Bingleys to lend them their

carriage. Elizabeth and Jane are glad to be returning home, and all except

Bingley are happy to see them go. Darcy is glad to be removed from the

danger of Elizabeth's company, and Miss Bingley is glad to be rid of her


Volume I, Chapter 13 Summary:

At breakfast the following day Mr. Bennet announces that Mr. Collins,

a cousin of his whom he has never met, will be coming to visit. Because of

the laws of inheritance at the time and because Mr. Bennet has no sons, Mr.

Collins is in line to inherit Longbourn. Mrs. Bennet hates Mr. Collins

because of this, but Elizabeth and Jane try to explain the nature of the

laws of entailment.

To inform them of his visit, Mr. Collins writes a letter to Mr.

Bennet. In the letter Mr. Collins explains that he has recently been

ordained and is under the patronage of Lady Catherine De Bourgh.

Mr. Collins arrives in the afternoon as expected. He is 25 years old,

tall and heavyset, with a grave air and formal manners. When he is

conversing with the women of the household before dinner, he mentions that

he is well aware of the hardship involved in the entailment of the estate

and that he wants to make amends for this hardship. He has come "prepared

to admire" the young ladies of the household. Mr. Collins also expresses

his admiration for the house itself and for the quality of the dinner.

Volume I, Chapter 14 Summary:

After dinner Mr. Bennet invites Mr. Collins to speak about his

patroness Lady Catherine. Mr. Collins describes Lady Catherine with great

solemnity and effusive praise, remarking on her great affability and

condescension to him in spite of her high rank. He also describes Lady

Catherine's daughter, Miss de Bourgh, as quite charming but rather sickly.

He tries to ingratiate himself with Lady Catherine by thinking up pretty

and flattering phrases to tell her about Miss de Bourgh while trying to

make his praise seem spontaneous. Mr. Bennet is convinced that Mr. Collins

is absurd.

After tea Mr. Bennet invites Mr. Collins to read aloud to the ladies.

Mr. Collins declares that he never reads novels and instead begins to read

with a book of sermons with "monotonous solemnity." After a few pages Lydia

interrupts the reading by asking her mother a question about her uncle

Philips. Mr. Collins is offended but takes the hint and stops reading after

briefly reprimanding the frivolity of Lydia. He then proposes playing a

game of backgammon.

Volume I, Chapter 15 Summary:

Mr. Collins' upbringing by an "illiterate and miserly father" along

with his unexpected good fortune in finding a patroness like Lady Catherine

has led to his lack of good sense and his strange combination of

obsequiousness and self-conceit. Now that he is settled he wants to "make

amends" for inheriting the Longbourn estate by marrying one of the young

ladies in the Bennet household. After meeting them, he was first attracted

to Jane because of her beauty, but after hearing from Mrs. Bennet that Jane

may soon be engaged, he switches his affections to Elizabeth.

Mr. Collins joins the ladies for a walk to Meryton. Upon reaching Meryton

they meet Mr. Denny, an officer with whom Lydia and Kitty are acquainted,

and he introduces them to a new member of the regiment, Mr. Wickham. Mr.

Wickham is handsome and charming. While they are all conversing, Bingley

and Darcy notice them as they are riding by and stop to greet them. As soon

as Darcy notices Mr. Wickham, he turns white, and Mr. Wickham turns red.

Bingley and Darcy continue on their way.

Mr. Denny and Mr. Wickham take leave of the young ladies once they

arrive at Mr. Philip's house. Jane introduces Mr. Collins to Mrs. Phillips.

Mrs. Philips plans to invite Mr. Wickham to dinner tomorrow and invites the

Longourn ladies and Mr. Collins to join them.

Volume I, Chapter 16 Summary:

At the beginning of the event at the Phillips' house the next day, Mr.

Collins speaks to Mrs. Philips about Lady Catherine and her mansion

Rosings, and Mrs. Philips is favorably impressed.

Elizabeth forms a very favorable impression of Mr. Wickham, and

converses with him at length during the evening. Elizabeth is curious to

find out about the obvious animosity which exists between him and Darcy.

Wickham brings up the subject by inquiring how long Darcy has been in the

area. Elizabeth expressed her dislike of Darcy to Wickham, and Wickham

mentions that he and Darcy have been intimately acquainted since childhood.

After feigning to avoid the subject, Wickham divulges to Elizabeth that

Darcy's father was his godfather and had promised to provide an ample

living for him, but after his death Darcy had circumvented his father's

promise and had given the living to someone else because of his dislike for

Wickham. Elizabeth is outraged and suggests that Darcy ought to be publicly

dishonored for his actions, but Wickham refuses to do so ought of respect

for Darcy's father. Wickham attributes Darcy's dislike of him to jealousy.

Elizabeth and Wickham also speak of Darcy's pride, which Wickham believes

is the source of all his generosity in the use of his money and excellent

care for his sister. Wickham alludes to a previously close but now very

cold relationship with Darcy's sister.

Wickham also mentions to Elizabeth that Lady Catherine de Bourgh is

Mr. Darcy's aunt, and that Mr. Darcy is expected to marry Miss de Bourgh in

order to unite the fortunes of the two families.

Volume I, Chapter 17 Summary:

When, the next day, Elizabeth relates to Jane the substance of her

conversation with Wickham, Jane refuses to think ill of either Wickham or

Darcy, and assumes that they must in some way be mutually deceived.

Mr. Bingley and his sisters come to Netherfield to announce a ball.

When Elizabeth asks Mr. Collins whether or not he plans to attend, he state

that he does and asks her for the first two dances. While she had wanted to

reserve those dances for Wickham, she gracefully accepts his offer.

Elizabeth begins to realize that she has become Mr. Collins choice for a

future wife, but she ignores his hints in that direction hoping that he

will not ask her.

Volume I, Chapter 18 Summary:

At the Netherfield Ball Elizabeth is disappointed because of Wickham's

absence, which she assumes is all Mr. Darcy's doing. After relating her

disappointment to her friend Charlotte Lucas, she suffers through her two

dances with Mr. Collins. Mr. Darcy asks her for a dance and Elizabeth is so

taken by surprise that she accepts. During the dance with Mr. Darcy

Elizabeth makes a bit of sarcastic conversation, poking fun at his

character. She alludes to her new acquaintance with Wickham and to the fact

that she thinks he has not behaved well toward him. They change the subject

after a brief interruption from Sir William Lucas, but then she goes back

to it by asking him about his previous admission that he has a tendency

toward resentment, explaining that she is unable to figure out his

character because she has received such contradictory accounts. After the

dance they part in silence but Darcy forgives her questioning and blames


Miss Bingley, having heard from Jane that Wickham has talked with

Elizabeth about Darcy, tries to warn her not to trust Wickham and assures

her that Darcy has done nothing wrong to Wickham but that Wickham has

treated Darcy shamefully. Elizabeth reacts rudely and considers Mr. Bingley

to be blinded to the truth. Jane also tells Elizabeth that Mr. Bingley

believes Darcy's behavior is above reproach and that Wickham is not reputed

to be of good character, but Elizabeth dismisses Bingley's opinion because

he received all his information from Darcy.

Mr. Collins finds out the Darcy is Lady Catherine's nephew and decides

to introduce himself, in spite of Elizabeth's warnings that it would be

inappropriate to do so because of Mr. Darcy's superior social status. Darcy

is surprised at Mr. Collins but replies to him with civility and then walks


Jane seems to be having a wonderful time with Mr. Bingley, and

Elizabeth enjoys herself in thinking of her sister's happiness. Mrs. Bennet

is also happy to see how well Jane and Mr. Bingley are getting along, and

during dinner speaks unceasingly and loudly about the imminence of their

engagement in close proximity to Mr. Darcy, much to Elizabeth's great


After dinner Mary accepts an invitation to play and sing at the piano,

and is insensible to Elizabeth's hints that she ought to decline. After

Mary's second piece Elizabeth gets her father to tell Mary to stop playing.

Mr. Collins then makes a speech about the importance of music which

nonetheless should not take precedence to more important parish duties.

Elizabeth feels completely embarrassed by her family's conduct during the


At the end of the ball Mrs. Bennet invites Bingley to dinner at

Longbourn and he promises to come as soon as he returns form a short trip

to London.

Volume I, Chapter 19 Summary:

The next day Mr. Collins proposes to Elizabeth, in a long speech explaining

that he considers it appropriate for him to marry and that he wants to

marry one of the Miss Bennets in order lessen the difficulty of the

entailment of the estate. Elizabeth refuses him in no uncertain terms, but

Mr. Collins refuses to believe that her refusal could be sincere,

considering it a formality of female coquetry to always refuse a proposal

the first time. Elizabeth repeats and strengthens her refusal, but as he

still cannot believe her to be sincere, she simply leaves.

Volume I, Chapter 20 Summary:

When Mrs. Bennet hears that Elizabeth has refused to marry Mr.

Collins, she entreats Mr. Bennet to force Elizabeth to change her mind. Mr.

Bennet agrees to speak with Elizabeth, but actually tells her that he would

never hear of her marrying such a man as Mr. Collins. Mrs. Bennet does not

give up however, and continually attempts to persuade Elizabeth to accept

the proposal. In the midst of all this confusion, Charlotte Lucas comes to

visit. Eventually Mr. Collins accepts Elizabeth's refusal.

Volume I, Chapter 21 Summary:

Mr. Collins reacts by treating Elizabeth coldly for the rest of the

day and shifting his attentions to Charlotte Lucas. The girls all walk to

Meryton after breakfast. Elizabeth speaks with Wickham and he accompanies

them back to Longbourn, paying particular attention to Elizabeth.

When they return Jane receives a letter from Caroline Bingley stating

that they have all left Netherfield for town and have no intention of

returning. She states that Mr. Bingley will most probably not return for at

least another six months. The letter also speaks of the family's

expectation that Mr. Bingley will marry Georgiana Darcy, implying that they

do not want him to marry Jane. Elizabeth attempts to comfort Jane by

reassuring her that Mr. Bingley really is attached to her and that in spite

of his sisters' efforts to prevent him from marrying Jane he will most

assuredly return to Netherfield.

Volume I, Chapter 22 Summary:

Charlotte Lucas continues to engage Mr. Collins in conversation for

the rest of the day. Early the next morning Mr. Collins goes to Lucas Lodge

to propose to Charlotte. Charlotte accepts and Sir William and Lady Lucas

approve of the match.

Mr. Collins left the next day without informing the Bennets of his

engagement. His promise to return soon was met by assurances on the part of

Mr. Bennet that they would not be offended if the fulfillment of his duties

prevented his speedy return.

Later in the day Miss Lucas tells Elizabeth about her engagement.

Elizabeth is shocked but tries to be kind in her reaction. She is however,

very unhappy about Charlotte's decision because she thinks that the match

is completely unsuitable.

Volume I, Chapter 23 Summary:

Later in the day Sir William Lucas came to announce the engagement, to

the great surprise of the rest of the family. Mrs. Bennet is incredulous

and after being convinced that the news was true is extremely angry at

Elizabeth for having turned down the proposal.

Elizabeth and Charlotte do not discuss the subject of the marriage between

themselves, and their friendship gradually diminishes.

Jane and Elizabeth are concerned because they have not heard anything

at all from Mr. Bingley.

Mr. Collins returns again to Longbourn in order to make preparations for

his marriage. The Bennets are not too happy to see him but they are glad

that he spends most of his time at Lucas Lodge.

Volume II, Chapter 1 Summary:

Jane receives another letter from Miss Bingley confirming that they

will definitely not return before the end of the winter, and boasting about

the whole family's increasing intimacy with Miss Darcy and the hopes of an

engagement between her and Mr. Bingley. When Elizabeth and Jane are finally

able to speak alone, Jane confides her disappointment to Elizabeth. In

spite of Elizabeth's arguments, Jane refuses to believe that the Miss

Bingleys and Mr. Darcy are responsible for persuading Mr. Bingley not to

propose to Jane.

Mrs. Bennet only aggravates the situation by speaking of Bingley so often,

and Mr. Bennet only responds sarcastically.

Some comfort is provided to the household by Mr. Wickham's society.

Soon the whole town knows Wickham's story about Darcy and is happy to

believe it and judge Darcy to be completely in the wrong.

Volume II, Chapter 2 Summary:

Mr. Collins leaves Longbourn with his usual solemnity.

Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner, Mrs. Bennet's brother and his wife, come to

Longbourn to visit. Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner are both sensible, intelligent

and refined. Elizabeth and Jane are very fond of them. Mrs. Gardiner and

Elizabeth speak about Jane and Bingley. Mrs. Gardiner offers to bring Jane

back to London with her in order to cheer her with the change of scene.

Elizabeth hopes that while in London Jane will run into Bingley.

During the course of the visit Mrs. Gardiner observes Elizabeth with

Wickham and notices her preference for him. Mrs. Gardiner enjoys speaking

with Wickham about mutual acquaintances and about Mr. Darcy and his father.

Volume II, Chapter 3 Summary:

Mrs. Gardiner speaks with Elizabeth about the imprudence of becoming

attached to Wickham because of his poor financial state. Elizabeth makes no

promises that she will not become attached to him, but does promise to try

to prevent the attachment as much as possible.

Mr. Collins returns to Hertfordshire for his wedding. Charlotte Lucas makes

Elizabeth promise to visit her at Hunsford

Jane writes to Elizabeth telling about her stay in London. Caroline

Bingley is extremely inattentive to her, pretending first that she is

unaware of Jane's presence in London, and then waiting a fortnight to make

a promised visit, which itself is rudely short.

In a letter to Mrs. Gardiner Elizabeth relates that Mr. Wickham's

affections for her have subsided and have been transferred to another young

lady, Miss King, who recently acquired 10,000 pounds. Elizabeth concludes

that she must not have been in love with him, because her feelings are

still cordial toward him.

Volume II, Chapter 4 Summary:

After a couple of dull winter months in Hertfordshire, Elizabeth is

looking forward to going with Sir William Lucas and his second daughter to

visit Charlotte. She parts very amiably with Wickham, reinforced in her

belief that he is a "model of the amiable and the pleasing." The travellers

stop for a night in London to see the Gardiners. Elizabeth is pleased to

see that Jane is looking well. Mrs. Gardiner informs her, however, that

Jane does undergo periods of dejection occasionally. Mrs. Gardiner is

critical of Wickham so quickly shifting his attentions to Miss King, but

Elizabeth defends him. Elizabeth is pleasantly surprised to be invited to

accompany the Gardiners on a tour of the country during the summer.

Volume II, Chapter 5 Summary:

The next day Elizabeth, Sir William and his daughter Maria set out for

Hunsford to visit Charlotte. Upon arriving Mr. Collins welcomes him to the

house with his usual verbose formality. Charlotte‹now Mrs. Collins‹seems to

endure Mr. Collins' silliness very well, and to take pleasure in managing

the house. On reflection, Elizabeth concludes that Charlotte is handling

things well.

Elizabeth's reflections are interrupted by shouts from Maria telling

her to look outside because Miss de Bourgh is there in her carriage.

Elizabeth is happy that Miss de Bourgh looks sickly and cross, thinking

that she'll make a perfect wife for Mr. Darcy. After the carriage drives

away Mr. Collins congratulates them because they have all been invited to

dine at Rosings the next day.

Volume II, Chapter 6 Summary:

The day of the dinner at Rosings is spent mostly in listening to Mr.

Collins, who is trying to prepare his guests for the grandeur they are

about to encounter. While Maria and Sir William are extremely nervous about

meeting Lady Catherine, Elizabeth sees nothing to be intimidated about,

being unimpressed by "the mere stateliness of money and rank."

Lady Catherine is "a tall, large woman, with strongly-marked

features," and her manner of receiving her visitors is one which does not

fail to remind them of their inferior rank. Miss de Bourgh is extremely

thin and small. Mrs. Jenkinson, who lives with them, has an unremarkable

appearance and spends most of her time fussing over Miss de Bourgh.

At dinner nothing much is said other than continuous compliments about

the food from Mr. Collins, which are echoed by Sir William. After dinner

Lady Catherine speaks about her opinion on every subject which comes to

mind and offers advice to Charlotte about even the smallest details of

household management. She then barrages Elizabeth with impertinent

questions about her and her family. Elizabeth answers with composure but

without fear of giving her own opinion. For the rest of the evening they

play cards.

Volume II, Chapter 7 Summary:

Sir William Lucas stays only for a week at Hunsford, but Elizabeth

stays for quite some time longer. She passes the time pleasantly,

conversing with Charlotte and taking long walks through the gardens. They

all dine regularly at Rosings about twice a week, and all dinners follow

the model of the first.

After having stayed a fortnight at Hunsford Elizabeth hears that Mr.

Darcy is planning to visit Rosings. She looks forward to his coming because

he will provide a new face at the dinner parties and because she wants to

see how he acts with Miss de Bourgh, whom he is expected to marry. When Mr.

Darcy arrives with his cousin Colonel Fitzwilliam, the two gentlemen

immediately call at Hunsford. Elizabeth asks Darcy whether or not he has

seen Jane in the past few months, in order to see if he betrays any

knowledge about what happened between Jane and the Bingleys. He looks a bit

confused but simply answers that he has not seen her.

Volume II, Chapter 8 Summary:

It is about a week before Elizabeth and Mr. and Mrs. Collins are

invited again to Rosings, since Lady Catherine is no longer in need of

company. During the evening Colonel Fitzwilliam and Elizabeth have a very

enjoyable conversation. Lady Catherine seems annoyed that she is not a part

of the conversation, and interrupts them in order to join in. Mr. Darcy

looks a bit ashamed at his aunt's impertinence and ill-breeding in treating

Elizabeth as an inferior.

At Colonel Fitzwilliam's request, Elizabeth begins to play the piano.

As she playing Darcy walks away from Lady Catherine in order to go up to

the piano and watch her. They have a very lively conversation, teasing each

other playfully about their characters. Soon Lady Catherine interrupts

demanding to know what they are talking of, and Elizabeth immediately

resumes playing. Lady Catherine offers generous criticisms and advice about

Elizabeth's playing. Elizabeth tries to observe how Mr. Darcy reacts to

Miss de Bourgh, and she finds in him no sign of affection for her.

Volume II, Chapter 9 Summary:

The next morning, when only Elizabeth is at home, Mr. Darcy comes to

visit alone. He had thought that the other ladies were also at home. They

converse for a while about several subjects, including his quick departure

from Netherfield last November, and Charlotte's marriage to Mr. Collins.

When Elizabeth tells Darcy that, contrary to his opinions, Charlotte is not

exactly close to her family since they lack the income to travel

frequently, he tells Elizabeth emphatically that she must not have such

strong local attachments. Elizabeth is surprised and he quickly cools his

tone of voice and changes the subject to a general conversation about the

countryside. Charlotte and Marie return from their walk Mr. Darcy stays for

a few minutes and then leaves. Charlotte tells Elizabeth that Mr. Darcy

must be in love with her, but Elizabeth convinces her that such is not the


Colonel Fitzwalliams calls on the ladies frequently because he enjoys

their company. Elizabeth can tell that he admires her. He reminds her of

Wickham. Neither Elizabeth nor Charlotte are able to figure out why Mr.

Darcy calls on them so often. Charlotte keeps suggesting that Mr. Darcy

must be partial to her, but Elizabeth simply laughs at the idea.

Volume II, Chapter 10 Summary:

Elizabeth often unexpectedly meets Mr. Darcy during her walks in the

Park, in spite of the fact that she has told him where she usually walks in

hopes of deterring him from taking the same path. When they meet he not

only stops to say hello but also walks all the way back to the house with

her. During one conversation he asks questions which seem to imply that in

the future when she comes to Kent she will be staying at Rosings. Elizabeth

thinks that he may be alluding to the prospect of her marriage to Colonel


On another walk Elizabeth runs into Colonel Fitzwilliam. He speaks to

her about the fact that because he is a younger son he cannot ignore

financial concerns in his choice of whom to marry. Elizabeth thinks that

this statement may be made for her sake. They also speak of Miss Darcy, and

then of Bingley. Colonel Fitzwilliam tells Elizabeth that Darcy recently

saved a good friend probably Bingley from an imprudent marriage.

When she is alone and reflecting on the conversation, Elizabeth is

sure that it was due to Darcy's influence that Bingley did not propose to

Jane. Her reflections distress her so much that she begins to have a

headache, and her headache combined with her desire to avoid seeing Mr.

Darcy lead her to stay at home even though they have been invited to

Rosings that evening.

Volume II, Chapter 11 Summary:

While Elizabeth is at home alone, the door bell rings and she thinks

that it might be Colonel Fitzwilliam. To her surprise, however, it is Mr.

Darcy. After he inquires about her health, he paces around the room for a

few minutes and then makes a declaration of love for her. While he speaks

eloquently about his admiration for her, he also clearly expresses the

inferiority of her connections and the family obstacles which prevented him

from proposing sooner. Elizabeth turns down his proposal rather harshly,

and he is both surprised and resentful.

Elizabeth explains her reasons for turning him down. These reasons

are, first, the arrogant manner of his proposal; second, his actions to

separate Bingley and Jane; and third, his actions toward Wickham. Darcy

replies angrily that her calculation of his faults is indeed heavy, but

that she might have overlooked them if he had not been honest about the

fact that her family connections had made him try to avoid becoming

attached to her. She simply states that his manner of proposal had no

influence on her other than to "spare me the concern of refusing you, had

you acted in a more gentlemanlike manner." After she finishes speaking he

quickly leaves the room.

Elizabeth collapses and cries from weakness as a result of what has

passed. She is flattered that he should have proposed to her, but any

softness which she feels toward him because of his affection is quickly

dissipated as soon as she thinks of his "abominable pride" and all that he

has done to Jane and to Wickham.

Volume II, Chapter 12 Summary:

The next morning Elizabeth decides to go for a walk. Though she avoids

her usual walking route, Mr. Darcy finds her and gives her a letter, then

quickly leaves. First the letter explains Darcy's reasons for persuading

Bingley not to marry Jane. Darcy admits that the impropriety of the Bennet

family made him hope that the two would not marry, but that his main reason

for preventing Bingley from proposing to Jane was that he did not think

that Jane had any particular regard for Bingley. The only part of his

conduct which he is uneasy about is that he concealed from Bingley his

knowledge that Jane has been in London for the past few months.

In response to Elizabeth's charge that Darcy had injured Mr. Wickham,

Darcy relates the whole account of Wickham's relationship with him and his

family. Darcy's father was very fond of Wickham and paid to provide him

with an excellent education. Before his death Darcy's father asked Darcy to

promote Wickham's professional advancement and stipulated that if Wickham

should become a clergyman Darcy should provide him with a good family

living. Wickham, however, having no desire to become a clergyman, wrote to

Darcy after his father's death and asked for money in order to study law.

Darcy gave him 3,000 pounds and Wickham resigned his claim to assistance in

a church career. However, Wickham quickly gave up on studying law and

squandered the money with a dissipate lifestyle. When he needed more money

he went to Darcy and told him that he would become a clergyman if Darcy

would provide him with the living that had been promised. Darcy refused,

and Wickham was furious. A while afterwards, Wickham, with the help of Miss

Darcy's governess Miss Younge, managed to deceive Darcy's younger sister

into consenting to elope with him when she was fifteen. Darcy happened to

go see his sister before the intended elopement and she ended up confessing

the whole plan to him. He thus prevented the elopement, the motives for

which on Wickham's side were mostly Miss Darcy's fortune and a desire to

revenge himself on Mr. Darcy.

Volume II, Chapter 13 Summary:

Elizabeth reads the letter "with a strong prejudice against everything

he might say." She does not at all believe his claim that he prevented

Bingley from proposing to Jane because he thought Jane was not attached to

him. After reading Darcy's account of his dealings with Wickham, she does

not know how to react and tries to convince herself it must be false. She

puts away the letter, resolving not to think about it, but then examines it

slowly, line by line. After long deliberation Elizabeth begins to rethink

her previous judgment of Wickham. She realizes that his communications to

her in their first conversation were indelicate, improper and inconsistent,

and that his attentions to Miss King were purely mercenary.

She begins to see that she judged Darcy completely wrongly, and she

grows ashamed, concluding that she been "blind, partial, prejudiced,

absurd," in spite of the fact that has always prided herself on her

judgment. She realizes that vanity has been the cause of her prejudice.

After this realization, she rereads the first part of the letter which

deals with his reasons for preventing Bingley's proposal to Jane. She now

sees that he had reason to be suspicious of Jane's attachment. Elizabeth

also admits that Darcy's criticisms of the impropriety of her mother and

younger sisters is just, and is ashamed and depressed.

After wandering through the park or two hours, engrossed in her

reflections, she returns to the Parsonage to find that both Mr. Darcy and

Colonel Fitzwilliam have stopped by to take leave of them, but have since

left. She is glad to have missed them.

Volume II, Chapter 14 Summary:

Lady Catherine invites Elizabeth, Maria and the Collinses to dinner

because she is bored now that her nephews have left. Elizabeth can't help

thinking that she might have been attending this dinner as Lady Catherine's

future niece, and amusing herself at how indignant Lady Catherine would be.

Lady Catherine attempts to persuade Elizabeth and Maria to stay another

fortnight, but Elizabeth insists that her father wants her to come home.

She spends much time over the next few days before her return home

reflecting on the contents of the letter and on her past conduct. She does

not regret her refusal of Darcy's offer, but does regret her own past

actions. She is also depressed by the hopelessness of improving the

character of her younger sisters, since her father only laughs at them and

her mother is equally frivolous. She is also sad to think that Jane could

have been so happy had it not been for the indecorum of her family.

Volume II, Chapter 15 Summary:

Elizabeth and Maria leave the Parsonage on Saturday morning, after

lengthy parting civilities from Mr. Collins. Before returning to

Hertferdshore, they stop at the Gardiner's to spend a few days there. Jane

is to return home with them. Elizabeth is tempted to tell her all that she

learned from Darcy, but decides to wait because she is not sure how much

she should reveal.

Volume II, Chapter 16 Summary:

Upon reaching Hertfordshire they are greeted by Kitty and Lydia, who

have prepared lunch for them at the inn where they have arranged to meet

the carriage. Elizabeth is happy to hear that regiment will soon be leaving

Meryton, although Kitty and Lydia are not equally pleased. Lydia hopes that

Mr. Bennet will allow them all to go to Brighton for the summer since the

officers will be there. During lunch Lydia tells Jane and Elizabeth that

Miss King has left and that Wickham is therefore once again available.

Lydia entertains them on the carriage home by relating stories of all the

balls and dances they have attended with the officers in Meryton. When they

arrive at Longbourn they have dinner with the Lucases, who have come to

meet Maria. Lydia urges everyone to take a walk with her to Meryton, but

Elizabeth stays home because she wants to avoid seeing Wickham.

Volume II, Chapter 17 Summary:

The next morning Elizabeth tells Jane about Darcy's proposal, and

about the part of the letter regarding Wickham. Jane is shocked not as much

about the proposal as about Wickham's being so bad, and tries to make

excuses for him, but realizes that no excuse can be found. Elizabeth asks

Jane whether or not she should let the rest of the town know about

Wickham's true character. They decide it would be best to keep the matter

quiet, since he is leaving soon and it will be extremely difficult to

convince people without telling about his attempts to seduce Miss Darcy.

Elizabeth decides that she should not tell Jane about the part of Darcy's

letter which relates to her and Bingley. After observing Jane at leisure,

Elizabeth sees that she is not happy and is still very attached to Bingley.

Volume II, Chapter 18 Summary:

Kitty, Lydia and Mrs. Bennet are extremely disappointed because the

regiment is leaving Meryton. Lydia receives an invitation from Mrs.

Forster, the wife of the Colonel of the regiment, to accompany her to

Brighton. Lydia is ecstatic.

Elizabeth entreats her father to prevent Lydia from going, explaining

that such an experience will only increase her frivolousness. But her

father does not listen and tells Elizabeth that Lydia will be fine in

Brighton under the supervision of Colonel Forster and that she is too poor

to be taken advantage of by any of the officers in the regiment.

Elizabeth sees Wickham frequently. He attempts to renew his attentions

to her, but she represses them and is annoyed by them. On the last day of

their stay in Meryton, they have a conversation in which Elizabeth speaks

of her stay at the Parsonage and her enjoyment of Darcy's and Colonel

Fitzwilliam's company. She leads Wickham to suspect that she knows the

truth of his past. He pretends not to notice but stops distinguishing

Elizabeth. At the end of the party Lydia returns to Meryton with Mrs.

Forster in order to be able to set out with them for Brighton early in the


Volume II, Chapter 19 Summary:

Elizabeth's father had married her mother because he was captivated by

her beauty, but her weak understanding soon made him lose all real

affection for her. Mr. Bennet derives his enjoyment from books and the

country. Elizabeth has always recognized the impropriety of her father's

behavior as a husband, and is now especially aware of the disadvantage that

such a marriage has had on the children. She faults her father for not

having used his talents to at least preserve the respectability of his


The days at Longbourn are far from enjoyable, with the constant

lamentations of boredom form Mrs. Bennet and Kitty. Elizabeth consoles

herself by looking forward to her tour of the Lakes with the Gardiners.

After a few weeks things become more bearable at home, and Elizabeth hopes

that Kitty may be improved by the time away from Lydia.

Elizabeth's vacation with the Gardiners is delayed and shortened on

account of Mr. Gardiner's work commitments. In the course of the trip they

pass near Pemberley and Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner want to go see it. Elizabeth

does not want to go because of fear of seeing Darcy, but she finds out from

the maid that the Darcy family is not at home.

Volume III, Chapter 1 Summary:

Elizabeth is captivated by the beauty of Pemberley, and feels that it

would not be bad to be the mistress of such a house. She almost has a

feeling of regret. The housekeeper gives them a tour of the house and talks

to them about Mr. Darcy and Miss Darcy. She describes Mr. Darcy as

exceptionally sweet-tempered, generous and good-natured, remarking that she

has "never heard a cross word from him." Elizabeth is surprised, having

retained her assumption that Darcy is ill-tempered. Elizabeth is also

impressed with Darcy's excellent treatment of his younger sister. After

hearing so much praise of Darcy from his housekeeper, Elizabeth thinks of

his regard for her with more warmth than ever.

As they go out to see the gardens, Mr. Darcy unexpectedly comes

forward from the road. Both he and Elizabeth are ill at ease, but she is

impressed at the genteel civility in his inquiries. After exchanging a few

civilities he takes leave. Elizabeth is mortified and wonders what he might

think of her for having come to visit the house.

Elizabeth is extremely distracted but attempts to be sociable and make

conversation with her aunt and uncle as they walk through the garden. After

a long while she is surprised to see Mr. Darcy coming toward them. They are

both better prepared for this encounter. Mr. Darcy asks Elizabeth to

introduce him to the Gardiners. In spite of the fact that they are a much

lower class than he, he enters into conversation with them and even tells

Mr. Gardiner that he is welcome to come to Pemberley and fish as long as he

is in the area.

Elizabeth and Darcy begin walking together, and she informs him that

she thought he would not be at home. He explains his reason for returning

early and then asks her if he can introduce his sister to her when she

arrives the next day. Elizabeth is surprised at this offer but accepts.

When they reach the house they have an awkward conversation while waiting

for the Gardiners to catch up with them, and then he sees them off with

great politeness.

The Gardiners are very pleased and surprised at Darcy's civility,

having heard from so many people, including Elizabeth, that he is so

disagreeable, and still believing Wickham's story. Elizabeth tells them in

a very guarded way that there is reason to believe that Darcy is not at

fault in his dealings with Wickham.

Volume III, Chapter 2 Summary:

Mr. Darcy brings his sister to visit Elizabeth at the inn the very

morning of her arrival. Elizabeth is caught by surprise, not thinking that

they will come until the next day. She is extremely nervous because she

wants Georgiana to form a good opinion of her. The Gardiners begin to

suspect that Darcy has a partiality for Elizabeth, seeing no other

explanation for such attentions. Elizabeth is relieved to see that Miss

Darcy is as nervous as she is. Miss Darcy is shy, attractive and graceful,

with unassuming and gentle manners. Soon Mr. Bingley comes to visit as

well. All of Elizabeth's anger at him disappears upon seeing him. The

Gardiners, through their observations and conversation, become completely

convinced that Darcy is in love with Elizabeth.

Elizabeth observes the conduct of Bingley and Georgiana toward one

another, and is happy to find no sign of particular regard on the part of

either. When Bingley has a moment to speak to Elizabeth without the others'

hearing, he inquires about Jane and seems to regret that it has been so

long since he has seen her.

Elizabeth is amazed at Darcy's civility toward the Gardiners, relations

which he had previously spoken of with disdain, and she cannot imagine the

reason for his change in manners. Before the visitors leave Darcy invites

Elizabeth and the Gardiners to dinner at Pemberley, and they accept.

The Gardiners, seeing that Darcy is in love with Elizabeth, reevaluate

their former negative opinion of him, which had been based on the accounts

of their friends in Hertfordshire. They are satisfied that he is a much

better man they had previously thought, and also find that Wickham is not

held in such good esteem in the area.

Elizabeth stays awake trying to discern her feelings for Darcy. She

realizes that she is grateful to him for having loved her and loving her

still even after the rudeness of her rejection. She is extremely impressed

by his change of character, and esteems him highly, but is still not sure

whether or not she loves him.

Mrs. Gardiner decides that she and Elizabeth should wait on Miss Darcy

the following morning in return for her great politeness in coming to see

them immediately after her arrival.

Volume III, Chapter 3 Summary:

During their visit to Pemberley Miss Darcy receives them with

civility, although she is very shy. Mrs. Hurst and Miss Bingley say very

little, and the conversation is carried on mostly by Mrs. Annesley (an

acquaintance), Mrs. Gardiner and Elizabeth. Elizabeth both hopes and fears

that Mr. Darcy will join them.

After a while Mr. Darcy does join them, and his actions are closely

scrutinized by Miss Bingley and Miss Hurst. When Miss Bingley notices that

Mr. Darcy is trying to get Elizabeth and Georgiana to converse, she asks

Elizabeth a question about the militia. Elizabeth answers with composure,

and notices that both Mr. Darcy and Georgiana are pained by the allusion to


After Elizabeth and Mrs. Gardiner take their leave, Miss Bingley

speaks negatively about Elizabeth to Georgiana, but Georgiana's opinion is

fixed firmly in Elizabeth's favor by her brother's commendations. Miss

Bingley also repeats her criticisms of Elizabeth to Darcy, and after much

provocation he coolly answers that he considers Elizabeth one of the most

handsome women he has ever met, and then walks away.

Volume III, Chapter 4 Summary:

Elizabeth receives two letters from her sister relating that Lydia has

eloped with Wickham. At first they expected that the two were planning to

go to Scotland to get married (because minors can marry without parental

permission in Scotland). However, after gaining further intelligence they

find that there is reason to doubt that Wickham has any intention of

marrying her at all. Jane asks Elizabeth and the Gardiners to return home

as soon as possible, and requests that Mr. Gardiner help her father search

for Lydia and Wickham in London.

Elizabeth rushes to the door to go out to find Mr. Gardiner, but as

she does so Mr. Darcy appears. She tells him with great agitation that she

must go immediately in search of Mr. Gardiner, but he recommends that a

servant be sent. That being done, Elizabeth collapses into a chair and when

she is able to she explains the situation to Darcy. He is extremely

distressed, thinking that if he had revealed more of what he knew about

Wickham's character this could have been prevented. Elizabeth, observing

Darcy, believes that such an action on her sister's part will make a

renewal of Darcy's proposal impossible. Feeling this loss, she realizes

that she loves him.

After a few minutes Darcy realizes that he is doing no good by his

presence and takes his leave, promising to maintain secrecy on the matter

and wishing that he could do more to help. Elizabeth watches him go with

regret, doubting that they will ever meet again on such friendly terms.

Elizabeth has no doubts that Wickham does not plan to marry Lydia. She

knows that Lydia would not have gone off with him if she were not under the

pretense that they were going to be married, but Elizabeth also realizes

that Lydia is easy prey for Wickham's deceptions. The Gardiners quickly

return and Elizabeth relates the sad news to them. Mr. Gardiner promises to

do all he can to help, and they quickly prepare for their journey.

Volume III, Chapter 5 Summary:

On the way back to Longbourn, Mr. Gardiner attempts to convince

Elizabeth that Wickham must have a genuine intention of marrying Lydia, but

Elizabeth, knowing what she does of Wickham, is not convinced. Elizabeth

reproaches herself for not having revealed what she knew of Wickham's true


They arrive at Longbourn the next day and Jane is very happy to see

Elizabeth. So far there is no new news about Lydia's whereabouts. Mrs.

Bennet has taken things badly and will not leave her apartment. When they

go to see her, she tells them that she blames the Forsters for neglect, not

thinking that Lydia is the type of girl to do such a thing. She is alarmed

that when Mr. Bennet finds them he will fight with Wickham and be killed.

Mr. Gardiner tries to reassure her, and promises to do what he can to help

Mr. Bennet in London. Kitty and Mary do not seem extremely upset over the


When Elizabeth and Jane are alone they discuss what has happened in

more detail. Jane shows Elizabeth the note which Lydia left for Mrs.

Forster. Lydia's letter shows extreme thoughtlessness and frivolity, but

also proves that she had every intention to marry Wickham.

Volume III, Chapter 6 Summary:

The next morning Mr. Gardiner sets off for London. Mrs. Gardiner plans

to remain for a few more days at Longbourn in order to help Elizabeth and

Jane. All in Meryton quickly changed their opinion of Wickham from "an

angel of light" to "the wickedest young man in the world," now finding

fault with so many of his actions.

A letter from Mr. Gardiner arrives in a couple of days, explaining

that they plan to inquire at every major hotel about Lydia and Wickham. Mr.

Gardiner also plans to ask Mr. Forster if anyone in the militia has any

idea of where he would be staying in London.

They receive a letter from Mr. Collins, offering condolences and also

criticizing the lack of parental attention to Lydia. He also alludes to the

fact that he is now glad Elizabeth turned down his proposal, since being

married to her would connect him with this disgrace.

Another letter arrives from Mr. Gardiner saying that Mr. Forster has

had no luck in finding any possible close friends or relations with whom

Wickham and Lydia might be staying. He also mentions that Wickham has extra

reasons for secrecy because of over 1,000 dollars in gaming debts, along

with other debts to the town merchants. Mr. Bennet decides to come home and

leave the rest of the searching to Mr. Gardiner. At the same time, Mrs.

Gardiner returns home to London with her children.

Elizabeth's misery at the situation is greatly increased by the

knowledge that it probably ruins her chances of marriage to Darcy. When

Elizabeth speaks to her father, he tells her that he thinks himself

completely to blame.

Volume III, Chapter 7 Summary:

Mr. Bennet receives an express letter from Mr. Gardiner, stating that

he has found Wickham and that Wickham will agree to marry Lydia on

condition that she receives her equal share of Mr. Bennet's wealth after

his death along with 100 pounds per year. Mr. Gardiner assumes that

Wickham's debts are not so bad as everyone had thought.

Mr. Bennet comments that Mr. Gardiner must have paid Wickham a large

sum of money to make him comply, since what Wickham is asking is extremely

little. When Elizabeth and Jane relate the news to Mrs. Bennet, Kitty and

Lydia, Mrs. Bennet is ecstatic. She begins to think about ordering the

wedding clothes.

Volume III, Chapter 8 Summary:

Mr. Bennet wants to find out how much Mr. Gardiner paid to get Wickham

to agree to the marriage and to pay him back as much as possible.

After listening throughout dinner to Mrs. Bennet's talk of wedding

plans and suitable houses in the neighborhood for Lydia and Wickham, Mr.

Bennet informs her that he will not receive the couple at Longbourn, nor

give Lydia money for wedding clothes. Mrs. Bennet is more disgraced by her

daughter's lack of new clothes for the wedding than by her elopement.

Elizabeth reflects on the fact that with Wickham as a member of the

family, there is no possibility that Darcy will propose to her again. His

proposal of four months ago would now be most gratefully received. She

realizes that Darcy is the man who would most suit her, and that their

personalities would complement each other for their mutual advantage.

Another letter arrives from Mr. Gardiner. He reports that Wickham is

planning to quit the militia and that has a promise of an ensigncy in a

regiment quartered in the North. The letter also mentions Wickham will pay

off all his debts both in Brighton and Meryton. After entreaties from

Elizabeth and Jane, Mr. Bennet decides to allow Lydia and Wickham to visit

Longbourn before leaving for the North.

Volume III, Chapter 9 Summary:

When the couple arrives, they show no sense of shame whatsoever and

Lydia shamelessly expects congratulations from all her sisters. Jane and

Elizabeth are extremely distressed at Lydia's conduct.

Upon observance, Elizabeth finds that Wickham's affection for Lydia is

not nearly so strong as her affection for him. Lydia relates to Elizabeth

all the details of the wedding. She is completely ungrateful for what the

Gardiners have done, and even complains that they would not let her go out

while she was staying with them. Lydia mentions in passing that Mr. Darcy

attended the wedding, but then says that she was not supposed to tell

anyone. Elizabeth writes to Mrs. Gardiner asking for more details about why

Mr. Darcy was at the wedding.

Volume III, Chapter 10 Summary:

Mrs. Gardiner's letter arrives, explaining all the particulars with

regard to Mr. Darcy's involvement in the wedding. Mr. Darcy was the one who

found out Wickham's whereabouts by bribing Miss Younge (the woman who had

helped Wickham to seduce Georgiana) to tell him. When Darcy found the

couple, he tried to convince Lydia to leave, but she refused. That being

the case, Darcy tried to get Wickham to marry Lydia, which Wickham had no

intention of doing. Darcy offered Wickham money in order to persuade him to

marry Lydia. Darcy then waited until Mr. Bennet had left for Longbourn and

went to inform Mr. Gardiner of all that had occurred, explaining that he

felt guilty for not having exposed Wickham's character sooner.

Mrs. Gardiner concludes the letter stating that she is sure Darcy's

actions are motivated by his love for Elizabeth, and relates to Elizabeth

how much she thinks that he would be a good match.

In reflecting on the letter, Elizabeth is sensible of all the

mortification and suffering which Darcy must have gone through in the

process of getting Wickham to marry Lydia. She does not think, however,

that his regard for her could possibly be the primary motive, and she still

does not think that there is any hope that he will marry her.

Elizabeth's reflections are interrupted by Wickham. They have a guarded

conversation in which she makes it clear that she knows more about

Wickham's true past than he would like, but she avoids provoking him for

Lydia's sake.

Volume III, Chapter 11 Summary:

Lydia and Wickham leave for Newcastle, where his new regiment is

stationed. Lydia's good-byes are not very affectionate. Mrs. Bennet is sad

that she will not be able to see her daughter for a long time.

Mrs. Bennet hears from Mrs. Phillips that Mr. Bingley is planning to

return to Netherfield in a few days. Jane tells Elizabeth that she does not

want to see much of him. Elizabeth, however, after having seen him while on

vacation with the Gardiners, is sure that he is still partial to Jane, and

thinks that perhaps Mr. Darcy may have told Bingley that he now approves of

the match.

Mrs. Bennet plans to invite Bingley to dinner. Jane is obviously

disturbed by his coming and is pained by the constant mention of his name.

Mr. Bingley and Darcy come to pay a visit at Netherfield. Elizabeth

begins to hope that Darcy's affections for her are not shaken. When they

come in, Elizabeth is pained by Mrs. Bennet's cold reception of Darcy in

comparison with Mr. Bingley, considering how much she owes to Darcy.

Elizabeth is also mortified by her mother's jubilant announcement of Lydia

and Wickham's marriage. Darcy speaks little during the visit. When the

gentlemen are leaving Mrs. Bennet invites them for dinner.

Volume III, Chapter 12 Summary:

During the dinner party, Bingley sits next to Jane and Elizabeth is

convinced that he still admires her. Mr. Darcy and Elizabeth are sitting

too far apart to be able to speak, and circumstances prevent them from

conversing after dinner. Elizabeth is anxious and annoyed because she wants

to speak with him very badly. Mrs. Bennet is extremely pleased with the

dinner and is sure that Bingley and Jane will soon be married. Mr. Darcy is

going back to London but will return in 10 days.

Volume III, Chapter 13 Summary:

After a few days Mr. Bingley calls again, and the day after he joins

them again for dinner. Mrs. Bennet contrives to get Jane and Bingley alone

together, but is unsuccessful. The next morning Mr. Bingley joins Mr.

Bennet to go hunting, and he then stays for dinner. Mrs. Bennet is this

time successful in arranging for Jane and Bingley to be left alone

together. When Elizabeth walks into the drawing room she finds them there

alone in earnest conversation. Bingley quickly leaves and Jane tells

Elizabeth that she is the happiest woman in the world. Jane then goes to

tell her mother, and Bingley, who had gone to speak with Mr. Bennet,

returns and receives Elizabeth's congratulations. All are very happy.

Bingley now comes to visit Netherfield every day.

Volume III, Chapter 14 Summary:

Early the next morning Lady Catherine unexpectedly comes to visit.

Lady Catherine is, as usual, domineering and arrogant in her conversation.

She tells Elizabeth she would like her company for a walk outside. Lady

Catherine tells Elizabeth that she has come because of rumors that Darcy

and Elizabeth will soon be married. Elizabeth answers her inquiries curtly

and without revealing the fact that Darcy has not proposed to her again.

Lady Catherine tries to forbid Elizabeth to marry Mr. Darcy, but Elizabeth

is insensible to her entreaties and threats. Lady Catherine is furious and


Volume III, Chapter 15 Summary:

Her conversation with Lady Catherine throws Elizabeth into a great

discomposure of spirits. She is not sure what the cause of Lady Catherine's

suspicion is, but she is uneasy about the fact that Lady Catherine will

surely try to influence Darcy not to propose.

Mr. Bennet tells Elizabeth that he wants to speak with her and relates

to her the contents of a letter from Mr. Collins in which he says that he

has heard that Mr. Darcy may propose to Elizabeth and advises Elizabeth not

to accept because of Lady Catherine's disapprobation. Mr. Bennet thinks the

letter is extremely amusing because he still thinks that Darcy is

indifferent to Elizabeth and that Elizabeth hates Darcy.

Volume III, Chapter 16 Summary:

Within a few days Mr. Darcy returns to Netherfield and he and Mr.

Bingley come to Longbourn early in the day. Jane, Bingley, Darcy,

Elizabeth, and Kitty take a walk. Jane and Bingley lag behind the rest, and

eventually Darcy and Elizabeth are left to walk together alone as well. As

soon as they are alone Elizabeth expresses to Darcy her gratitude for his

assistance in the affair with Wickham and Lydia. Darcy replies that he

wishes she had not found out, but adds that what he did was done for

Elizabeth's sake. Elizabeth cannot say a word. Darcy tells her that his

affections are no different than they were when he proposed, and asks her

to tell him if hers are the same as well. Elizabeth informs him that her

sentiments have changed and that she will now gladly receive his assurances

of continued affection. He is overcome with delight upon hearing this and

speaks warmly and fervently about his love. Lady Catherine's attempt to

dissuade him from proposing only had the effect of giving him hope by

letting him know that Elizabeth was not decided against marrying him.

They speak about the last proposal, both apologizing for their lack of

civility. Mr. Darcy had been tortured by Elizabeth's reproof "had you acted

in a more gentleman-like manner." This and her other reproofs on that night

humbled him and led him to realize his selfishness and conceit. Elizabeth

tells Darcy that his letter slowly removed all her former prejudices. When

Darcy met Elizabeth at Pemberley, he wanted to show her immediately that he

had changed as a result of her just reproofs.

Darcy tells Elizabeth that before leaving for London he had told

Bingley that he had been wrong in interfering with Bingley's relationship

with Jane and that he was now sure that Jane was really attached to him.

This assurance from Darcy gave Bingley the encouragement he needed to make

the proposal.

Volume III, Chapter 17 Summary:

At night, when she is finally able to speak with Jane alone, Elizabeth

tells her what has happened. Jane is incredulous. But eventually Elizabeth

convinces her that she is serious and that she really does love Darcy.

Elizabeth explains her reasons for previously concealing her affection, and

reveals to Jane what Darcy did for Lydia. Jane is extremely happy for her,

and they spend half the night talking.

The next morning Mrs. Bennet is annoyed on seeing that Mr. Darcy has

again accompanied Bingley to Longbourn, and suggests that Elizabeth go for

a walk with him to keep him out of Jane and Bingley's way. Elizabeth is

quite happy to comply. Bingley greets Elizabeth with such warmth that she

is sure he knows of her engagement. During their walk Elizabeth and Darcy

decide that Darcy will ask Mr. Bennet's consent in the evening and that

Elizabeth will speak to her mother.

After Mr. Darcy speaks with Mr. Bennet, Darcy tells Elizabeth that her

father wants to speak with her. Mr. Bennet is shocked because he thinks

that Elizabeth hates Darcy. After long explanations she assures Mr. Bennet

of her affection for him. She also tells him of what Darcy did for Lydia.

He is surprised and happy for his daughter.

At night Elizabeth tells her mother of the engagement. Her mother is

shocked but extremely happy in thinking of how rich Darcy is. Her former

dislike of him is completely forgotten.

The next day her mother acts remarkably well toward Darcy, and her

father tries to get to know him better and is pleased with him.

Volume III, Chapter 18 Summary:

Elizabeth and Mr. Darcy converse playfully about how he fell in love

with her in the first place and why he took so long to propose the second

time. He tells her that his second proposal was all thanks to Lady

Catherine, her warning having given him hope of Elizabeth's affection.

Elizabeth asks him when he will tell Lady Catherine the news, and he goes

off to write to her, while Elizabeth goes to write to Mrs. Gardiner.

Miss Bingley's reactions to Mr. Bingley's engagement to Jane are

affectionate and insincere. Miss Darcy's reaction to news of Mr. Darcy's

engagement is one of genuine delight.

The Collinses come to stay at Lucas Lodge because Lady Catherine is so

angry at the engagement. Darcy deals well with the obsequiousness of Mr.

Collins, along with the vulgarity of Mrs. Philips and Mrs. Bennet.

Mrs. Bennet is extremely happy and proud at her daughters' marriages. Mr.

Bennet misses Elizabeth and often goes to visit her at Pemberley.

Bingley and Jane leave Netherfield after a year and move to

Derbyshire, because their closeness to Mrs. Bennet and the Meryton

relations is too much to bear even for them.

Kitty now spends most of her time with her sisters, and is much

improved by their example and society. Mary stays at home and keeps her

mother company on her visits.

Lydia soon writes to Elizabeth to congratulate her and ask her to see

if Mr. Darcy will use his money and influence to help Wickham. Elizabeth

replies negatively, but does send Lydia money that she saves by economizing

in her private expenses.

Miss Bingley drops her resentment of Darcy's marriage because she

wants to retain the right of visiting Pemberley. Georgiana and Elizabeth

become very close and very fond of one another. Relations with Lady

Catherine were broken off for a while, but Elizabeth finally convinces

Darcy to attempt a reconciliation, and Lady Catherine comes to visit them.

Darcy and Elizabeth are always on intimate terms with the Gardiners, to

whom they are grateful for having brought them together.

Pygmalion by B.Shaw


Born in Dublin in 1856 to a middle-class Protestant family bearing

pretensions to nobility (Shaw's embarrassing alcoholic father claimed to be

descended from Macduff, the slayer of Macbeth), George Bernard Shaw grew to

become what some consider the second greatest English playwright, behind

only Shakespeare. Others most certainly disagree with such an assessment,

but few question Shaw's immense talent or the play's that talent produced.

Shaw died at the age of 94, a hypochondriac, socialist, anti-

vaccinationist, semi-feminist vegetarian who believed in the Life Force and

only wore wool. He left behind him a truly massive corpus of work including

about 60 plays, 5 novels, 3 volumes of music criticism, 4 volumes of dance

and theatrical criticism, and heaps of social commentary, political theory,

and voluminous correspondence. And this list does not include the opinions

that Shaw could always be counted on to hold about any topic, and which

this amboyant public figure was always most willing to share. Shaw's most

lasting contribution is no doubt his plays, and it has been said that "a

day never passes without a performance of some Shaw play being given

somewhere in the world." One of Shaw's greatest contributions as a modern

dramatist is in establishing drama as serious literature, negotiating

publication deals for his highly popular plays so as to convince the public

that the play was no less important than the novel. In that way, he created

the conditions for later playwrights to write seriously for the theater.

Of all of Shaw's plays, Pygmalion is without the doubt the most beloved and

popularly received, if not the most significant in literary terms. Several

_lm versions have been made of the play, and it has even been adapted into

a musical. In fact, writing the screenplay for the _lm version of 1938

helped Shaw to become the first and only man ever to win the much coveted

Double: the Nobel Prize for literature and an Academy Award. Shaw wrote the

part of Eliza in Pygmalion for the famous actress Mrs. Patrick Campbell,

with whom Shaw was having a prominent affair at the time that had set all

of London abuzz.

The aborted romance between Professor Higgins and Eliza Doolittle

reflects Shaw's own love life, which was always peppered with enamored and

beautiful women, with whom he flirted outrageously but with whom he almost

never had any further relations. For example, he had a long marriage to

Charlotte Payne-Townsend in which it is well known that he never touched

her once. The fact that Shaw was quietly a member of the British Society

for the Study of Sex Psychology, an organization whose core members were

young men agitating for homosexual liberation, might or might not inform

the way that Higgins would rather focus his passions on literature or

science than on women. That Higgins was a representation of Pygmalion, the

character from the famous story of Ovid's Metamorphoses who is the very

embodiment of male love for the female form, makes Higgins sexual

disinterest all the more compelling. Shaw is too consummate a performer and

too smooth in his self- presentation for us to neatly dissect his sexual

background; these lean biographical facts, however, do support the belief

that Shaw would have an interest in exploding the typical structures of

standard fairy tales.


Professor Henry Higgins Henry Higgins is a professor of phonetics who

plays Pygmalion to Eliza Doolittle's Galatea. He is the author of Higgins'

Universal Alphabet, believes in concepts like visible speech, and uses all

manner of recording and photographic material to document his phonetic

subjects, reducing people and their dialects into what he sees as readily

understandable units. He is an unconventional man, who goes in the opposite

direction from the rest of society in most matters. Indeed, he is impatient

with high society, forgetful in his public graces, and poorly considerate

of normal social niceties the only reason the world has not turned against

him is because he is at heart a good and harmless man. His biggest fault is

that he can be a bully.

Eliza Doolittle f Eliza, The Flower Girl, Flower Girl, flower girl,

The flower girl, the flower girl g "She is not at all a romantic figure."

So is she introduced in Act I. Everything about Eliza Doolittle seems to

defy any conventional notions we might have about the romantic heroine.

When she is transformed from a sassy, smart-mouthed kerbstone flower girl

with deplorable English, to a (still sassy) regal figure _t to consort with

nobility, it has less to do with her innate qualities as a heroine than

with the fairy-tale aspect of the transformation myth itself. In other

words, the character of Eliza Doolittle comes across as being much more

instrumental than fundamental. The real (re-)making of Eliza Doolittle

happens after the ambassador's party, when she decides to make a statement

for her own dignity against Higgins' insensitive treatment. This is when

she becomes, not a duchess, but an independent woman; and this explains why

Higgins begins to see Eliza not as a mill around his neck but as a creature

worthy of his admiration.

Colonel Pickering Colonel Pickering, the author of Spoken Sanskrit,

is a match for Higgins (although somewhat less obsessive) in his passion

for phonetics. But where Higgins is a boorish, careless bully, Pickering is

always considerate and a genuinely gentleman. He says little of note in the

play, and appears most of all to be a civilized foil to Higgins' barefoot,

absentminded crazy professor. He helps in the Eliza Doolittle experiment by

making a wager of it, saying he will cover the costs of the experiment if

Higgins does indeed make a convincing duchess of her. However, while

Higgins only manages to teach Eliza pronunciations, it is Pickering's

thoughtful treatment towards Eliza that teaches her to respect herself.

Alfred Doolittle Alfred Doolittle is Eliza's father, an elderly but

vigorous dustman who has had at least six wives and who "seems equally free

from fear and conscience." When he learns that his daughter has entered the

home of Henry Higgins, he immediately pursues to see if he can get some

money out of the circumstance. His unique brand of rhetoric, an

unembarrassed, unhypocritical advocation of drink and pleasure (at other

people's expense), is amusing to Higgins. Through Higgins' joking

recommendation, Doolittle becomes a richly endowed lecturer to a moral

reform society, transforming him from lowly dustman to a picture of middle

class morality he becomes miserable. Throughout, Alfred is a scoundrel who

is willing to sell his daughter to make a few pounds, but he is one of the

few unaffected characters in the play, unmasked by appearance or language.

Though scandalous, his speeches are honest. At points, it even seems that

he might be Shaw's voice piece of social criticism (Alfred's proletariat

status, given Shaw's socialist leanings, makes the prospect all the more


Mrs. Higgins Professor Higgins' mother, Mrs. Higgins is a stately

lady in her sixties who sees the Eliza Doolittle experiment as idiocy, and

Higgins and Pickering as senseless children. She is the first and only

character to have any qualms about the whole affair. When her worries prove

true, it is to her that all the characters turn. Because no woman can match

up to his mother, Higgins claims, he has no interest in dallying with them.

To observe the mother of Pygmalion (Higgins), who completely understands

all of his failings and inadequacies, is a good contrast to the mythic

proportions to which Higgins builds himself in his self-estimations as a

scientist of phonetics and a creator of duchesses.

Freddy Eynsford Hill Higgins' surmise that Freddy is a fool is

probably accurate. In the opening scene he is a spineless and resourceless

lackey to his mother and sister. Later, he is comically bowled over by

Eliza, the half-baked duchess who still speaks cockney. He becomes lovesick

for Eliza, and courts her with letters. At the play's close, Freddy serves

as a young, viable marriage option for Eliza, making the possible path she

will follow unclear to the reader.


Two old gentlemen meet in the rain one night at Covent Garden. Professor

Higgins is a scientist of phonetics, and Colonel Pickering is a linguist of

Indian dialects. The first bets the other that he can, with his knowledge

of phonetics, convince high London society that, in a matter of months, he

will be able to transform the cockney speaking Covent Garden flower girl,

Eliza Doolittle, into a woman as poised and well-spoken as a duchess.

The next morning, the girl appears at his laboratory on Wimpole Street

to ask for speech lessons, offering to pay a shilling, so that she may

speak properly enough to work in a flower shop. Higgins makes merciless fun

of her, but is seduced by the idea of working his magic on her. Pickering

goads him on by agreeing to cover the costs of the experiment if Higgins

can pass Eliza off as a duchess at an ambassador's garden party. The

challenge is taken, and Higgins starts by having his housekeeper bathe

Eliza and give her new clothes. Then Eliza's father Alfred Doolittle comes

to demand the return of his daughter, though his real intention is to hit

Higgins up for some money.

The professor, amused by Doolittle's unusual rhetoric, gives him five

pounds. On his way out, the dustman fails to recognize the now clean,

pretty flower girl as his daughter.

For a number of months, Higgins trains Eliza to speak properly. Two trials

for Eliza follow. The first occurs at Higgins' mother's home, where Eliza

is introduced to the Eynsford Hills, a trio of mother, daughter, and son.

The son Freddy is very attracted to her, and further taken with what he

thinks is her affected "small talk" when she slips into cockney. Mrs.

Higgins worries that the experiment will lead to problems once it is ended,

but Higgins and Pickering are too absorbed in their game to take heed. A

second trial, which takes place some months later at an ambassador's party

(and which is not actually staged), is a resounding success. The wager is

definitely won, but Higgins and Pickering are now bored with the project,

which causes Eliza to be hurt. She throws Higgins' slippers at him in a

rage because she does not know what is to become of her, thereby

bewildering him. He suggests she marry somebody. She returns him the hired

jewelry, and he accuses her of ingratitude.

The following morning, Higgins rushes to his mother, in a panic

because Eliza has run away. On his tail is Eliza's father, now unhappily

rich from the trust of a deceased millionaire who took to heart Higgins'

recommendation that Doolittle was England's "most original moralist." Mrs.

Higgins, who has been hiding Eliza upstairs all along, chides the two of

them for playing with the girl's affections. When she enters, Eliza thanks

Pickering for always treating her like a lady, but threatens Higgins that

she will go work with his rival phonetician, Nepommuck. The outraged

Higgins cannot help but start to admire her. As Eliza leaves for her

father's wedding, Higgins shouts out a few errands for her to run, assuming

that she will return to him at Wimpole Street. Eliza, who has a lovelorn

sweetheart in Freddy, and the wherewithal to pass as a duchess, never makes

it clear whether she will or not.

Act I

A heavy late-night summer thunderstorm opens the play. Caught in the

unexpected downpour, passers-by from distinct strata of the London streets

are forced to seek shelter together under the portico of St Paul's church

in Covent Garden. The hapless Son is forced by his demanding sister and

mother to go out into the rain to find a taxi even though there is none to

be found. In his hurry, he knocks over the basket of a common Flower Girl,

who says to him, "Nah then, Freddy: look wh' y' gowin, deah." After Freddy

leaves, the mother gives the Flower Girl money to ask how she knew her

son's name, only to learn that "Freddy" is a common by-word the Flower Girl

would have used to address anyone.

An elderly military Gentleman enters from the rain, and the Flower

Girl tries to sell him a flower. He gives her some change, but a bystander

tells her to be careful, for it looks like there is a police informer

taking copious notes on her activities. This leads to hysterical

protestations on her part, that she is only a poor girl who has done no

wrong. The refugees from the rain crowd around her and the Note Taker, with

considerable hostility towards the latter, whom they believe to be an

undercover cop. However, each time someone speaks up, this mysterious man

has the amusing ability to determine where the person came from, simply by

listening to that person's speech, which turns him into something of a


The rain clears, leaving few other people than the Flower Girl, the

Note Taker, and the Gentleman. In response to a question from the

Gentleman, the Note Taker answers that his talent comes from "simply

phonetics...the science of speech." He goes on to brag that he can use

phonetics to make a duchess out of the Flower Girl. Through further

questioning, the Note Taker and the Gentleman reveal that they are Henry

Higgins and Colonel Pickering respectively, both scholars of dialects who

have been wanting to visit with each other. They decide to go for a supper,

but not until Higgins has been convinced by the Flower Girl to give her

some change. He generously throws her a half-crown, some florins, and a

half-sovereign. This allows the delighted girl to take a taxi home, the

same taxi that Freddy has brought back, only to find that his impatient

mother and sister have left without him.

Act II

The next day, Higgins and Pickering are just resting from a full

morning of discussion when Eliza Doolittle shows up at the door, to the

tremendous doubt of the discerning housekeeper Mrs. Pearce, and the

surprise of the two gentlemen. Prompted by his careless brag about making

her into a duchess the night before, she has come to take lessons from

Higgins, so that she may sound genteel enough to work in a flower shop

rather than sell at the corner of Tottenham Court Road. As the conversation

progresses, Higgins alternates between making fun of the poor girl and

threatening her with a broomstick beating, which only causes her to howl

and holler, upsetting Higgins' civilized company to a considerable degree.

Pickering is much kinder and considerate of her feelings, even going so far

as to call her "Miss Doolittle" and to offer her a seat. Pickering is

piqued by the prospect of helping Eliza, and bets Higgins that if Higgins

is able to pass Eliza o_ as a duchess at the Ambassador's garden party,

then he, Pickering, will cover the expenses of the experiment.

This act is made up mostly of a long and animated three-(sometimes

four-)way argument over the character and the potential of the indignant


At one point, incensed by Higgins' heartless insults, she threatens to

leave, but the clever professor lures her back by stuffing her mouth with a

chocolate, half of which he eats too to prove to her that it is not

poisoned. It is agreed upon that Eliza will live with Higgins for six

months, and be schooled in the speech and manners of a lady of high class.

Things get started when Mrs. Pearce takes her upstairs for a bath.

While Mrs. Pearce and Eliza are away, Pickering wants to be sure that

Higgins' intentions towards the girl are honorable, to which Higgins

replies that, to him, women "might as well be blocks of wood." Mrs. Pearce

enters to warn Higgins that he should be more careful with his swearing and

his forgetful table manners now that they have an impressionable young lady

with them, revealing that Higgins's own gentlemanly ways are somewhat

precarious. At this point, Alfred Doolittle, who has learned from a

neighbor of Eliza's that she has come to the professor's place, comes a-

knocking under the pretence of saving his daughter's honor. When Higgins

readily agrees that he should take his daughter away with him, Doolittle

reveals that he is really there to ask for five pounds, proudly claiming

that he will spend that money on immediate gratification and put none of it

to useless savings.

Amused by his blustering rhetoric, Higgins gives him the money. Eliza

enters, clean and pretty in a blue kimono, and everyone is amazed by the

difference. Even her father has failed to recognize her. Eliza is taken

with her transformation and wants to go back to her old neighborhood and

show o_, but she is warned against snobbery by Higgins. The act ends with

the two of them agreeing that they have taken on a difficult task.


It is Mrs. Higgins' at-home day, and she is greatly displeased when Henry

Higgins shows up suddenly, for she knows from experience that he is too

eccentric to be presentable in front of the sort of respectable company she

is expecting. He explains to her that he wants to bring the experiment

subject on whom he has been working for some months to her at-home, and

explains the bet that he has made with Pickering. Mrs. Higgins is not

pleased about this unsolicited visit from a common flower girl, but she has

no time to oppose before Mrs. and Miss Eynsford Hill (the mother and

daughter from the first scene) are shown into the parlor by the parlor-

maid. Colonel Pickering enters soon after, followed by Freddy Eynsford

Hill, the hapless son from Covent Garden.

Higgins is about to really offend the company with a theory that they

are all savages who know nothing about being civilized when Eliza is

announced. She makes quite an impact on everyone with her studied grace and

pedantic speech. Everything promises to go well until Mrs. Eynsford Hill

brings up the subject of influenza, which causes Eliza to launch into the

topic of her aunt, who supposedly died of influenza. In her excitement, her

old accent, along with shocking facts such as her father's alcoholism, slip

out. Freddy thinks that she is merely affecting "the new small talk," and

is dazzled by how well she does it. He is obviously infatuated with her.

When Eliza gets up to leave, he offers to walk her but she exclaims,

"Walk! Not bloody likely. I am going in a taxi." The Mrs. Eynsford Hill

leave immediately after. Clara, Miss Eynsford Hill, is taken with Eliza,

and tries to imitate her speech. After the guests leave, Mrs. Higgins

chides Higgins. She says there is no way Eliza will become presentable as

long as she lives with the constantly-swearing Higgins. She demands to know

the precise conditions under which Eliza is living with the two old

bachelors. She is prompted to say, "You certainly are a pretty pair of

babies, playing with your live doll," which is only the first of a series

of such criticisms she makes of Higgins and Pickering.

They assail her simultaneously with accounts of Eliza's improvement

until she must quiet them. She tries to explain to them that there will be

a problem of what to do with Eliza once everything is over, but the two men

pay no heed. They take their leave, and Mrs. Higgins is left exasperated by

the "infinite stupidity" of "men! men!! men!!!"

Act IV

The trio return to Higgins' Wimpole Street laboratory, exhausted from

the night's happenings. They talk about the evening and their great

success, though Higgins seems rather bored, more concerned with his

inability to find slippers. While he talks absentmindedly with Pickering,

Eliza slips out, returns with his slippers, and lays them on the floor

before him without a word. When he notices them, he thinks that they

appeared out of nowhere.

Higgins and Pickering begin to speak as if Eliza is not there with them,

saying how happy they are that the entire experiment is over, agreeing that

it had become rather boring in the last few months. The two of them then

leave the room to go to bed. Eliza is clearly hurt ("Eliza's beauty turns

murderous," say the stage directions), but Higgins and Pickering are

oblivious to her.

Higgins pops back in, once again mystified over what he has done with

his slippers, and Eliza promptly flings them in his face. Eliza is mad

enough to kill him; she thinks that she is no more important to him than

his slippers.

At Higgins' retort that she is presumptuous and ungrateful, she

answers that no one has treated her badly, but that she is still left

confused about what is to happen to her now that the bet has been won.

Higgins says that she can always get married or open that flower shop (both

of which she eventually does), but she replies by saying that she wishes

she had been left where she was before. She goes on to ask whether her

clothes belong to her, meaning what can she take away with her without

being accused of thievery. Higgins is genuinely hurt, something that does

not happen to him often. She returns him a ring he bought for her, but he

throws it into the _replace. After he leaves, she finds it again, but then

leaves it on the dessert stand and departs.

Act V

Higgins and Pickering show up the next day at Mrs. Higgins' home in a

state of distraction because Eliza has run away. They are interrupted by

Alfred Doolittle, who enters resplendently dressed, as if he were the

bridegroom of a very fashionable wedding. He has come to take issue with

Henry Higgins for destroying his happiness. It turns out that Higgins wrote

a letter to a millionaire jokingly recommending Doolittle as a most

original moralist, so that in his will the millionaire left Doolittle a

share in his trust, amounting to three thousand pounds a year, provided

that he lecture for the Wannafeller Moral Reform World League. Newfound

wealth has only brought him more pain than pleasure, as long lost relatives

emerge from the woodwork asking to be fed, not to mention that he is now no

longer free to behave in his casual, slovenly, dustman ways. He has been

damned by "middle class morality."

The talk degenerates into a squabble over who owns Eliza, Higgins or

her father (Higgins did give the latter five pounds for her after all). To

stop them, Mrs. Higgins sends for Eliza, who has been upstairs all along.

But first she tells Doolittle to step out on the balcony so that the she

will not be shocked by the story of his new fortune.

When she enters, Eliza takes care to behave very civilly. Pickering

tells her she must not think of herself as an experiment, and she expresses

her gratitude to him. She says that even though Higgins was the one who

trained the flower girl to become a duchess, Pickering always treated her

like a duchess, even when she was a flower girl. His treatment of her

taught her not phonetics, but self-respect. Higgins is speaking

incorrigibly harshly to her when her father reappears, surprising her

badly. He tells her that he is all dressed up because he is on his way to

get married to his woman. Pickering and Mrs. Higgins are asked to come

along. Higgins and Eliza are finally left alone while the rest go o_ to get


They proceed to quarrel. Higgins claims that while he may treat her

badly, he is at least fair in that he has never treated anyone else

differently. He tells her she should come back with him just for the fun of

flithe will adopt her as a daughter, or she can marry Pickering. She swings

around and cries that she won't even marry Higgins if he asks. She mentions

that Freddy has been writing her love letters, but Higgins immediately

dismisses him as a fool.

She says that she will marry Freddy, and that the two will support

themselves by taking Higgins' phonetic methods to his chief rival,

Nepommuck. Higgins is outraged but cannot help wondering at her character

he finds his defiance much more appealing than the submissiveness of the

slippers-fetcher. Mrs. Higgins comes in to tell Eliza it is time to leave.

As she is about to exit, Higgins tells her off handedly to fetch him some

gloves, ties, ham, and cheese while she is out. She replies ambivalently

and departs; we do not know if she will follow his orders. The play ends

with Higgins's roaring laughter as he says to his mother, "She's going to

marry Freddy. Ha! Freddy! Freddy!! Ha ha ha ha ha!!!!!"


Олден Пайл — предстаитель экономического отдела американского посольства в

Сайгоне, антагонист Фаулера, другого героя романа. Будучи обобщенным

изображением вполне конкретных политических сил и методов борьбы на мировой

арене, фигура О. П. несет в себе и более глубокий и широкий смысл. Перед

нами достаточно знакомый тип человеческого поведения, сформировавшийся

именно в XX в., в эпоху острого идеологического противостояния государств и

систем, когда идейная убежденность человека, не способного мыслить

самостоятельно и критически, оборачивается на психическом уровне

своеобразной запрограммированностью суждений и действий, шаблонностью

мышления, стремящегося заключить сложность людских отношений в уже готовые

рамки и схемы.

Для О. П. не существует ничего индивидуального, частного, неповторимого.

Все, что он видит, переживает сам, он стремится подвести под систему

понятий, соотнести с некими якобы навсегда данными правилами, моделью

отношений: свой любовный опыт он сопоставляет с выводами статистики Кинси,

впечатления о Вьетнаме — с точкой зрения американских политических

комментаторов. Каждый убитый для него либо «красная опасность», либо «воин

демократии». Художественное своеобразие романа основано на сопоставлении и

противопоставлении двух главных действующих лиц: Фаулера и О. П. Гораздо

более благополучным выглядит О. П.: он закончил Гарвард, он из хорошей

семьи, молод и довольно богат.

Все подчинено правилам морали, но морали формальной. Так, он уводит у

своего друга Фаулера девушку, причем объясняет это тем, что ей будет с ним

лучше, он может дать ей то, что не может Фаулер: жениться на ней и дать ей

положение в обществе; жизнь его разумна и размеренна. Постепенно О. П.

превращается в носителя агрессии. «Напрасно я уже тогда не обратил внимания

на этот фанатический блеск в его глазах, не понял, как гипнотизируют его

слова, магические числа: пятая колонна, третья сила, второе пришествие...»

— думает о нем Фаулер. Той третьей силой, которая может и должна спасти

Вьетнам, а заодно помочь установлению господства США в стране, по мнению О.

П. и тех, кто направляет его, должна стать национальная демократия. Фаулер

предупреждает О. П.: «Эта ваша третья сила— это все книжные выдумки, не

больше. Генерал Тхе просто головорез с двумя-тремя тысячами солдат, никакая

это не третья демократия». Но О. П. переубедить нельзя. Он организует взрыв

на площади, и гибнут ни в чем не повинные женщины и дети, а О. П., стоящего

на площади, заполненной трупами, волнует ничтожное: «Он взглянул на мокрое

пятно на своем башмаке и упавшим голосом спросил: — Что это? — Кровь, —

сказал я, — никогда не видели, что ли? — Надо непременно почистить, так

нельзя идти к посланнику, — сказал он...» К моменту начала повествования О.

П. мертв— он предстает перед нами в мыслях Фаулера: «Я подумал: «Какой

смысл с ним говорить? Он так и останется праведником, а разве можно

обвинять праведников — они никогда ни в чем не виноваты. Их можно только

сдерживать или уничтожать. Праведник — тоже своего рода душевнобольной».

Томас Фаулер — английский журналист, работающий в Южном Вьетнаме в

1951—1955 гг. Усталый, душевно опустошенный человек, во многом схожий со

Скоби — героем другого романа Грэма Грина— «Суть дела». Он считает, что его

долг — сообщать в газеты только факты, оценка их его не касается, он не

хочет ни во что вмешиваться, стремится остаться нейтральным наблюдателем. В

Сайгоне Т. Ф. уже давно, и единственное, чем он дорожит, что удерживает его

там, — любовь к вьетнамской девушке Фуонг. Но появляется американец Олден

Пайл, который уводит Фуонг. Роман начинается с убийства Пай л а и с того,

что Фуонг возвращается к Т. Ф. Но дальше идет ретроспекция. Полиция ищет

преступника, а параллельно с этим Т. Ф. вспоминает о Пайле: тот спас его во

время нападения вьетнамских партизан, буквально отнеся в безопасное место,

рискуя собственной жизнью. Как будто бы добрый поступок?

Пайл раздражает Т. Ф. своими идеями, своим безапелляционным поведением,

граничащим с фанатизмом. Узнав наконец, что взрыв на площади, устроенный

американцами, в результате которого погибли женщины и дети, дело рук Пайла,

Т. Ф. не выдерживает и передает его в руки вьетнамских партизан: «Вы бы на

него посмотрели... Он стоял там и говорил, что все это печальное

недоразумение, что должен был состояться парад... Там, на площади, у одной

женщины убили ребенка... Она закрыла его соломенной шляпой». После смерти

Пайла как-то сама собой устраивается судьба Т. Ф.: он остается во Вьетнаме

— «этой честной стране», где нищета не прикрыта стыдливыми покровами;

женщина, некогда легко оставившая его для Пайла, с той же естественностью

выгоды легко и грустно приходит теперь назад.

The Quiet American by G.Greene

Олден Пайл - представитель экономического отдела американского посольства в

Сайгоне, антагонист Фаулера, другого героя романа. Будучи обобщенным

изображением вполне конкретных политических сил и методов борьбы на мировой

арене, фигура О. П. несет в себе и более глубокий и широкий смысл. Перед

нами достаточно знакомый тип человеческого поведения, сформировавшийся

именно в XX в., в эпоху острого идеологического противостояния государств и

систем, когда идейная убежденность человека, не способного мыслить

самостоятельно и критически, оборачивается на психическом уровне

своеобразной запрограммированностью суждений и действий, шаблонностью

мышления, стремящегося заключить сложность людских отношений в уже готовые

рамки и схемы. Для О. П. не существует ничего индивидуального, частного,

неповторимого. Все, что он видит, переживает сам, он стремится подвести под

систему понятий, соотнести с некими якобы навсегда данными правилами,

моделью отношений: свой любовный опыт он сопоставляет с выводами статистики

Кинси, впечатления о Вьетнаме - с точкой зрения американских политических

комментаторов. Каждый убитый для него либо "красная опасность", либо "воин

демократии". Художественное своеобразие романа основано на сопоставлении и

противопоставлении двух главных действующих лиц: Фаулера и О. П. Гораздо

более благополучным выглядит О. П.: он закончил Гарвард, он из хорошей

семьи, молод и довольно богат. Все подчинено правилам морали, но морали


Так, он уводит у своего друга Фаулера девушку, причем объясняет это тем,

что ей будет с ним лучше, он может дать ей то, что не может Фаулер:

жениться на ней и дать ей положение в обществе; жизнь его разумна и

размеренна. Постепенно О. П. превращается в носителя агрессии. "Напрасно я

уже тогда не обратил внимания на этот фанатический блеск в его глазах, не

понял, как гипнотизируют его слова, магические числа: пятая колонна, третья

сила, второе пришествие..." - думает о нем Фаулер. Той третьей силой,

которая может и должна спасти Вьетнам, а заодно помочь установлению

господства США в стране, по мнению О. П. и тех, кто направляет его, должна

стать национальная демократия. Фаулер предупреждает О. П.: "Эта ваша третья

сила- это все книжные выдумки, не больше. Генерал Тхе просто головорез с

двумя-тремя тысячами солдат, никакая это не третья демократия". Но О. П.

переубедить нельзя. Он организует взрыв на площади, и гибнут ни в чем не

повинные женщины и дети, а О. П., стоящего на площади, заполненной трупами,

волнует ничтожное: "Он взглянул на мокрое пятно на своем башмаке и упавшим

голосом спросил: - Что это? - Кровь, - сказал я, - никогда не видели, что

ли? - Надо непременно почистить, так нельзя идти к посланнику, - сказал

он..." К моменту начала повествования О. П. мертв- он предстает перед нами

в мыслях Фаулера: "Я подумал: "Какой смысл с ним говорить? Он так и

останется праведником, а разве можно обвинять праведников - они никогда ни

в чем не виноваты. Их можно только сдерживать или уничтожать. Праведник -

тоже своего рода душевнобольной".

Томас Фаулер - английский журналист, работающий в Южном Вьетнаме в 1951-

1955 гг. Усталый, душевно опустошенный человек, во многом схожий со Скоби -

героем другого романа Грэма Грина- "Суть дела". Он считает, что его долг -

сообщать в газеты только факты, оценка их его не касается, он не хочет ни

во что вмешиваться, стремится остаться нейтральным наблюдателем. В Сайгоне

Т. Ф. уже давно, и единственное, чем он дорожит, что удерживает его там, -

любовь к вьетнамской девушке Фу-онг. Но появляется американец Олден Пайл,

который уводит Фуонг. Роман начинается с убийства Пай л а и с того, что

Фуонг возвращается к Т. Ф. Но дальше идет ретроспекция. Полиция ищет

преступника, а параллельно с этим Т. Ф. вспоминает о Пайле: тот спас его во

время нападения вьетнамских партизан, буквально отнеся в безопасное место,

рискуя собственной жизнью. Как будто бы добрый поступок? Пайл раздражает Т.

Ф. своими идеями, своим безапелляционным поведением, граничащим с

фанатизмом. Узнав наконец, что взрыв на площади, устроенный американцами, в

результате которого погибли женщины и дети, дело рук Пайла, Т. Ф. не

выдерживает и передает его в руки вьетнамских партизан: "Вы бы на него

посмотрели... Он стоял там и говорил, что все это печальное недоразумение,

что должен был состояться парад... Там, на площади, у одной женщины убили

ребенка... Она закрыла его соломенной шляпой". После смерти Пайла как-то

сама собой устраивается судьба Т. Ф.: он остается во Вьетнаме - "этой

честной стране", где нищета не прикрыта стыдливыми покровами; женщина,

некогда легко оставившая его для Пайла, с той же естественностью выгоды

легко и грустно приходит теперь назад.

Robinson Crusoe by Daniel Defoe

Part 1 Summary:

The narrator introduces himself as Robinson Crusoe. He was born in

1632 in the city of York to a good family. His father is a foreigner who

made money in merchandise before settling to down and marrying his mother,

whose surname is Robinson. His true last name is Kreutznaer, but has been

corrupted into Crusoe by the English. There are two older brothers in the

family; one died in the English regiment, and Robinson does not know what

became of the other.

Crusoe's father has designed him for the law, but early on his head is

filled with "rambling thoughts" of going to sea. No advice or entreaties

can diminish his desire. His father gives him "excellent advice and

counsel," telling him that only men of desperate and superior fortunes go

abroad in search of adventures, and that he is too high or too low for such

activities. His station is the middle station, a state which all figures,

great and small, will envy eventually, and his happiness would be assured

if he would stay at home. Nature has provided this life, and Robinson

should not go against this. After all, look what happened to his brother

who went into the army. The narrator is truly affected by his father's

discourse, but after a few weeks he decides to run away. He prevails upon

his mother to speak to his father and persuade him to allow one voyage. If

Robinson does not like it, he resolves to go home and think of the sea no

more. She reluctantly reports their conversation, but no headway is made,

no consent given. About a year later, he is able to procure free passage on

a friend's boat heading to London. Asking for no blessing or money, he

boards the ship and leaves.

Misfortune begins immediately. The sea is rough, and Robinson regrets

his decision to leave home. He sees now how comfortably his father lives.

The sea calms, and after a few days, the thoughts are dismissed. The

narrator speaks with his companion, marveling at the "storm." His companion

laughs and says it was nothing at all. There is drinking that night, and

Robinson forgets his fear of drowning. Within a few more days, the wind is

behaving terribly, and then a true and terrible storm begins. Robinson

spends much time in his cabin, laying down in fright. He sees nothing but

distress, and is convinced he is at death's door. The ship is being

flooded, and he is commissioned to help bail water. At one point Robinson

faints, but is roused quickly. The water is coming too fast, so they board

life boats. People on shore are ready to assist them, if they can reach

land. The boats arrive at Yarmouth, and the magistrate gives the men rooms.

They must decide whether or not to continue to London or return to Hull.

His comrade notes that Robinson should take this as a sign that he is not

meant to go to sea. They part in an angry state. Robinson travels to London

via land. He is ashamed to go home and be laughed at by neighbors. Finally

he decides to look for a voyage. He is deaf to all good advice, and boards

a vessel bound for Guiana because he befriends the its captain. This

voyage, save seasickness, goes well, but upon arrival the captain dies.

Robinson resolves to take his ship and be a Guiana trader.

On a course towards the Canary Islands, they are attacked by Turkish

pirates, who capture them and take them into Sallee, a Moorish port.

Robinson is now a slave. His new master takes him home for drudgery work.

The narrator meditates escape for the next two years. An opportunity

presents itself when his master sends Robinson, along with some Moorish

youths, to catch some fish. Robinson secretly stores provisions and guns on

the ship. They set out to fish. Robinson convinces the helmsman that they

will find fish further out. He goes behind one of the Moors and tosses him

overboard, saying that he should swim for shore because he the narrator is

determined to have liberty. Robinson turns to the other boy, called Xury,

and says he must be faithful or be tossed as well. Xury resolves fidelity

and says he will see the world with Robinson. They sail for five days, as

the narrator is anxious to get far away. They land in a creek and resolve

to swim ashore and see what country this is. For two days they are anchored

there. They observe "mighty creatures" yelling on shore and swimming

towards the ship. Robinson fires a gun to discourage them from swimming

further. They are not sure what animal this is.

Although the two are scared, they need water. Together they will go

ashore, and either they will both live or both die. The land appears

uninhabited. They are able to kill a hare-like animal for dinner and obtain

fresh water. Robinson is sure they are on the Canary or the Cape Verde

Islands. He hopes to come upon English trading vessels that will allow them

to board. The two men remain in the creek. Together they kill a lion for

sport as they pass the time. Xury cuts off a foot for them to eat. They

begin to sail along the land in search of a river. Eventually they see the

land is inhabited by naked black people. Robinson and Xury go closer to

shore. The people leave food at the water's edge. They keep great distance

from the two men. Another creature swims toward the boat. Robinson kills

it, and sees that it is a leopard of some sort. The black people accept the

killing happily, so Xury goes ashore for water and food. In the distance

Robinson spies a Portuguese ship, but it is too far to make contact. They

leave immediately, trying to follow the ship. Robinson fires a gun to get

their attention. Joyfully, Robinson finds they will let Xury and himself

board, and the captain does not demand any money from them. The ship is

headed for Brazil.

Part 2 Summary:

The sea captain is extremely kind to Crusoe. He buys Robinson's boat,

all of his worldly goods, and Xury. At first the narrator is reluctant to

part with his servant, but the captain promises to free him in ten years if

he has turned Christian. As Xury finds this agreeable, Robinson allows the

exchange. The voyage to Brazil goes well. The narrator is recommended by

the captain to the house of an "honest man." This man lives on a

plantation, and Robinson lives with him for a while. Seeing how rich the

plantation owners are, he resolves to become a planter, and begins

purchasing much land. Once Robinson is planting, he becomes friendly with

Wells, his Portuguese neighbor. They slowly increase the diversity of their

stock. At this juncture Robinson regrets having sold Xury. He is in a trade

that he knows nothing about, and he has no one to talk to but the neighbor.

If he had listened to his father, he would have been comfortable at home.

Still, he is sustained by his augmenting wealth.

The captain returns and tells Robinson to give him a letter of

procuration so that he can bring the narrator half of the fortune he has

left with the English captain's widow. He returns not only with money, but

with a servant. Robinson is now infinitely richer than his neighbor, and

purchases a "Negro slave" and a "European servant." Each year he grows more

tobacco and thrives. But he is not completely happy with this life.

"Nature" and "Providence" stir him so that he is not content, and winds up

throwing himself into the pit of human misery once more. Having made

friends during his four year residence in Brazil, he has spoken much of

voyages to Guinea, where one can buy desirable items, but especially Negro

servants for plantation work. It is a highly restricted trade, though.

Three merchants come to him and say they want to buy the Negroes privately

for their own plantations. They ask if he will join and manage the trading

on Guinea. Ignoring the inner voice of his father, Robinson wholeheartedly

agrees to go. He makes the investing merchants promise they will look after

his plantation if he "miscarries." He boards the ship on the first of

September, eight years after he ran away from home.

Good weather lasts for a while, but then it turns stormy. One man dies

of sickness; a little boy is washed overboard. After 12 days it is clear

that the ship will not make it due to leakiness. They decide to try and

make it to Africa, where they can get assistance. For 15 days they sail,

and another storm hits. There is land in the distance, but they are afraid

it might be inhabited by savages who will eat them. The ship crashes into

sand, and the sea powerfully washes over it. They use their oars to edge

closer to shore, but their hearts are heavy because they know as soon as

they get there, the ship will be dashed to pieces and they will be

overtaken by the undercurrent and drowned. They have to at least try and

swim. Once they jump into the sea, Robinson has some good luck and is

helped to shore by a wave. He runs as the sea continues to chase him. The

water fights him, but he manages to land safely on shore. Robinson thanks

God for his deliverance. He looks around, sees nothing to help him, and

runs about like a madman until he falls asleep in a tree. The next day is

calm and sunny. The narrator now sees that if they had stayed on board, the

ship would have made it to land without being dashed. But the rest of the

company is dead, and Robinson grieves. He swims out to the ship and takes a

few pieces to build a raft. On this he loads the provisions, everything

from food to weaponry. Robinson looks about the island for a good place to

live and store his supplies. There are no people, only beasts. A tent

serves as his lodging. He makes a number of voyages to the ship in the next

few weeks and brings back everything salvageable. In order to guard against

possible savages, the narrator moves his tent near a cave with steep sides.

He sets up a home with cables and rigging. A hammock is his bed. He makes a

cave behind the tent to serve as a cellar. Discovering goats on the island,

Robinson goes out daily to kill his food. This leads to his making a

cooking area. When desolation threatens to overwhelm him, he forces himself

to remember the dead company, and how much better off he is. At the very

least he has housing and guns to kill food.

Part 3 Summary:

After having been there about 12 days, Robinson decides to keep a

calendar by marking a large wooden post. He is very happy to have some pen

and paper, three Bibles, two cats and a dog, all from the ship. The work

upon his home is tedious without proper tools, but he improvises. After

all, he has nothing else to occupy his time. To comfort himself the

narrator makes a list of pros and cons about his shipwreck. Ultimately he

decides to be joyous because God has delivered and provided for him. He is

raising a wall around his home. After about a year and a half, he has

rafters and a thatched roof. Robinson realizes there is nothing he wants

that he can't make: thus he creates entrance and exit to his home, table

and chairs that he might truly enjoy writing and reading. The narrator

begins a journal, in which he documents his initial misery, and all of his

tasks and duties that he performs in acclimating to the island. A scheduled

routine forms for his hunting and building. Every animal he kills, he keeps

the skins and hangs them as ornaments. Robinson goes about the business of

making chests to store his provisions, as well as tools such as a

wheelbarrow. The cave/cellar appears to be finished when a quantity of

earth falls from the ceiling; Crusoe repairs this. He builds storage

shelves to create "order within doors." A more solid fence begins to form

around his dwelling. The narrator takes frequent walks and discovers

pigeons, a very good meat. The darkness is his greatest annoyance; he

decides to make candles from the tallow of slaughtered goats. While

emptying sacks from the ship, Robinson shakes out come pieces of corn.

After the rains, husks of barley appear. The narrator is astounded and

thanks God. He manages to plant some rice as well.

Robinson builds a ladder to the entrance of his home. While in his

cave/cellar, an earthquake occurs and much of the walls crumble. He is

frightened and prays profusely. It rains violently. He resolves to move his

tent a bit to prevent untimely death from other earthquakes. Pieces of the

shipwreck wash up on shore. Robinson gathers them to use on his new home.

He finds a large tortoise that provides a good meal. Soon he falls ill and

has chills for many days. The narrator sleeps restlessly and has nightmares

about dark men coming to kill him. He reflects once more on how good God

has been to him, and assumes that this sickness is a punishment for not

realizing this goodness sooner. He regrets not listening to his father.

Robinson prays what he refers to as his "first prayer." He makes a homemade

remedy in the form of rum, tobacco and water. When his sickness grows worse

he wonders what he has done to deserve this. His conscience answers that he

has led a "dreadful misspent life." Robinson takes up reading the Bible. He

becomes better.

Part 4 Summary:

It takes some weeks for Robinson to recover his full strength. He

marvels at this deliverance from sickness. More serious reading of the

Bible commences. The narrator now looks at his past life with complete

horror. His thoughts are directed to a "higher nature." The rainy season is

dangerous to his health, so he spends little time walking about. Crusoe's

habitation is set; he feels that he wants to explore the rest of the

island. When the weather improves, he goes about and sees many meadows. He

also finds some tobacco growing. In the woods there is fruit growing in

great abundance, and a spring of fresh water. Robinson tries to being fruit

back, but he is gone so long it spoils. He resolves to try again. Returning

to his home, Crusoe finds that some of his grapes have been trod upon.

There must be wild creatures thereabouts. He hangs the remaining grapes to

dry them into raisins. Robinson loves the wilder part of the island so

dearly that he resumes his thoughts of a new habitation, and decides to

simply build another one and have two homes: a "sea coast house" and a

"country house." He finishes in time for the next rainy season. His cats

are breeding with wild cats on the island, so he is forced to kill some of

them, that his food supply is not entirely diminished. The year anniversary

of his arrival is unhappy. He prays again to God.

He has learned the rainy season from the dry season, and decides to

plant crops of rice and corn. The first crop is a good one, so Robinson

extends the arable land. He busies himself with the farming and with making

finer household items, like baskets. He moves frequently between his two

homes. His greatest desire at the moment is for a pipe. On an exceptionally

clear day, he spies a line of land, but he cannot be sure where it is. He

is sure, however, that the inhabitants are cannibalistic savages. He

discovers more animals on his rambles around the island. Many times the

narrator sleeps outdoors, in trees to protect himself. When he comes home,

however, he is always very happy. He has tamed a parrot and a young goat,

who follow him endlessly. The two year anniversary arrives, and it is still

solemn, but with much more joy in Robinson's heart. His desires in life are

completely altered. He decides he can be more happy in this existence than

in his previous one. Scripture reading is done daily and methodically. The

narrator finds that his crops are being eaten by birds. He shoots one and

uses it successfully as a scarecrow. The next goal is to try and make

bread. His parrot Poll now talks.

Robinson makes some very good pots and jars. He then forms a stone

mortar to beat the corn into meal, and a sieve to dress it. Over hot embers

he bakes the batter and gets corn bread. This new technique leads to an

enlargement of the barns, to hold more corn.

Part 5 Summary:

Robinson is growing curious about the land on the other side of the

island. He believes from there he might spot a mainland and obtain escape.

Yet he does not think about falling into the hands of savages. The narrator

wishes for Xury and the boat they sailed. He resolves to try and repair the

wrecked ship's boat, but it sinks repeatedly. He then decides to build his

own boat. Crusoe is unsure as to how he will get the boat off land, but

decides to worry about this later. In retrospect this is referred to as

"preposterous method" of work. The boat is well-made, but Robinson is

unable to get it to the water due to its weight. The only way is to build a

canal to the ocean, which will take a long while. The fourth anniversary

comes, and Crusoe observes it with respect, marveling that there is no

wickedness here. Ironically, all the money he has is worthless--he longs

for a tobacco pipe or a handmill. He reflects upon the goodness of

Providence, and spends much time remembering important dates in his life.

Robinson's clothes have begun to wither. He manages to use the skins

of creatures he has killed to make a "sorry shift." The skins keep him very

dry in the rain, so he decides to make an umbrella. He also makes another

boat, small enough that he can get it to the water. In the sixth year of

his "reign or captivity," he sets out on a voyage around the island. The

current is strong and sweeps him away from the island. Crusoe begins to

fear that he will not be able to return. Gradually the wind changes, and

the narrator immediately goes back to shore, drops to his knees, and thanks

God. He is able to reach his country house by nightfall. He is terribly

frightened to hear a voice calling his name, asking where he is, until he

sees it is the parrot Poll. For the next year Robinson lives a quiet,

sedate life. He perfects his carpentry skills and is able to make a wheel

tool to aid in his building. His powder supply is decreasing, so he begins

to set traps to catch the goats and have his own flock. Eleven years have

past. The goats provide him with milk, from which the narrator is able to

make butter and cheese. He now dines like a "king among his subjects."

Still the narrator longs to sail around the island, but he is afraid of

being swept away. Thus he decides to have a boat on either side of the

island. One day going to visit his boat, he spies a man's footprint near

it. Robinson is thunderstruck with fear: it must be a savage from nearby

lands. He wonders if there are on the island, if it is the mark of the

devil. His religious hope is abating. But the narrator resolves to let God

decide--if he is not to be delivered from the evil, so be it.

Part 6 Summary:

Robinson begins to think that he might have made the footprint

himself; this makes him bolder and he goes out again to milk his goats. But

he walks with incredible fear, always looking behind him. He concludes that

since he has not seen anyone in fifteen years, the people must come from

abroad in boats. He wants to hide himself even more, so he reinforces his

walls and plants groves of trees that develop into a forest in six years

time. He moves his goats to a more remote location and divides them into

two groups. Crusoe makes his way to the shore opposite to the one on which

he landed, and finds it littered with human bones. His fear of

cannibalistic savages is confirmed. He thanks God that he was not eaten and

that he is distinguished from these people whom he sees as abhorrent.

Gradually the narrator becomes comfortable again, but he is cautious about

firing his gun, and prefers to tend his livestock, so he does not have to

hunt. Aside from this, he sets his mind to other tasks, such as learning to

make beer.

Crusoe is not fearful but vengeful. He longs for the chance to hurt

these savages and save the victims. Several times he imagines the proper

mode of ambush and attack. He picks the exact sniper spots. A daily tour

commences to look out for approaching ships. He then steps back, however,

and wonders if it is his place to engage in violence with people who have

not done him any personal harm, and who are most likely killing prisoners

of war. Robinson debates with himself and concludes that he should leave

them to the justice of God. He continues his secluded life and is once more

thankful for his deliverance. Occasionally he is frightened by strange

sounds, and he is still cautious. But the narrator tells himself that if he

is not fit to face the devil, he could not have lived twenty years alone on

the island. Time continues passing. Robinson spends time with his parrot

and his various animals. One day, he is stunned to see a fire on his side

of the island--the savages are back. He sees they have two canoes from a

lookout point, but he does not dare approach them. When the tide returns

they leave. Crusoe is horrified at the human remains on the shore. Once

again he wants to destroy the savages when they return. When the twenty-

fourth anniversary passes, Robinson spies the wreck of a Spanish ship

drifting towards the island. His heart is lightened by the thought that

there might be a survivor. He hastens to his boat, gathers provisions, and

rows out to the wreck. Aside from a yelping dog, he finds no one living.

Crusoe takes the dog, along with some liquor, clothing and money, back to

the island with him.

Part 7 Summary:

The narrator resumes his quiet steady life. He always thinks upon the

goodness of Providence. But he is haunted by dreams of savages. In this

time the narrator has thought that upon saving the life of a captive or a

savage himself, he might be able to make him his companion and obtain

escape from the island. Only now does he realize how lonely he has been.

Crusoe waits patiently, and after a year and a half he is rewarded by the

appearance of five canoes on shore. Against twenty or thirty men, he

wonders how he will fight. He spies two "miserable wretches" being pulled

from the boat. As one is beaten and cut open for the feast, the other

manages to run away, towards Robinson. He fetches his two guns and goes to

save "the creature's" life. He manages to shoot the two men pursuing the

prisoner. The prisoner then begins to bow to the narrator and rest his head

on his foot. He is amazed that his enemies are dead. Apparently he has

never seen a gun. Together they bury the bodies. Robinson gives the man

bread, raisins and water, who then falls asleep. He is a good-looking

youth, about twenty-six years old, but he does not speak English. Robinson

manages to tell the man that his name is Friday, and that he should call

the narrator Master. When they go out and reach the graves of the two men,

Friday makes signs that they should eat the bodies. Crusoe becomes very

angry and leads away the docile Friday. He still hungers for flesh, but the

narrator makes him understand that he will be killed if he eats other men.

Friday is dressed in his master's image. He becomes a most devoted

manservant. The relationship is very loving. Robinson seeks to make Friday

civilized with everything from eating habits to religious teachings. He

teaches him how to use guns and roast goats. Crusoe is having a wonderful


A year goes by in this pleasant way. Friday learns broken English. He

manages to tell Robinson that they are near the Caribbean, and that they

would need a big boat to get back to his homeland. The narrator begins to

teach about the Christian God. Friday does not understand why the Devil

cannot be beaten if God is stronger. Robinson makes him understand that all

must be given the chance to repent and be pardoned. Explaining this makes

Crusoe even more full of faith because he clears up his own ideas. Friday

tells him that there are white men living peaceably on his native land.

When the weather is clear, Friday rejoices at seeing his homeland in the

distance. Robinson worries that he might return there and resume his old

habits. Thus he is jealous. But Friday assures him that he only wants to

return so that he can teach the others. He says that Crusoe would have to

come with him, though, or he would not be able to leave. He cannot even

bear for Crusoe to send him to the continent first--they have lived in

harmony for three years. Together they manage to build a big boat. Robinson

sets the adventure for the post-rain months of November and December.

Part 8 Summary:

Before Friday and Robinson can make their journey, three canoes arrive

on the island. Friday panics. Robinson provides him with some rum, and they

gather their weapons. Crusoe is not worried; they are "naked, unarmed

wretches" who are subservient to him. The savages have prisoners. As Friday

and Robinson approach, they are eating the flesh of one. A white-bearded

man of European descent is a prisoner. The narrator is horrified and

enraged, for he thought those men lived peaceably with Friday's people.

Against nineteen men Friday and Crusoe wage battle, Friday always copying

the moves of his master. In the chaos, the prisoners are freed. One of them

is a Spaniard. The narrator enlists his help in shooting his captors.

Together the three of them manage to kill most of the savages. The

remaining ones run to two of the canoes and hastily row away, never again

to return to the island. In the third canoe another man is founded, bound

and gagged. Friday is ecstatic--it is his father. The reunion is joyous,

and the narrator is very touched. They give the prisoners bread and water.

Friday and Robinson make them some beds. Crusoe is very happy that "his

island is now peopled," and he is "rich in its subjects." He considers

himself the rightful lord. Talking with the Spaniard, Robinson learns that

more of his men are living with the savages, but in peace. The narrator

would like to join these Europeans, but he fears being a prisoner in New

Spain and being sent to the Inquisition. The Spaniard assures him this

would not happen. He is so impressed with Robinson's island that he wants

to bring the rest of his men there to live. Everyone works to increase the

livestock and crops in preparation. Finally the Spaniard and Friday's

father are sent back in the canoe to gather the men.

As Friday and Robinson await their return, they spy another ship close

to shore. It appears to be an English boat. Some men row to the island.

Three of them are prisoners. The seamen are running about, trying to

explore this strange place. Robinson dearly wishes that the Spaniard and

Friday's father were here to help fight. While the seamen sleep, Crusoe and

Friday approach the prisoners, who see them as God-sent. They learn from

one that he is the captain of the ship, and his crew has mutinied. They

want to leave him with the first mate and a passenger to perish. Robinson

says he will try to save them on two conditions: that they pretend no

authority on the island, and that if the battle is won, that they take

Friday and himself to England passage-free. It is agreed. They are able to

surprise everyone on land, killing some and granting mercy to those who beg

for their lives. Crusoe tells the captain of his life on the island. The

captain is visibly moved. Next they want to recover the ship. On the water

they hear shots. With the aid of a binocular-type instrument, they see

another small boat of men approaching. The captain says only a few can be

trusted; the chief organizer of the mutiny is in the boat. Robinson

marshals his "troops," consisting of Friday and the prisoners. They wait to

start the battle.

Part 9 Summary:

The boat of men lands on shore. They examine the first, broken boat.

Shots go off to try and find the other crew members. Robinson and his army

wait for a while. Just as the men are going to leave, the narrator bids

Friday and the first mate to holler from an area of rising ground within

his sight. The men run back eagerly. Two stay in the boat. Crusoe and the

others surprise them and quickly get them to join their side. The other men

are looking for the calls. Friday and the mate lead them astray until dark.

They return to the boat and are stunned when they find the other two men

gone. In the midst of their surprise Robinson and the army attack. Two men

are killed outright. The captain tells the rest to surrender by order of

the governor, Crusoe. Arms are laid down and the men are rounded up as

prisoners and divided up. Some are taken to the goat pasture, some to the

cave, where the first prisoners lay. Except for the worst of the crew, they

all pledge their undying devotion to the captain. In the guise of the

governor's assistant, Crusoe tells them that if they mutiny or go back on

their word, they will be killed. The captain goes out with his men in a

boat and is able to reclaim his large ship. He kills the head of the

mutiny, and they hang his body from a tree on the island. The captain

immediately hands over the ship to Crusoe. Crusoe embraces the captain as

his deliverer. He dresses in new clothing from the ship and poses as the

Governor. He addresses the untrustworthy prisoners, and tells them they can

either stay on the island or return to England and be hanged. They choose

to stay on the isle. Robinson takes time to show them where all his

amenities are. He and Friday leave on the ship with the rest of their

little army.

Robinson arrives in England thirty-five years after he left it. He

finds the old Portuguese captain in Lisbon and is able to get in contact

with his old plantation partners. He finds he is very wealthy and

successful. He pays the Portuguese man and the widow who was his trustee

very well for all the kindness they have shown him. He sends his two

sisters in the English countryside some money. Crusoe thinks of going to

Brazil, but decides he could not bear the rule under the religion of

Catholicism. Thus he resolves to sell the plantation and settle in England.

To get to England from Portugal, Robinson decides not to sail but to go by

land. The journey is treacherous. They are almost attacked by wolves. The

guide becomes ill. At one point Friday must fight a bear. Happily enough,

they are successful and arrive unscathed in Dover. Robinson eventually

marries and has three children. When his wife dies, he takes a voyage with

his nephew to the East Indies. There he sees that his island is faring

well, the Spaniards having arrived at the behest of Friday's father and the

first Spaniard who landed on the isle. There are women and young children

as well as men. Crusoe looks in on the inhabitants of the island from time

to time. He is always on a voyage.

The Picture of Dorian Grey by O.Wilde


The artist creates beautiful things. Art aims to reveal art and

conceal the artist. The critic translates impressions from the art into

another medium. Criticism is a form of autobiography. People who look at

something beautiful and find an ugly meaning are "corrupt without being

charming." Cultivated people look at beautiful things and find beautiful

meanings. The elect are those who see only beauty in beautiful things.

Books can’t be moral or immoral; they are only well or badly written.

People of the nineteenth century who dislike realism are like Caliban

who is enraged at seeing his own face in the mirror. People of the

nineteenth century who dislike romanticism are like Caliban enraged at not

seeing himself in the mirror.

The subject matter of art is the moral life of people, but moral art

is art that is well formed. Artists don’t try to prove anything. Artists

don’t have ethical sympathies, which in an artist "is an unpardonable

mannerism of style." The subject matter of art can include things that are

morbid, because "the artist can express everything." The artist’s

instruments are thought and language.

Vice and virtue are the materials of art. In terms of form, music is

the epitome of all the arts. In terms of feeling, acting is the epitome of

the arts.

Art is both surface and symbol. People who try to go beneath the

surface and those who try to read the symbols "do so at their own peril."

Art imitates not life, but the spectator. When there is a diversity of

opinion about a work of art, the art is good. "When critics disagree the

artist is in accord with him[/her]self."

The value of art is not in its usefulness. Art is useless.


In a richly decorated studio an artist, Basil Hallward talks with a

guest, Lord Henry Wotton about a new portrait he has standing out. Lord

Henry exclaims that it is the best of Hallward’s work and that he should

show it at Grosvenor. Hallward remarks that he doesn’t plan to show it at

all. Lord Henry can’t imagine why an artist wouldn’t want to show his work.

Hallward explains that he has put too much of himself in it to show it to

the public. Lord Henry can’t understand this since Hallward isn’t a

beautiful man while the subject of the portrait is extraordinarily

beautiful. As he is explaining himself, he mentions the subject’s name--

Dorian Gray. He regrets having slipped, saying that when he likes people,

he never tells their names because it feels to him as if he’s giving them

away to strangers.

Lord Henry compares this idea to his marriage, saying that "the one

charm of marriage is that it makes a life of deception absolutely necessary

for both parties." He adds that he and his wife never know where the other

is and that she’s always a better liar than he is, but that she just laughs

at him when he slips. Basil Hallward is impatient with Lord Henry for this

revelation, accusing Lord Henry of posing. He adds that Lord Henry never

says anything moral and never does anything immoral. Lord Henry tells him

that being natural is the worst of the poses.

Hallward returns to the idea of the portrait. He explains that "every

portrait that is painted with feeling is a portrait of the artist, not the

sitter." The sitter only occasions the production of the art. The painter

is revealed, not the sitter. He won’t, therefore, show the secret of his

soul to the public.

He tells the story of how he met Dorian Gray. He went to a "crush" put

on by Lady Brandon. While he was walking around the room, he saw Dorian

Gray, "someone whose mere personality was so fascinating that, if I allowed

it to do so, it would absorb by whole nature, my whole soul, my very art

itself." He was afraid of such an influence, so he avoided meeting the man

he saw. He tried to leave and Lady Brandon caught him and took him around

the room introducing him to her guests. He had recently shown a piece that

created a sensation, so his cultural capital was quite high at the time.

After numerous introductions, he came upon Dorian Gray.

Lady Brandon says she didn’t know what Mr. Gray did, perhaps nothing,

perhaps he played the piano or the violin. The two men laughed at her and

became friends with each other at once.

He tells Lord Henry that soon he painted Dorian Gray’s portrait. Now,

Dorian Gray is all of Hallward’s art. He explains that in art, there are

two epochal events possible: one is the introduction of a new medium for

art, like the oil painting, the second is the appearance of a new

personality for art. Dorian Gray is the latter.

Even when he’s not painting Dorian Gray, he is influenced by him to

paint extraordinarily different creations. It is like a new school of art

emerging. Dorian Gray is his motive in art.

As he is explaining the art, he mentions that he has never told Dorian

Gray how important he is. He won’t show his Dorian Gray- inspired art

because he fears that the public would recognize his bared soul. Lord Henry

notes that bared souls are quite popular these days in fiction. Hallward

hates this trend, saying that the artist should create beautiful things,

and should put nothing of his own life into them. Dorian Gray is often

quite charming to Basil, but sometimes he seems to take delight in hurting

Basil. Basil feels at such moments that he has given his soul to someone

shallow and cruel enough to treat it as a flower to ornament his lapel.

Lord Henry predicts that Basil will tire of Dorian sooner than Dorian will

tire of him. Basil refuses to believe this. He says as long as he lives,

Dorian Gray will dominate his life.

Lord Henry suddenly remembers that he has heard Dorian Gray’s name.

His aunt, Lady Agatha, has mentioned him in relation to some philanthropic

work she does, saying he was going to help her in the East End. Suddenly,

Dorian Gray is announced. Basil Hallward asks his servant to have Mr. Gray

wait a moment. He tells Lord Henry not to exert any influence on Dorian

Gray because he depends completely on Dorian remaining uncorrupted. Lord

Henry scoffs at the idea as nonsense.


When they walk from the studio into the house, they see Dorian Gray at

the piano. He tells Basil that he’s tired of sitting for his portrait. Then

he sees Lord Henry and is embarrassed. Basil tries to get Lord Henry to

leave, but Dorian asks him to stay and talk to him while he sits for the

portrait. He adds that Basil never talks or listens as he paints. Lord

Henry agrees to stay.

They discuss Dorian’s work in philanthropy. Lord Henry thinks he’s too

charming to do that kind of thing. Dorian wonders if Lord Henry will be a

bad influence on him as Basil thinks he will be.

Lord Henry thinks all influence is corrupting since the person

influenced no longer thinks with her or his own thoughts. He thinks the

"aim of life is self development." He doesn’t like philanthropy because it

makes people neglect themselves. They clothe poor people and let their own

souls starve. Only fear governs society, according to Lord Henry. Terror of

God is the secret of religion and terror of society is the basis of morals.

If people would live their lives fully, giving form to every feeling and

expression to every thought, the world would be enlivened by a fresh

impulse of joy. He urges Dorian not to run from his youthful fears.

Dorian becomes upset and asks him to stop talking so he can deal with

all that he has said. He stands still for ten minutes. He realizes he is

being influenced strongly. He suddenly understands things he has always

wondered about. Lord Henry watches him fascinated.

He remembers when he was sixteen he read a book and was immensely

influenced. He wonders if Dorian Gray is being influenced that way by his

random words. Hallward paints furiously. Dorian asks for a break. Basil

apologizes for making him stand so long. He is excited about the portrait

he’s painting, and praises Dorian for standing so perfectly still as to let

him get at the effect he had wanted. He says he hasn’t heard the

conversation, but he hopes Dorian won’t listen to anything Lord Henry tells


Lord Henry and Dorian go out into the garden while Basil works on the

background of the portrait in the studio. Dorian buries his face in a

flower. Lord Henry tells him he is doing just as he should since the senses

are the only way to cure the soul. They begin to stroll and Dorian Gray

clearly looks upset. He’s afraid of Lord Henry’s influence. Lord Henry

urges him to come and sit in the shade to avoid getting a sunburn and

ruining his beauty. Dorian wonders why it’s important. Lord Henry tells him

it matters more than anything else since his youth is his greatest gift and

that it will leave him soon. As they sit down, he implores Dorian to enjoy

his youth while he can. He shouldn’t give his life to the "ignorant, the

common, and the vulgar." He thinks the age needs a new Hedonism (pursuit of

pleasure as the greatest goal in life). Dorian Gray could be its visible


Dorian Gray listens intently. Suddenly, Basil comes out to get them.

He says he’s ready to resume the portrait. Inside, Lord Henry sits down and

watches Basil paint. After only a quarter of an hour, Basil says the

painting is complete. Lord Henry proclaims it his finest work and offers to

buy it. Basil says it’s Dorian’s painting.

When Dorian looks at it, he realizes he is beautiful as Lord Henry

has been telling him. He hadn’t taken it seriously before. Now he knows

what Lord Henry has meant by youth being so short-lived. He realizes the

painting will always be beautiful and he will not. He wishes it were

reversed. He accuses Basil of liking his art works better than his friends.

Basil is shocked at this change in Dorian. He tells him his friendship

means more to him than anything. Dorian is so upset that he says he’ll kill

himself the moment he realizes he’s growing old. Basil turns to Lord Henry

and says it’s his fault. Then he realizes he is arguing with his two best

friends and says he’ll destroy the painting to stop the argument. Dorian

pulls the knife away from him to stop him. He tells Basil he’s in love with

the portrait and thinks of it as part of himself.

The butler brings tea and the men sit down to drink it. Lord Henry

proposes they go to the theater that night. Basil refuses the invitation,

but Dorian agrees to go. When they get up to go, Basil asks Lord Henry to

remember what he asked him in the studio before they went in to see Dorian.

Lord Henry shrugs and says he doesn’t even trust himself, so Basil

shouldn’t try to trust him.


It is 12:30 in the afternoon and Lord Henry Wotton is walking to his

uncle’s house. Lord Fermor had in his youth been secretary to his father,

an ambassador to Madrid. When his father didn’t get the ambassadorship of

Paris, he quit in a huff and Lord Fermor quit with him. From them on Lord

Fermor had spent his life devoted "to the serious study of the great

aristocratic art of doing absolutely nothing." He pays some attention to

the coal mines in the Midland counties, "excusing himself from the taint of

industry on the ground that the one advantage of having coal was that I

enabled a gentleman to afford the decency of burning wood on his own


Lord Henry is visiting him to find out what he knows about Dorian

Gray’s parents. He doesn’t belong to the Bluebooks (the lists of English

nobles), but he is Kelso’s grandson and his mother was Lady Margaret

Devereux, an extraordinary beauty of her day. She married a penniless man

and upset everyone in the process. Her husband died soon afterwards, killed

in a duel set up by her father. She was pregnant. In childbirth, she died,

leaving Dorian to grow up with his ruthless grandfather.

Lord Henry leaves from his uncle’s and goes to his aunt’s house for

lunch. He becomes engrossed in his thoughts about Dorian Gray’s background.

He decides he will dominate Dorian just as Dorian dominates Basil Hallward.

When he gets to his aunt’s he is happy to see Dorian is at the table. He

begins to regale his aunt’s guests with his hedonistic philosophy of life.

He scorns the motives of philanthropy, which his aunt and most of her

guests espouse, and carries on about the joys of the pursuit of pleasure

for its own sake. He is pleased to see that Dorian is fascinated by his

speech. All of his aunt’s guests are, in fact, and he receives several


When lunch is over, he says he will go to the park for a stroll.

Dorian asks to come along and begs him to keep talking. Lord Henry says he

is finished talking and now he just wants to be and enjoy. Dorian wants to

come anyway. Lord Henry reminds him he has an appointment with Basil

Hallward. Dorian doesn’t mind breaking it.


One month later, Dorian Gray is waiting at Lord Henry’s for him to

come home. He is impatient since he’s been waiting for a while. Lord

Henry’s wife comes in and they chat for a while about music. She notices

that he parrots her husband’s views, as many people in her social circle

do. Lord Henry arrives and his wife leaves. After Henry advises him not to

marry, Dorian says he is too much in love to consider marriage. He is in

love with an actress. He thinks of her as a genius. Lord Henry explains

that women can’t be geniuses because they are made only for decoration. He

adds that there are only two kinds of women, the plain and the colored.

Plain women are useful for respectability and colored women are useful for

charming men. Dorian claims to be terrified by Lord Henry’s views. Lord

Henry pushes him to tell more about the actress.

Dorian says that for days after he met Lord Henry, he felt alive with

excitement and wanted to explore the world intensely. He walked the streets

staring into the faces of people to see into their lives. He decided one

night to go out and have an adventure. He was walking along the street and

was hailed to come into a second rate theater. Despite his repulsion for

the caller, he went in and bought a box seat. The play was Romeo and

Juliet. He hated all of it until Juliet came on stage and then he was

entranced. Since that night he has gone every night to the theater. He met

her on the third night and found her exquisitely innocent, knowing nothing

at all of life but art.

He wants Lord Henry and Basil Hallward to come to see her the next

evening. His plan is to pay her manager off and set her up in a good

theater. Lord Henry invites him to dinner that evening, but he refuses,

saying he has to see her perform Imogen. He leaves.

Lord Henry thinks about what he’s learned. He thinks of Dorian Gray as

a good study. He likes to study people like a scientist studies the results

of an experiment. He thinks of Dorian as being his own creation. He had

introduced his ideas to Dorian and made him a self-conscious man.

Literature often did that to people, but a strong personality like his

could do it as well. As he thinks over his thoughts, he’s interrupted by

his servant reminding him it’s time to dress for dinner. As he arrives home

that night, he finds a telegram on the hall table announcing that Dorian

Gray was to marry Sibyl Vane.


Sibyl Vane is exclaiming to her mother about how much in love she is

with her Prince Charming, as she calls Dorian Gray, not knowing yet what

his name is. Her mother warns her that she must keep her focus on acting

since they owe Mr. Isaacs fifty pounds. Sibyl is impatient with her mother

and tries to get her mother to remember when she was young and in love with

Sibyl’s father. Her mother looks pained and Sibyl apologizes for bringing

up a painful subject.

Her brother Jim comes in. It’s his last night on shore. He is booked

as a sailor on a ship headed for Australia. When Sibyl leaves the room, he

asks his mother about the gentleman he has heard has been coming to the

theater to see Sibyl every night. His mother tells him the man is wealthy

and it might be a good thing for Sibyl. Jim is not convinced.

When Sibyl comes back, she and Jim go for a walk in the park together.

While there, Jim questions her about the man who has been calling on her.

She only says how much she is in love with the man and how she is sure he’s

trustworthy. Jim says that if he comes back and finds that the man has hurt

her, he’ll kill the man. They walk on and return home after a while.

Alone again with his mother, Jim asks her if she was married to his

father. She has been feeling like he has been on the verge of asking this

question for weeks. She is relieved to get it out in the open. She says she

was never married to the man. He was married, but loved her very much. He

would have provided for her and her family, but died. Jim tells her to keep

the gentleman away from Sibyl. She tells him that he need not worry because

Sibyl has a mother, but she herself didn’t. He is touched by her sincerity

and they embrace. Soon, though, he has to get ready to leave for his ship.

Mrs. Vane thinks about his threat to kill Sibyl’s Prince Charming, but

thinks nothing will ever come of it.


Lord Henry greets Basil Hallward as he arrives at the Bristol for

dinner. He tells him the news about Dorian’s engagement to Sibyl Vane.

Basil is surprised and can’t believe it’s true. He can’t believe Dorian

would do something as foolish as to marry an actress in light of his

"birth, and position, and wealth." Lord Henry acts nonchalant about the

news and Basil is quite worried.

Finally Dorian arrives elated to tell the others of his news. Over

dinner he tells them that he proposed to Sibyl on the previous evening

after watching her as Rosalind. He kissed her and told her he loved her and

she told him she wasn’t good enough to be his wife. They are keeping their

engagement a secret from her mother.

Dorian tells Lord Henry that she will save him from Lord Henry’s

"wrong, fascinating, poisonous, delightful theories" about life, love, and

pleasure. Lord Henry says they aren’t his theories but Nature’s. Basil

Hallward begins to think the engagement will be a good thing for Dorian

after all.

As they leave, Lord Henry tells Hallward to take a separate conveyance

to the theater since his is large enough only for him and Dorian. As he

rides in the carriage behind Lord Henry’s, Basil Hallward feels a strong

sense of loss, as if Dorian Gray will never again be to him all that he had

been in the past. He realizes that life has come between them. He feels,

when he arrives at the theater, that he has grown years older.


At the theater, Dorian is surprised to find it crowded with people. He

takes Lord Henry and Basil Hallward to his usual box and they discuss the

crowd below. He tells them that Sibyl’s art is so fine that she

spiritualizes the common people, transforming their ugliness into beauty.

Basil tells him he now agrees that the marriage will be a good thing for


When Sibyl appears on the stage, both men are entranced by her beauty,

but when she starts to act, they are embarrassed for Dorian. Dorian doesn’t

speak, but he is horribly disappointed. Sibyl’s acting is horribly wooden.

The people below hiss and catcall to the stage making fun of her poor

acting. After the second act, Lord Henry and Basil Hallward leave. Dorian

tells them he will stay out the performance. He hides his face in anguish.

When the play is over, he goes to the green room to find Sibyl. She’s

waiting for him. She looks radiantly happy. She tells him she acted so

badly because she loves him. She says that before she loved him, the stage

was real and alive for her. she never noticed the tawdriness of the stage

set or the ugliness of her fellow actors. She had put everything into it

because it was all of her life. When she realized tonight that she was

acting horribly, she was struck by the realization that it was because she

had found a new reality.

When she finishes, Dorian tells her she disappointed him and

embarrassed him horribly. He says she killed his love. Sibyl is shocked and

horrified by his words. She begs him to take them back, but he goes on. he

tells her he loved her for her art and now she has nothing of her art and

so he doesn’t love her any more. Now she is nothing but "a third-rate

actress with a pretty face." Sibyl throws herself at his feet begging him

to be kind to her, but he walks away scornfully, thinking how ridiculous

she looks.

He walks through the poverty-stricken streets of London for a long

time. Then he gets back to his room, recently redecorated since he learned

to appreciate luxury from Lord Henry. He is undressing when he happens to

glance at the portrait. He is taken aback to notice a change in it. Lines

around the mouth have appeared. The face has a cruel expression. He turns

on the lights and looks at it more carefully, but nothing changes the look

of cruelty on the face. He remembers what he said in Basil’s studio the day

he saw it for the first time. He had wished to change places with it,

staying young forever while it aged with time and experience. He knows that

the sin he committed against Sibyl that evening had caused him to age. He

realizes that the portrait will always be an emblem of his conscience from

now on. He dresses quickly and hurries toward Sibyl’s house. As he hurries

to her, a faint feeling of his love for her returns to him.


Dorian doesn’t wake up the next day until well past noon. He gets up

and looks through his mail, finding and laying aside a piece of mail hand

delivered from Lord Henry that morning. He gets up and eats a light

breakfast all the while feeling as if he has been part of some kind of

tragedy recently. As he sits at breakfast, he sees the screen that he

hurriedly put in front of his portrait the night before and realizes it was

not a dream but is true. He tells his servant that he is not accepting

callers and he goes to the portrait and removes the screen. He hesitates to

do so, but decides he must. When he looks at the portrait he sees that it

was not an illusion. The change remains. He looks at it with horror.

He realizes how unjust and cruel he had been to Sibyl the night

before. He thinks the portrait will serve him as a conscience throughout

life. He remains looking at the portrait for hours more. Finally, he gets

paper and begins to write a passionate letter to Sibyl apologizing for what

he had said to her and vowing eternal love. He reproaches himself in the

letter so voluptuously that he feels absolved, like a person who has been

to confession. He lays the letter to the side and then he hears Lord Henry

calling to him through the door.

Lord Henry begs to be let in and Dorian decides he will let him. Lord

Henry apologizes for all that has happened. Dorian tells him he was brutal

with Sibyl the night before after the performance, but now he feels good

and is not even sorry that it happened. Lord Henry says he had worried that

Dorian would be tearing his hair in remorse. Dorian says he is quite happy

now that he knows what conscience is. He asks Henry not to sneer at it, and

says that he wants to be good. He adds that he can’t stand the idea "of

[his] soul being hideous." Lord Henry exclaims about this "charming

artistic basis for ethics." Dorian says he will marry Sibyl. It is then

when Lord Henry realizes Dorian didn’t read his letter. In it, he had told

Dorian that Sibyl committed suicide the night before by swallowing some

kind of poison.

Lord Henry begins advising Dorian about how to avoid the scandal that

such a story would attach to his name. He asks if anyone but Sibyl knew his

name and if anyone saw him go behind stage to speak to her after her

performance. Lord Henry urges Dorian not to let the episode get on his

nerves. He invites him out to dinner and to the opera with his sister and

some smart women. Dorian exclaims that he has murdered Sibyl Vane. He

marvels that life is still as beautiful with birds singing and roses

blooming. He adds that if he had read it in a book, he would have thought

it movingly tragic. He recounts the exchange between he and Sibyl the night

before, telling Henry of how cruel he was in casting her aside. He ends by

condemning her as selfish for killing herself.

Lord Henry tells him that a woman can only reform a man by boring him

so completely that he loses all interest in life. He adds that if Dorian

would have married Sibyl, he would have been miserable because he wouldn’t

have loved her. Dorian concedes that it probably would have been. He is

amazed that he doesn’t feel the tragedy more than he does. He wonders if

he’s heartless. He thinks of it as a wonderful ending to a wonderful play,

a "tragedy in which [he] took a great part, but by which [he] has not been

wounded." Lord Henry likes to play on Dorian’s unconscious egotism, so he

exclaims over the interest of Dorian’s sense of it.

Dorian thinks he will now have to go into mourning, but Lord Henry

tells him it is unnecessary since there is already enough mourning in life.

He adds that Sibyl must have been different from all other women who are so

trivial and predictable. When Dorian expresses remorse at having been cruel

to her, Lord Henry assures him that women appreciate cruelty more than

anything else. They are primitive. Men have emancipated them, but they have

remained slaves and they love being dominated. He reminds Dorian that Sibyl

was a great actress and that he can think of her suicide as an ending to a

Jacobean tragedy.

Dorian finally thanks Lord Henry for explaining himself to him. He

revels in what a marvelous experience it has all been for him. He wonders

if life will give him anything more marvelous and Henry assures him that it

will. He wonders what will happen when he gets old and ugly. Henry tells

him that then he will have to fight for his victories. Dorian decides he

will join Lord Henry at the opera after all. Lord Henry departs.

When he is alone, Dorian looks again at the portrait. He sees that it

hasn’t changed since he last saw it. He thinks of poor Sibyl and revels in

the romance of it all. He decides that he will embrace life and the

portrait will bear the burden of his shame. He is sad to think of how the

beautiful portrait will be marred. He thinks for a minute about praying

that the strange sympathy that exists between him and the picture would

disappear, but he realizes that no one would give up the chance at being

forever young. Then he decides that he will get pleasure out of watching

the changes. The portrait would be a magic mirror for him, revealing his

soul to him. He pushes the screen back in front of it and dresses for the



The next morning after the opera, Dorian is visited by Basil Hallward.

Basil assumes that he really didn’t go to the opera the night before and is

shocked to find out that he did so after all. He can’t believe that Dorian

is so unfeeling when Sibyl isn’t even buried yet. Dorian tells him he

doesn’t want to hear about it because it’s in the past. He thinks if he is

a strong man, he should be able to dominate his feelings and end them when

he wants to end them. Basil blames Dorian’s lack of feeling on Lord Henry.

Dorian tells Basil that it was he who taught him to be vain. Basil is

shocked to find out that Sibyl killed herself. Dorian tells him it is

fitting that she did, more artistic. "Her death has all the pathetic

uselessness of martyrdom, all its wasted beauty." He tells Basil that he

has suffered, that he was suffering terribly yesterday around five or six

o’clock. He says he no longer has these emotions and it would be nothing

but empty sentimentality to try to repeat the feelings that have passed. He

asks Basil to help him see the art in it rather than to try to make him

feel guilt over it. He begs Basil not to leave him but to stop quarreling

with him.

Basil is moved by Dorian’s speech and decides Dorian might be passing

through a momentary lapse of feeling and should be berated for it. He

agrees not to speak to Dorian again of Sibyl. Dorian asks him, however, to

draw him a picture of Sibyl. Basil agrees to do so and urges Dorian to come

sit for him again, saying he can’t get on with his painting without Dorian.

Dorian starts and says he will never be able to sit for Basil again. Basil

is shocked and then looks around to see if he can see the portrait he gave

Dorian. He is annoyed to find that it is hidden behind a screen and goes

toward it. Dorian jumps up and stands between him and the screen keeping

him away from it. He makes Basil promise never to look at it again and not

to ever ask why. Basil is surprised but agrees to do so, saying that

Dorian’s friendship is more important to him than anything. He tells Dorian

he plans to show the portrait in an exhibit. Dorian remembers the afternoon

in Basil’s studio when Basil said he would never show it. He remembers Lord

Henry telling him to ask Basil one day about why. He does so now.

Basil explains to him reluctantly that he was fascinated with him and

dominated by his personality from the first moment he saw him. He painted

every kind of portrait of him, putting him in ancient Greek garb and in

Renaissance garb. One day he decided to paint Dorian as he was, and as he

painted each stroke, he became fascinated with the idea that the portrait

was revealing his idolatry of Dorian. He swore then hat he would never

exhibit it. However, after he gave the portrait to Dorian, the feeling

passed away from him. He realized that "art conceals the artist far more

completely than if ever reveals him." That was when he decided to exhibit

the portrait as a centerpiece.

Dorian takes a breath. He realizes he is safe for the present since

Basil clearly doesn’t know the truth about the painting. Basil thinks

Dorian sees what he saw in the portrait, his idolatry of Dorian. He tries

to get Dorian to let him see the portrait, but Dorian still refuses. Basil

leaves and Dorian thinks over what he had said to him. He calls his

servant, realizing that the portrait has to be put away where he won’t run

the risk of guests trying to see it.


Dorian is in his drawing room when his manservant Victor enters. She

scrutinizes Victor to see if Victor has looked behind the curtain at the

portrait. He watches Victor in the mirror to see if he can see anything but

can see nothing but "a placid mask of servility." He sends for the

housekeeper. When she arrives, he asks her to give him the key to the old

schoolroom. She wants to clean it up before he goes up to it, but he

insists he doesn’t need it cleaned. She mentions that it hasn’t bee used

for five years, since his grandfather died. Dorian winces at the mention of

his grandfather, who was always mean to him.

When she leaves, he takes the cover off the couch and throws it over

the portrait. he thinks of Basil and wonders if he shouldn’t have appealed

to Basil to help him resist Lord Henry’s influence. He knows Basil loves

him with more than just a physical love. However, he gives up on the

thought of asking Basil for help, deciding that the future is inevitable

and the past can always be annihilated.

He receives the men from the framemaker’s shop. The framemaker

himself, Mr. Hubbard, has come. He asks the two men to help him carry the

portrait upstairs. He sends Victor away to Lord Henry’s so as to get him

out of the way in order to hide the operation from him. They get the

portrait upstairs with some trouble and he has them lean it against the

wall and leave it. He hates the idea of leaving it in the dreaded room

where he was always sent to be away from his grandfather who didn’t like to

see him, but it’s the only room not in use in the house. He wonders what

the picture will look like over time. He thinks with repulsion of how its

image will show the signs of old age.

When he gets back downstairs to the library, Victor has returned from

Lord Henry’s. Lord Henry had sent him a book and the paper. The paper is

marked with a red pen on a passage about the inquest into Sibyl Vane’s

death. He throws it away annoyed at Lord Henry for sending it and fearing

that Victor saw the red mark. Then he picks up the book Lord Henry sent

him. It is a fascinating book from the first page. It is a plot-less novel,

a psychological study of a young Parisian who spends all his life trying to

realize all the passions and modes of thought of previous ages. It is

written in the style of the French Symbolistes. He finds it to be a

poisonous book. He can’t put it down. It makes him late to dinner with Lord



For years afterwards, Dorian Gray continues to feel the influence of

the book Lord Henry gave him. He gets more copies of the book from Paris

and has them bound in different colors. He thinks of the book as containing

the story of his life. He feels himself lucky to be different from the

novel’s hero in respect to aging. While the novel’s hero bemoans his loss

of youthful beauty, Dorian Gray never loses his youth. He reads the

passages over and over again reveling in his difference from the hero in

this respect.

People in his social circle often hear dreadful things about Dorian

Gray, but when they look at him and see his fresh, young looks, they

dismiss the rumors as impossible. Dorian is often gone from home for long

periods of time and never tells anyone where he has gone. He always returns

home and goes straight upstairs to see the portrait’s changes. He grows

more and more in love with his own beauty. He spends much time in a sordid

tavern near the docks and thinks with pity of the degradation he has

brought on his soul.

Most of the time, though, he doesn’t think of his soul. He has "mad

hungers that [grow] more ravenous as he [feeds] them."

He entertains once or twice a month with such lavish fare and such

exquisite furnishings that he becomes the most popular of London’s young

men. He is admired by all the men who see him as a type of man who combines

the real culture of a scholar with the grace of a citizen of the world. He

lives his life as if it were an art work. His style of dressing sets the

standard of all the fashionable shops.

He worships the senses in many different forms. He lives the new

Hedonism, that Lord Henry has told him of. He enjoys the service of the

Catholic Church for its ritual and its pathos. Yet, he never embraces any

creed or system of thought because he refuses to arrest his intellectual

development. He studies new perfumes and experiments with them endlessly.

He devotes himself for long periods to the study of all kinds of musical

forms from all over the world. He even studies the stories written about

the music, the stories of magic and death. He takes of the study of jewels

for a while, collecting rare and precious jewels from all over the world

for the pleasure of looking at them and feeling them. He collects stories

about jewels as part of animals and stories of jewels which caused death

and destruction. For a time, he studies embroideries of all sorts and the

stories that attach to them. He collects embroideries and tapestries from

all over the world. He especially loves ecclesiastical vestments. The

beautiful things he collects are part of his methods of forgetfulness. He

wants to escape the fear that sometimes seems to overwhelm him.

After some years, he becomes unable to leave London for any purpose

because he cannot bear to be away from the portrait for any length of time.

Often when he’s out with friends, he breaks off and rushes home to see if

the portrait is still where it should be and to ensure that no one has

tampered with the door. He develops a desperate fear that someone might

steal the portrait and then everyone would know about him.

Most people are fascinated with Dorian Gray, but some people are

distrustful of him. He is almost banned from two clubs. He is ostracized by

some prominent men. People begin to tell curious stories about him hanging

around with foreign sailors in run down pubs and interacting with thieves

and coiners. People talk about his strange absences. He never takes notice

of these looks people give him. Most of them see his boyish smile and can’t

imagine that the stories could be true. Yet the stories remain. Sometime

people notice women, who at one time adored him, blanch when he walks in a

room in shame or horror. To most people, the stories only increase his

mysterious charm. According to Lord Henry, society doesn’t care about

morality in its aristocratic members, only good manners.

Dorian Gray can’t imagine why people reduce human beings to a single,

"simple, permanent, reliable essence." For Dorian, people enjoy myriad

lives and sensations; they change radically from time to time. Dorian likes

to look at the portrait gallery of his country house. He wonders about his

ancestors and how their blood co- mingled with his own. He looks at Lady

Elizabeth Devereaux in her extaordinary beauty and realizes her legacy to

him is in his beauty and in his love of all that is beautiful.

He also thinks of his ancestors as being in literature he has read.

These characters have influenced him more even than his family members

have. The hero of the central novel of his life has certainly been his

greatest influence. He also loves to think of all the evil heroes about

whom he has read: Caligula, Filippo, Due of Milan, Pietro Barbi, the

Borgia, and many more. He feels a "horrible fascination" with all of them.

He knows he has been poisoned by the French Symboliste book. He thinks of

evil as nothing more than a mode of experiencing the beautiful.


It is the ninth of November, not long before Dorian Gray will turn 38

years old. He is walking home late one night when he sees Basil Hallward.

He becomes suddenly afraid to have contact with his old friend whom he

hasn’t seen in many months, but Basil sees him and stops him. Basil says

he’s been waiting for him all evening and has just given up. He insists on

coming back inside with Dorian because he says he has something important

to tell him.

Inside, Dorian acts as though he’s bored and wants to go to bed. Basil

insists on talking. He says he is going to Paris in one hour’s time and

will be taking a studio there for six months. He tells Dorian that he is

always having to defend Dorian’s name wherever he goes. He thinks Dorian

must be a good person because he looks so beautiful. He says he knows sin

tells on people’s faces after a while, so he has a great deal of trouble

believing the stories. However, the evidence has piled up and is quite

compelling. He names several young men who have lost very promising

reputations after being extremely close to Dorian. He names several young

women, including Lord Henry’s sister, who have lost their reputations. Lady

Gwendolyn, Lord Henry’s sister, has suffered such a fall that she is not

even allowed to see her own children any more. He mentions the stories of

people who have seen Dorian spending time in "dreadful houses" and in "the

foulest dens in London." He mentions the stories of what happens at

Dorian’s country house.

Basil urges Dorian to have a good influence on people instead of a bad

one. He tells Dorian that it is said that he corrupts everyone with whom he

becomes intimate. He has even seen a letter shown to him by Lord

Gloucester, one of his best friends, that his wife wrote to him on her

death bed. It implicated Dorian Gray in her debasement. Basil sums up by

saying that he doesn’t know that he even knows Dorian any more. He says

that he can’t say without seeing Dorian’s soul and only God can do that.

At his last words, Dorian goes white with fear and repeats the words

"To see my soul!" He laughs bitterly and tells Basil that he will see his

soul that very night. He will let Basil look on the face of corruption.

Basil is shocked and thinks Dorian is being blasphemous. He stands over

Basil and tells him to finish what he has to say to him. Basil says Dorian

must give him a satisfactory answer to all the stories about him that very

night. Dorian just tells him to come upstairs with him. He says he has

written a dairy of his life from day to day and that it never leaves the

room in which it is written.


The two men climb the stairs and Dorian lets Basil in the room

upstairs. He lights the lamp and asks Basil again if he really wants an

answer to his question. Basil does, so Dorian pulls the curtain from the

portrait and shines the light on it, saying he is delighted to show Basil

because Basil is the only man in the world entitled to know all about him.

Basil cries out in horror when he sees the portrait. He stares at it for a

long time in amazement, not believing at first that it is the same portrait

he painted all those years ago.

Dorian is leaning against the mantle shelf watching Basil’s reaction

with something like triumph expressed on his face. Dorian tells him that

years ago when he was a boy, Basil had painted this portrait of him,

teaching him to be vain of his looks. Then he had introduced him to Lord

Henry who explained to him the wonder of youth. The portrait had completed

the lesson in the beauty of youth. When he had seen it in the first moment,

he had prayed that he should change places with it, never changing and

aging, but letting the picture do so. Basil remembers the prayer. He

thinks, however, that it must be impossible. He tries to find some logical

explanation for the degradation of the beauty of the portrait. He thinks

perhaps the room was damp or that he had used some kind of poor quality

paints. He says there was nothing evil or shameful in his ideal that he

painted that day. This, instead, is the face of a satyr. Dorian says it is

the face of his soul.

Basil begins to believe it is true and then realizes what it means. It

means that all that is said of Dorian is true and that his reputation isn’t

even as bad as he is. He can hear Dorian sobbing as he begins to pray. He

asks Dorian to join him in prayer. He says Dorian worshipped himself too

much and now they are both punished.

Dorian tells him it’s too late. Basil insists that it isn’t. He begins

to pray. Dorian looks at the picture and suddenly feels an overwhelming

hatred for Basil. He sees a knife lying nearby and picks it up. He walks

over and stands behind Basil and stabs him in the neck several times. When

he is finished, he hears nothing but blood dripping. He goes to the door

and locks it. He is horrified to look at Basil’s body.

He goes to the window and sees a policeman outside and an old woman.

He tries not to think about what has happen. He picks up the lamp because

he knows the servant will miss it from downstairs, and he goes downstairs,

locking the door behind him.

Everything is quiet in the house. He remembers that Basil was supposed

to leave for Paris that night and had even sent his heavy things ahead of

him. No one had seen him come back inside after he left his house earlier

that evening. No one will begin to wonder about him for months to come. He

puts Basil’s bag and coat in a hiding place, the same place where he hides

his disguises. Then he puts on his own coat, goes outside, and knocks on

the door. His servant opens the door and he asks him what time it is. Then

he tells him to wake him at nine the next morning. The servant tells him

Mr. Hallward came by and Dorian exclaims over having missed him.

Inside his library again, he picks up the Blue Book and finds the name

of Alan Campbell. He says this is the man he wants.


Dorian Gray wakes with a smile the next morning at nine o’clock,

feeling well rested. He gradually recalls the events of the night before.

He feels sorry for himself and loathing for Basil. Then he realizes that

Basil’s body remains upstairs in he room. He fears that if he thinks too

much on what happened he will go crazy. He gets up and spends a long time

choosing his outfit and his rings. He has a leisurely breakfast and reads

his mail, throwing away a letter from a lover, remembering one of Lord

Henry’s misogynist sayings about women, that they have a awful memory. He

writes two letters and sends one to Mr. Alan Campbell by his manservant.

He smokes a cigarette and sketches for a while, but every face he

sketches looks like Basil’s. He lies down on the sofa and tries to read

Gautier’s Emaux et Camees. He enjoys the images in the book of the beauties

of Venice. It reminds him of his visit there. He was with Basil and he

remembers Basil’s joy over the work of Tintoret. He tries to read again and

then begins to worry that Alan Campbell might be out of town.

Five years ago, he and Alan had been great friends. Now they never

speak. Alan always leaves the room when Dorian comes in at any party they

both attend. Alan is a scientist, but when he and Dorian were together, he

was also in love with music. They were inseparable for a year and a half.

Then they quarreled and have not spoken since. Alan has given up music in

favor of science. Dorian becomes hysterical with anxiety as he waits.

Finally, the servant announces that Mr. Campbell has arrived.

Dorian loses all anxiety and plays the part of the gracious host. Alan

Campbell is stiff with disapproval and hatred. He wants to know why Dorian

has called him. Dorian tells him there is a dead body in a room at the top

of the stairs and he needs Campbell to dispose of it. Alan tells him to

stop talking. He says he will not turn him in, but that he will not have

anything to do with it. Dorian tells him he wants him to do it because of

Alan’s knowledge of chemistry. He wants him to change the body into a

handful of ashes. He at first says it was a suicide, but then admits that

he murdered the man upstairs. Dorian begs him to help and Alan refuses to

listen. Finally, when he is sure he can’t convince him,

Dorian writes something down and tells Alan to read it. Alan is

shocked at what he reads. Dorian says if Alan won’t help him, he will send

a letter to someone and ruin Alan’s reputation. He tells Alan he is

terribly sorry for him for what he will have to do, but tries to console

him by saying he does this sort of thing all the time for the pursuit of

science so it shouldn’t be too horrible for him.

Finally, Alan says he needs to get things from home. Dorian won’t let

him leave. He makes him write down what he needs and sends his servant to

get the equipment. Then when it arrives, he sends his servant away for the

day to get some orchids in another city. He and Alan carry the equipment

upstairs. At the door, Dorian realizes he has left the portrait uncovered

for the first time in years. He rushes over to it to cover it. He sees that

on the hands, there is a red stain. He covers it and then leaves the room

to Alan without looking at the body.

Long after seven o’clock that evening, Alan comes downstairs and says

it is finished. He says he never wants to see Dorian again. Dorian thanks

him sincerely, saying he saved him from ruin. When Campbell leaves, Dorian

rushes upstairs and sees there is no trace of the body.


That evening, Dorian Gray goes to a dinner party at Lady Narborough’s

house. He looks perfectly dressed and perfectly at ease. The party is small

and the guests boring. Dorian is relieved when he hears that Lord Henry

will be coming. When Lord Henry arrives late, he carries on in his usual

way with one aphorism after another much to Lady Narborough’s amusement.

Dorian, for his part, cannot even eat. He is noticeably distracted. Lady

Narborough asks him several times what is the matter and when the men are

left alone after dinner for their cigars, Lord Henry questions him. Lord

Henry asks him where he went the night before since he left the party

early. Dorian first says he went home, then he says he went to the club,

then he corrects himself again and says he walked around until half past

two when he got home and had to ask his servant to let him in.

The two men chat a little longer. Dorian is planning a party at his

country house the next weekend and they discuss the guest list. Dorian is

interested in a Duchess and has invited her and her husband. Lord Henry

warns him against her, saying she is too smart, and that women are best

when they are weak and ignorant. Dorian finally says he must leave. He goes

home and opens the hiding place where he has put Basil Hallward’s coat and

bag. He puts them on the fire and waits until they are completely burned

up. Then he sits and looks at a cabinet for a long time fascinated.

Finally, he gets up and gets a Chinese box out of it. He opens it and

finds inside a green paste with a heavy odor. He hesitates with a strange

smile and then puts the box back and closes the cabinet. He gets dressed

and leaves the house. He hails a cab telling the man the address. The cab

driver almost refuses since it is too far, but Dorian promises him a huge

tip and they drive off toward the river.


It is raining and cold as Dorian rides to the outskirts of the city.

The ride is extraordinarily long. He hears over and over again Lord Henry’s

saying that one can cure the soul by means of the sense and can cure the

sense by means of the soul. He heard Lord Henry say that on the first day

he met him. He has repeated it often over the years. Tonight it is all he

can think of to calm himself through the long drive. The roads get worse

and worse. People chase the cab and have to be whipped away by the driver.

Finally, they arrive and Dorian gets out.

He goes into a building and passes through several dirty and poor

rooms. He passes through a bar where a sailor is slumped over a table and

two prostitutes are jeering at a crazy old man. He smells the odor of opium

and feels relieved. However, when he goes into the opium den, he is

unhappily surprised to see Adrian Darlington.

Adrian tells him he has no friends any more and doesn’t need them as

long as he has opium. Dorian doesn’t want to be in the same place with the

young man about whom Basil Hallway had just spoken the night before. He

buys Adrian a drink and is bothered by a prostitute. He tells her not to

speak to him and gives her money to leave him alone. He tells Adrian to

call on him if he ever needs anything and then he leaves. As he is leaving,

one of the prostitutes calls out to him "There goes the devil’s bargain."

He curses her and she says, "Prince Charming is what you like to be called,

ain’t it?" As she says this the sailor who has been asleep jumps up and

runs after Dorian.

Outside, Dorian is wishing he hadn’t run into Adrian Singleton and

cursing fate. He hurries along when he is suddenly grabbed from behind and

shoved against the wall. A gun is shoved into his face. Dorian calls out

and the man tells him to be quiet. The man tells him to make his peace with

God before he dies. He says he is James Vane, brother of Sibyl Vane, who

killed herself after Dorian ruined her. He plans to leave for India that

night and will kill Dorian before he goes. Dorian suddenly thinks of a way

out. He asks James when his sister died. James tells him it was eighteen

years ago. Dorian tells James to look at his face under the light.

James drags him to the street light and looks at him. He sees a face

that is too young to have been a young lover eighteen years ago. H releases

Dorian feelings shocked that he might have killed the wrong man.

After Dorian is gone, the prostitute comes out of the darkness and

tells James he should have killed the man. She says he has made a bargain

with the devil to remain looking young. She says the same man had ruined

her eighteen years ago and left her to become a prostitute. He is nearly

forty years old now. She swears she is telling the truth. He runs away from

her but sees no trace of Dorian Gray.


It is one week later and Dorian Gray is entertaining guests at his

country estate, Selby Royal. He is chatting with the Duchess of Monmouth

when Lord Henry interrupts them. Lord Henry has decided to begin calling

everyone Gladys as a means to combat the ugliness of names in the modern

world. He engages the Duchess in a witty repartee about women and about

values in general. The Duchess at one point mentions that Dorian’s color is

very poor. He seems not to be feeling well. Dorian tries but does not do

well in keeping up with their conversation. Finally, he volunteers to go to

the conservatory to get her some orchids for her dress that evening.

When he is gone, Lord Henry tells the Duchess that she is flirting

disgracefully with Dorian. She jokes with him in return. He teases her that

she has a rival in Lady Narborough. She asks Lord Henry to describe women

as a sex. He says women are "Sphinxes without secrets." She notices that

Dorian is taking a long time and suggests going to find him when they hear

a crash. They rush into the conservatory to find Dorian fainted away on the

floor. They carry him in to the sofa and he gradually comes awake. He asks

Lord Henry if they are safe inside. Lord Henry tells him he just fainted

and must stay in his room instead of coming down to dinner.

Dorian insists he will come down to dinner. At dinner, he is wildly

gay. Every once in a while, he feels a thrill of terror as he recalls the

face of James Vane looking at him through the window of the conservatory.


The next day, Dorian Gray remains in his house afraid to leave it for

fear of being shot by James Vane. The second day brings its own fears as

well, but on the third day, Dorian wakes up and feels that he has been

imagining things. He tells himself that James Vane has sailed away on his

ship and will never find him in life.

After breakfast, he talks to the Duchess for an hour in the garden and

then he drives across the part to join the shooting party. When he gets

close, he sees Geoffrey Clouston, the Duchess’s brother. He joins Geoffrey

for a stroll. Suddenly, a rabbit appears out of the bush and Geoffrey aims

for it. Dorian tells him not to shoot it, but Geoffrey shoots anyway.

Instead of the rabbit falling, a man who was hidden by the bush falls. The

two men think it was one of the beaters (the men hired to beat the bushes

so the wildlife will run and the hunters will be able to shoot at it).

Geoffrey is annoyed at the man for getting in front of the gunfire. Lord

Henry comes over and tells Dorian they should call off the shooting for the

day to avoid appearing callous. Dorian is awfully upset by the shooting.

Lord Henry consoles him, saying the man’s death is of no consequence,

though it will cause Geoffrey some inconvenience. Dorian thinks of it as a

bad omen. He thinks he will be shot. Lord Henry laughs his fears away,

telling him there is no such thing as destiny.

They arrive at the house and Dorian is greeted by the gardener who has

a note from the Duchess. He receives it and walks on. They discuss her.

Lord Henry says the Duchess loves him. Dorian says he wishes he could love

but that he’s too concentrated on himself to love anyone else. He says he

wants to take a cruise on his yacht where he will be safe. As they talk,

the Duchess approaches them.

She is concerned bout her brother. Lord Henry says it would be much

more interesting if he had murdered the man on purpose. He says he wishes

he knew someone who had committed murder. Dorian blanches and they express

concern for his health. He says he will go lie down to rest.

Lord Henry and the Duchess continue their talk. He asks her if she is

in love with Dorian. She avoids answering. He asks if her husband will

notice anything. She says her husband never notices and she wishes he would


Upstairs in his room, Dorian lies on his sofa almost in a faint. At

five o’clock he calls for a servant and tells him to prepare his things for

his leave-taking. He writs a note to Lord Henry asking him to entertain his

guests. Just as he is ready to leave, the head keeper is announced. He says

the man who was shot was not one of the beaters, but seems to have been a

sailor. No one knew the man. Dorian is wildly excited at the thought hat it

might be James Vane. He rushes out to go and see the body. When the cloth

is lifted from the face, he cries out in joy because it is the face of

James Vane. He rides home with tears of joy knowing he’s safe.


Lord Henry tells Dorian he doesn’t believe him when he says he is now

going to be good. He says Dorian is already perfect and shouldn’t change at

al. Dorian insists that he has done many terrible things and has decided to

stop that and become a good person. He says he’s been staying in the

country lately and has resolved to change. Lord Henry says anyone can be

good in the country. Dorian says he has recently done a good thing. He

wooed a young girl as beautiful as Sibyl Vane was and loved her. He has

been going to see her several times a week all month. They were planning to

run away together and suddenly he decided to leave her with her innocence.

Lord Henry says the novelty of the emotion must have given Dorian as much

pleasure as he used to get in stealing the innocence of girls. Dorian begs

Henry not to make jokes about his reform. Lord Henry asks him if he thinks

this girl will now ever be able to be happy after she was loved by someone

as beautiful and graceful as he is. Now she will be forever dissatisfied

with love. He wonders if the girl will even commit suicide.

Dorian begs Henry to stop making fun of him. He tells him he wants to

be better than he has been in life. After a while, he brings up the subject

of Basil’s disappearance. He asks Henry what people are saying about it and

wonders if anyone thinks foul play was involved. Henry makes light of it.

He imagines that Basil fell off a bus into the Seine and drowned. Dorian

asks Henry what he would think if he said he had killed Basil. Henry laughs

at the idea, saying Dorian is too delicate for something as gross as


Lord Henry says he hates the fact that Basil’s art had become so poor

in the last years of his life. After Dorian stopped sitting for him, his

art became trite.

Lord Henry begs Dorian to play Chopin for him and talk to him. Dorian

begins playing and remembers a line from Hamlet that reminds him of the

portrait Basil painted of him: "Like the painting of a sorrow,/ A face

without a heart." He repeats the line over again thinking how much it suits

the portrait Basil painted of him.

Lord Henry thinks of a line he heard when he passed by a preacher in

the park last Sunday: "What does it profit a man if he gain the whole world

and lose his own soul?" Dorian is shocked at the saying and wonders why

Henry would ask him this question. Henry laughs it off and moves on to

another topic.

Henry urges Dorian to stop being so serious. He tells him he looks

better than he ever has and wonders what his secret is for warding off old

age. He revels in the exquisite life Dorian has led and wishes he could

change places with him. He tells Dorian his life has been a work of art.

Dorian stops playing and tells Lord Henry that if he knew what he had done

in life, he would turn from him.

Lord Henry urges Dorian to come to the club with him. He wants to

introduce him to Lord Poole, Bournemouth’s eldest son who has been

imitating Dorian and wants to meet him terribly. He then suggests that

Dorian come to his place the next day and meet Lady Baranksome who wants to

consult him about some tapestry she is going to buy. He asks Dorian why he

no longer sees the Duchess and guesses that the Duchess is too clever, one

never liking being around clever women. Finally, Dorian leaves after

promising to come back later.


The night is beautiful. Dorian walks home from Lord Henry feeling good

about himself. He passes some y young men who whisper his name. He no

longer feels the thrill he used to feel when he is spoken of with such

reverence by young men. He wonders if Lord Henry is right, that he can

never change. He wishes he had never prayed that the portrait bear the

burden of his age. He knows that his downfall has come because he has never

had to live with the consequences of his actions.

He gets home and looks in a mirror. He feels sickened by the idea that

youth spoiled his soul. He throws down the mirror smashing it on the floor.

He tries not to think of the past. Nothing can change it. He knows Alan

Campbell died without telling anyone of Dorian’s secret. He doesn’t even

feel too badly about the death of Basil. He doesn’t forgive Basil for

painting the portrait that ruined his life. He just wants to live a new


He thinks of Hetty Merton and he wonders if the portrait upstairs has

changed because of his good deed toward her. He gets the lamp and rushes up

the stairs, hopeful that the portrait will have already begun to change

back to beauty. When he gets there, he is horrified to see that the

portrait looks even worse. Now the image has an arrogant sneer on its face.

More blood has appeared on its hands and even on its feet.

Dorian wonders what he should do. He wonders if he will have to

confess the murder before he will be free of the guilt of it. He doesn’t

want to confess because he doesn’t want to be put in jail.

He wonders if the murder will follow him all his life. Finally he

decides to destroy the portrait. He finds the knife he used to kill Basil.

He rushes to the portrait and stabs at it.

Downstairs on the street below, two men are passing by when they hear

a loud scream. They rush for a policeman who knocks on the door, but no one

comes. The men ask the policeman whose house it is. When they hear it is

Dorian Gray’s, they sneer and walk away. Inside, the servants rush up to

the room from whence the sound came. They try the door but it’s locked. Two

of them go around by way of the roof to get in through the window. When

they get inside, they find Dorian Gray stabbed in the heart and above him a

glorious portrait of him hanging on the wall. The man stabbed on the floor

is wrinkled and ugly. They don’t eve recognize him until they see the rings

on his fingers.



Dorian Gray, a man who is jolted out of oblivion at the beginning of

the novel and made aware of the idea that his youth and beauty are his

greatest gifts and that they will soon vanish with age.


Lord Henry Wotton, the bored aristocrat who tells Dorian Gray that he

is extraordinarily beautiful. He decides to dominate Dorian and proceeds to

strip him of all his conventional illusions. He succeeds in making Dorian

live his life for art and forget moral responsibility.

A secondary antagonist is age. Dorian Gray runs from the ugliness of

age throughout his life. He runs from it, but he is also fascinated with

it, obsessively coming back again and again to look at the signs of age in

the portrait.


The climax follows Sibyl Vane’s horrible performance on stage when

Dorian Gray tells her he has fallen out of love with her because she has

made something ugly. Here, Dorian rejects love for the ideal of beauty. The

next morning, he changes his mind and writes an impassioned letter of

apology, but too late; Sibyl has committed suicide.


Dorian Gray becomes mired in the immorality of his existence. He

places no limit on his search for pleasure. He ruins people’s lives without

qualm. His portrait shows the ugliness of his sins, but his own body

doesn’t. His attempts at reform fail. He even kills a messenger of reform--

Basil Hallward. Finally, he kills himself as he attempts to "kill" the

portrait. He dies the ugly, old man and the portrait returns to the vision

of his beautiful youth.

The Time Machine by H. G. Wells (1866 - 1946)

Type of Work: Fantasy / science fiction novel

Setting: England; late nineteenth century, and

Principle Characters:

The Time Traveller, an inquisitive, scientific man

Weena, a future woman

Story Overview

One Thursday evening, four or five men assembled for dinner at a

friend's home near London. But as the evening passed, their host failed to

appear. Finally, at half past seven the guests agreed it was a pity to

spoil a good dinner and seated themselves to a delicious meal. The main

topic of their conversation was time travel, a subject their host had

seriously argued as a valid theory during an earlier dinner.

He had gone so far as to show them the model of a curious machine he

had built, which, he declared, could travel through the fourth dimension -

time. While the guests conversed, the door suddenly opened and in limped

their host. He was in a state of disarray. His coat was dusty, dirty and

smeared with green; his hair was markedly grayer than the last time they

had seen him, his face pale, and his expression haggard and drawn as if by

intense suffering. As he stumbled back through the door in tattered,

bloodstained socks, he promised his guests that be would return shortly

with an explanation for his actions and appearance.

Soon after, the gentleman did reappear, and commenced with his

remarkable story:

That morning, his machine at last completed, he had begun his journey

through time. Increasing the angle of his levers, at first he was able to

maintain a sense of time and place. His laboratory still looked the same,

but slowly its image dimmed. Then, faster and faster, night followed day,

until the palpitation of night and day merged into one continuous grayness.

New questions sprung up in the Traveller's mind: What had happened to

civilization? How had humanity changed?

Now he saw great and splendid architecture rising about him, while

the surrounding expanse became a richer green, with no interruptions made

by winter. The Time Traveller decided to stop.

He fell from his machine to find himself at the foot of a colossal,

winged, sphinx-like figure carved out of white stone on a bronze pedestal.

The huge image, outlined by early morning mist, made him somewhat ill at

ease. Then he noticed figures approaching, - slight creatures, perhaps four

feet high, very beautiful and graceful, but indescribably frail. These

beings advanced toward the Time Traveller, laughing without fear, and began

touching him all over. "So these are the citizens of the future," he mused.

They acted like five-year old children, and the Traveller was disappointed

with their lack of intelligence and refinement.

These gentle people, called Eloi, bore their visitor to a towering

building that appeared ready to collapse. Their world in general seemed in

disrepair - a beautiful, tangled waste of bushes and flowers; a long-

neglected and yet weedless garden. The Eloi served their guest a meal that

consisted entirely of fruit. During this repast, they all sat as close to

the Time Traveller as they could.

With much difficulty he began to learn their language, but the Floi,

with their very short attention spans, tired easily of teaching him. That

evening the Traveller began to hypothesize how these people, who all looked

identical, dressed alike, and reacted to life in the same way, had evolved.

Perhaps, he thought, mankind had overcome the numerous difficulties of life

facing it in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Under new conditions

of perfect comfort and security, perhaps power and intellect - the very

qualities he most valued - had no longer been necessary. He decided that he

had emerged into the sunset of humanity; a vegetarian society - for he had

noticed no animals - where there was no need for either reasoning or

strength. As night drew near, the Time Traveller suddenly realized that his

time machine had vanished. Engulfed by the fear of losing contact with his

own age and being left helpless in this strange new world, he flew into a

desperate rampage, a futile attempt to find his machine.

Soon the voyager's panic faded as he realized his machine was

probably inside the huge stone figure near the spot where he had "landed."

He pounded on the bronze doors without effect, but he was certain he had

heard some voice from inside - a distinct little chuckle. Calm, welcome

sleep, finally overcame the adventurer, and he reasoned that in time he

would succeed in breaking into the stone behemoth to regain his machine.

Another day passed. The Time Traveller came to realize that he had

been wrong about the little beings. The Eloi had no machinery or appliances

of any kind, yet they were clothed in pleasant fabric and their sandals

were fairly complex specimens of metalwork. Perhaps this was a truly

advanced society.

Later, the Time Traveller rescued an Eloi woman from drowning. Her

name was Weena. Weena, unable to vocally express her gratitude and regard

for the Time Traveller, slept by his side in the dark. This took great

courage because the Eloi feared darkness and never ventured from their

buildings after sunset. This point also puzzled the Time Traveller: If the

Eloi lived in a perfect society, then why were they afraid of the dark?

On the fourth day of his adventure, the Traveller came across other

earth creatures. These subterranean, ape-like vermin were called Morlocks.

Summoning courage, the Time Traveller warily descended into their world to

learn what he could about them. There he found the machines that he had not

seen above ground. Morlocks were apparently another race of man's

descendants, no longer able to tolerate the sun-lit surface of the planet.

Here were the enemies who had taken his time machine. By their smell and

appearance they were obviously carnivores.

Suddenly the Traveller understood why the Eloi feared darkness. They

were like fatted calves, kept well and healthy, only to be seized and eaten

when the Morlocks grew hungry. Eloi society wasn't perfect after all.

A few days later, Weena and the Time Traveller set out to search for

a weapon they could use to break into the pedestal where the machine was

hidden. Coming across an ancient museum, they collected matches, some

camphor for a candle, and, most important of all, an iron mace. The sun was

setting as they emerged from the museum. Though filled with a sense of

doom, and having several miles of forest between them and safety, they

nevertheless started for home in the shadowy darkness.

Morlocks proceeded to close in on them along the way. The beasts were

temporarily driven off each time the Time Traveller lighted a match, but

finally, in an effort to slow them down, he ignited a larger fire. In

minutes the entire forest was in flames. The Traveller was able to escape -

but Weena was lost in the flames. Standing on a knoll, he looked out over

the burning wasteland, and mourned the loss of his devoted Eloi friend.

When morning came, the Time Traveller began retracing his steps to

the place where he bad originally landed. On the way he pondered how brief

the reign of human intellect had been. Our priceless, heroic, human

existence had been traded for a life of comfort and ease.

Now, as the voyager approached the stone relic, he found the door of

the pedestal open. Inside was his time machine. It was an obvious trap, but

the Morlocks had no idea how the device worked. The Traveller sprinted to

his machine and adjusted the lever, while fighting off several Morlocks.

Then he found himself enveloped by the same welcome grey light and tumult

he had before observed. He had escaped that dismal future.

The visit to the Eloi took place in the year 802,701. The Time

Traveller next journeyed through millions of years, seeing even more alien

creatures than before. Finally halting thirty million years after he had

departed, he found a distant age where the sun no longer shone brightly. In

bitter cold and deathly stillness, the horrified Traveller started back

toward the present.

The guests listened with mixed emotions to the last of this tale.

Their host seemed sincere; but was such a feat possible? A few days later

one of his friends came to hear more. Again, the Traveller excused himself,

asking his guest to wait momentarily and he would be back with evidence of

this excursion. Three years elapsed and the Time Traveller had not

reappeared. He was considered by his friends as a lost wanderer, somewhere

in time.

Ulysses by J.Joyce

Chapter One: Telemachus

When James Joyce began writing his novel Ulysses, he had in mind a

creative project that brought together aspects of his two major works

Dubliners and Portrait of the Artist as a Young Man, while at the same time

incorporating aspects of Homer's epic The Odyssey. The novel Ulysses

encompasses a total of eighteen chapters, tracing the actions of various

Dubliners beginning at 8 am on the day of June 16, 1904.

Chapter One opens with the breakfast of three young men: Haines, a

British student who is in Dublin on temporary leave from Oxford; Malachi

"Buck" Mulligan, a medical student; and Stephen Dedalus, the protagonist

from Portrait and the central character in the first three chapters of

Ulysses. The three young men are living in Martello Tower, for which only

Stephen pays rent as he is the one who has rented it from the Ministry of

War. We immediately discover that there are tense relations between

Mulligan and Stephen; particularly, Stephen feels increasingly ostracized,

as Mulligan and Haines become closer. Further, Buck spares no sympathy in

his constant tormenting of Stephen in regards to the recent death of his

mother, Mary Dedalus. Stephen is, in general, the butt of most of

Mulligan№s jokes.

Particularly, Mulligan teases Stephen that he is responsible for his

mother's death because upon seeing her on her deathbed, he refused her

pleas for him to pray, having distanced himself from organized religion. In

this, Mulligan jokes that his aunt has refused to allow him to keep company

with Stephen, as his apostasy is made worse by being the murderer of his

mother. Further, Stephen feels distanced from Haines; Stephen feels that

Haines is somewhat patronizing in his attitude towards Stephen's desire to

become a poet. Haines is a British native and both Mulligan and Stephen

despise him, though Mulligan masks his true thoughts with hypocrisy and

flattery. Haines appears as a spoiled student and a shallow thinker. He

argues that British oppression is not the cause of Ireland№s problems;

rather "history" is to blame. Interrupting the young men's conversation

about Ireland and its international politics, an old lady arrives to

deliver the morning milk and Stephen finds that he is forced to pay the

bill. Soon after breakfast, the three men leave the Tower to walk along the

beach. After making plans to meet Stephen at a bar called the Ship around

noon, Mulligan asks him for his key to the tower. After, forfeiting his key

to Mulligan, Stephen departs from his two roommates, feeling that he has

been usurped from his position.

Chapter Two: Nestor

About an hour after "Telemachus" ends, we find Stephen teaching

ancient history and the classics to a disrespectful class of wealthy boys.

Neither Stephen nor the students are particularly interested in the lesson

which concerns the martial exploits of the Greek hero, Pyrrhus. Armstrong,

the class clown, is disruptive and Talbot, a lazy cheater who is reading

the answers out of his book, does not bother to hide his act from Stephen,

who tells him to 'turn the page" when he stammers at his final response.

Stephen struggles to keep the class in order and it is clear that they

disrespect him. Eventually, even Stephen is distant and half-hearted in his

participation and he eventually gives up his attempt to quiz the students

on their classics lesson.

Later, the young boys ask Stephen to tell them ghost stories and

riddles instead of their lesson. Upon recess, one pathetic student named

Cyril Sargent asks Stephen for assistance with his multiplication tables

and Stephen is reminded of his mother as he considers the fact that only a

mother could love as pitiful a creature as what he and Cyril must have

been. Stephen considers his roommate Haines to be much like the spoiled

students to whom he must cater. Because he feels that his students are

incapable of learning, and because he feels that his intellectual talents

are being wasted in his current position, Stephen does not care about his

job and is already considering leaving his position.

At the end of the chapter, the schoolmaster, Mr. Deasy, gives Stephen

his meager pay for the month. and annoys the young teacher with trite

advice on lending money, pro-British and anti-Semitic rhetoric. Mr. Deasy

continues with an unintelligent attempt at philosophy as well as

Shakespearean criticism. At the close of the chapter, Mr. Deasy asks

Stephen to examine his letter on a cattle-disease that has caused foreign

economic powers to consider an embargo on Irish cattle. Deasy intends for

Stephen to use his contacts to get the letter, which is full of

misstatements and incorrect assertions, printed in the Evening Telegraph.

Chapter Three: Proteus

After 11 AM, Stephen Dedalus wanders along Sandymount strand (a beach)

to waste time before he is to go to the Ship at 12:30 to meet Mulligan and

Haines. Though, in the end, Stephen decides not to go to the Ship to see

Mulligan. This occurs immediately after the "Nestor" episode at Mr. Deasy's

school and Stephen is still disgruntled by his unpleasant experience with

Mr. Deasy and also feels burdened because he has to carry Mr. Deasy№s inane

letter to the Evening Telegraph. Later in the chapter, Stephen sits on a

rock and pencils in a few corrections, in an effort to make his upcoming

trip to the newspaper office less embarrassing.

After walking for several miles, Stephen considers visiting his

mother's family (the Gouldings) but after imagining what his father's

objections would be, he decides against it. Stephen imagines a vivid scene

of what would transpire if he did decide to visit the Gouldings. He

imagines his Uncle Richie Goulding who is laid up in bed as he suffers the

consequences of decades of alcoholism. As usually, "nuncle Richie" would be

singing Italian opera while cousin Walter ran around the house in search of

backache pills for his father. In another room, Mrs. Goulding would no

doubt be bathing one of the myriad young children running around the house.

As he walks on the beach, Stephen considers different philosophical

questions on what is real and what is only perceived, on the relationship

of the symbol versus the symbolized, as well as the human senses and how

they interact and overlap. Stephen expresses his feelings of solitude as

his mind wanders on the real and imagined figures that surround him on

Sandymount and he imagines himself to be in Paris, in the company of his

friend, Kevin Egan. Dedalus№ friend, Egan, was reputed to be a socialist

and after exiling himself to Paris, unlike Stephen, he never returned to


Chapter Four: Calypso

Chapter Four marks the opening of Part Two, beginning at 8am with

Leopold Bloom in his house on 7 Eccles Street. It is breakfast time at the

Bloom residence as was the case in Martello, and the scene that we

encounter is one of fractured domesticity. Bloom's wife, Molly, is asleep

in the bed and their daughter Milly is away. Joyce's focus on Bloom's

thoughts is a contrast to Stephen's intellectualism. When he wakes up,

Bloom№s primary concern is to get breakfast made before his wife is

stirring. He likes to serve Molly breakfast in bed, and Molly is very

specific about how she likes her toast corners cut and her morning tea

served. After beginning preparations for her breakfast and serving the cat

her milk, Bloom quickly departs for the butcher shop in search of a nice

cut of pork kidney for his own breakfast. He later burns the kidney when he

spends too much time assisting Molly upstairs.

Indeed, Joyce's Ulysses is more of a comic hero than an epic figure, a

resemblance to Cervantes' Don Quijote. Bloom is doomed to wander for the

day because he has left his key in the pair of pants that he wore the

previous day and he is afraid to go upstairs and disturb his wife Molly.

Like Stephen, Bloom is rather submissive in his relationships. Bloom, for

example, is aware of the fact that his wife is having an affair with Blazes

Boylan, a younger man with whom she professionally sings. Molly has

received a letter from Boylan that morning and Bloom is aware that Molly

and Boylan plan to consummate their relationship that very afternoon.

Additionally, Bloom is also concerned that his daughter's innocence may be

imperiled on account of her new suitor; Bloom simply shrugs this off and is

passive, if not fatalistic.

We learn a little about Bloom's sexual preferences in his rather

obsessive voyeurism. When Bloom goes to the Dlugacz butcher shop, he

attempts to pursue a young girl at the hope of catching a glimpse of her

underwear. Towards the end of the chapter, Bloom is dressing in all black

on account of the funeral of his acquaintance, Paddy Dignam. And the

chapter ends when Bloom takes a trip to the outhouse and expresses his

concern about again while reading a serialized story which leads him to

consider taking up a literary career to make more money.

Chapter Five: The Lotus Eaters

Chapter Five begins close to 10am as a keyless Bloom leaves his house

and takes a circuitous route to the post office in order to pick up any

responses to an advertisement in which he inquired for a secretary. As a

result of his advertisement, Bloom has been in correspondence with a

flirtatious woman who uses the pseudonym "Martha Clifford" to his "Henry

Flower, Esquire." Despite the fact that he has already found an answer to

his advertisement, Bloom continues to check the post office box and his

advertisement has netted over forty responses and in the end Martha

Clifford was the final consideration, narrowly defeating Lizzie Twigg for

the "position." Regardless of Bloom№s initial intent and whether or not he

was initially searching for a secretary, Martha Clifford has become a

platonic pen-pal and now it seems that the relationship is escalating. Upon

reading Clifford's letter, Bloom regrets the fact that he has goaded

Clifford by responding to her letters and he is afraid that she may want to

meet him instead of continue a Clifford-Flower relationship with non-

committed, teasing love letters. As if to confirm her romantic intentions,

Clifford, the coquette, has included a flower along with her letter.

After leaving the post office, Bloom travels to the Belfast and

Oriental Tea Company, though he only looks through the window and admires

the various spiced teas from the outside. Looking through the large window

of the store, Bloom is lost in a daydream as he imagines the various

advertisement possibilities for the establishment. Bloom continues on his

wandering course until he reaches F.W. Sweny's chemist shop where he buys a

bar of lemon soap and makes plans to return with a recipe for Molly's

lotion. He had forgotten to bring it with him. Bloom sees Bantam Lyons on

the street and Lyons misunderstands Bloom's offer of the newspaper that he

has just finished reading.

Bloom's statement that he was just going to throw away the paper is

misheard by Lyons who thinks that Bloom is giving him a tip on the

racehorse, Throwaway. This rather strained comic scene has unfortunate

consequences for Bloom, later in the novel. Towards the end of the chapter,

Bloom contemplates a Turkish bath, but his peaceful thoughts are

interrupted by his memory of his father's suicide. Bloom№s father, Rudolph,

took an overdose of monkshood poison and died in a resort in Italy.

Chapter Six: Hades

Soon before 11am, Bloom enters a funereal carriage with other friends

of Paddy Dignam. Jack Power, Martin Cunningham, Simon Dedalus (the father

of Stephen) and Bloom, follow Dignam's hearse to Glasnevin Cemetery where

Father Coffey delivers the conclusion of the religious interment ceremony.

Along the way, the carriage passes throngs of urban poor, the small hearse

of an orphan, a widow, Blazes Boylan, as well as Stephen Dedalus. As the

funeral procession passes through the city, all of Dublin№s bleakest

characteristics are exposed and magnified. Bloom imagines it as a city of

the dead and when he passes an old lady, he thinks to himself that she is

somewhat relieved to see the hearse pass by her as she lives in the

constant fear that the next death she sees will be her own. The carriage

has a few navigational problems as the course to Glasnevin Cemetery

requires that they pass over four different rivers including the Liffey,

Dublin№s largest river.

Bloom's outsider status is revealed even in the stilted congeniality

of the cramped carriage. Power and Dedalus are extremely terse in their

comments to Bloom, though Cunningham does make an effort to express his

kindness. Still, the conversation is triangular and Bloom spends most of

his time thinking of ways to jump into the conversation. His attempt to be

sociable is more of a faux pas than anything else and his comments expose

him as a non-Catholic. One of the carriage members comments on the

unfortunate nature of Paddy Dignam№s death, given that he died in a drunken

and unconscious stupor. For the three Catholics, it need not be said that

Dignam was unable to receive last rites, jeopardizing the status of his

soul in the afterlife. Bloom, an outsider, has missed the nuance of the

conversation and he argues that Paddy was lucky, for dying in ones sleep is

the least painful exit. Later the conversation turns to the subject of

suicide and Jack Power makes an inconsiderate remark about the eternal

damnation suffered by suicides. Unlike Power, Cunningham is aware of the

fact that Bloom№s father committed suicide and he steers the conversation

to a lighthearted topic. Despite the stiff sobriety of the occasion though,

Bloom's opinions of the Roman Catholic ceremony provide comic relief from

the somber subject matter of the chapter.

Chapter Seven: Aeolus

After the Dignam funeral, Bloom goes downtown to the newspaper office

(an office for three different publications) to work on his newest

advertising assignment, a two-month renewal for Alexander Keyes. Bloom

appears close to accomplishing his goal because Keyes previous ad is easily

recovered. Problems arise when the business manager, Nannetti, decides that

Keyes should take out a three-month advertisement and he is largely

unwilling to compromise. Nannetti№s tone is sarcastic when he addresses

Bloom and so the ad canvasser is unclear as to whether or not he will have

to re-negotiate his contract with Keyes, though in the end it seems that

this is the case.

To further complicate manners, Bloom learns that he will have to trek

to the National Library to retrieve a specific graphic image of two crossed

keys. The Keyes house wanted to use this image and though it was the same

image that they used in their last advertisement, Bloom is unable to find a

copy of it in the office. Bloom's escapades in the office are interrupted

by the entrance and exit of both Simon and Stephen Dedalus at different

times and within different groups. Simon Dedalus has arrived with a few of

his friends who were also in attendance at the funeral and they eventually

leave for drinks. While they are there, the men discuss and ridicule a

recent patriotic speech that has printed in the paper.

When Stephen arrives, he sends a telegraph to Mulligan, notifying him

that he will not be going to the Ship. Instead, Mulligan and Stephen will

cross paths in the National Library, though Stephen is wholly unaware of

Leopold Bloom and his plans. Stephen is also engaged in a political

discussion in which he tells what he calls the Parable of the Plums,

describing the Irish condition as that of two old women who have begun to

climb the tall statue of the British Lord Nelson. Having stopped midway,

they take a break to eat plums, spitting the pits down into the Irish soil.

At this point, the two old women are horrified and unable to move,

frightened by the distance between their current position and ground level.

At the same time though, they find Lord Nelson№s face to be unwelcoming and

menacing and they refuse to climb any further on the statue, resigned to

live the rest of their lives clutching on Lord Nelson№s midsection. After

telling the parable to his enthusiastic and older audience, Stephen

delivers Mr. Deasy's letter on Irish cattle, which the staff reluctantly

agrees to print. Bloom re-appears towards the end of the chapter as he

attempts to call Keyes to confirm the three-month renewal before beginning

the work but all of his attempts at communication are unsuccessful as his

co-workers are disrespectful and only make Bloom's assignment more

difficult than it needs to be.

Chapter Eight: The Lestrygonians

Chapter Eight is a chronology of Bloom's early afternoon. Rather than

directly venturing to the National Library, Bloom wanders for a little over

an hour and the narrative of the chapter follows his course as he decides

to get something to eat. A young proselytizer affiliated with the YMCA

hands Bloom a "throwaway" tract and when Bloom first reads the words:

"blood of the lamb," he mistakes the letters B-L-O-O for the beginning of

his own name. Soon after, Bloom sees one of Simon Dedalus' daughters

waiting for him outside a bar. Bloom then feeds the gulls, watches the five

men advertising H.E.L.Y.S. establishment, listens to Mrs. Breen's story

concerning her husband, Denis, who is losing his mind. Mr. Denis Breen has

received a postcard in the mail that reads "U. p: up" and enraged, by the

unintelligible prank, he has ventured to a lawyer in order to press

charges. Denis Breen intends to sue for libel, though he is unaware of the

intent or sender of the postcard.

Mrs. Breen also shares the story of Mina Purefoy, who has been in

labor for three days. Purefoy is losing her strength and apparently, Mrs.

Breen has recently visited her in the National Maternity Hospital.

Concerned for Mrs. Purefoy, Bloom decides that he will visit the pregnant

woman and a little after this decision, Bloom encounters an in/famous

character by the name of Cashel Boyle O'Connor Fitzmaurice Tisdall Farell.

Farrell is another Dublin crazyman who spends him time walking in between

the lampposts. After avoiding Farrell's track, a hungry Bloom enters the

Burton Restaurant but he leaves, disgusted by the exceptionally poor habits

of the savage customers. Bloom, in fact, does not even give himself the

chance to sit down in the Restaurant, whose somewhat opulent dйcor

contrasts the loud noise of the animated diners.

After leaving the Burton Restaurant, Bloom continues his wandering

through the city before he finally opts for Davy Byrne's "moral pub," where

he sees Nosey Flynn. Just as the "moral pub" is considerably cleaner than

the Burton Restaurant, Flynn presents himself as a decent man‹though he

too, is not the cleanest. Flynn is constantly picking and brushing lice off

his shoulders. The conversation inside Byrne's touches upon Blazes Boylan

as well as the upcoming horserace in which Sceptre is heavily favored.

After Bloom's exit, Byrne and Flynn discuss the wanderer, concluding rather

fairly that he is a decent man despite his deliberate ambiguity and

consistent refusal to sign his name to any agreement. The chapter ends soon

after Bloom is on the path to the National Library. He helps a "blind

stripling" cross street and soon after, Bloom enters a Museum, presumably

to hide from Blazes Boylan whose path has again crossed with Bloom's.

Chapter Nine: Scylla and Charybdis

This afternoon chapter lasts for approximately an hour and a half and

ends at 3pm. "Scylla and Charybdis takes place in the National Library and

the shift in focus from Bloom to Stephen Dedalus marks Stephen's third

appearance since "Proteus." Stephen has left the news office of "Aeolus"

and after sending a message to Mulligan, he departed for the National

Library rather than The Ship. It is unclear exactly what Stephen has been

doing in the interim, though we do see that he is not alone in the library

and Stephen sees that this casual company provides him with another

opportunity to present himself as an intellectual thinker and budding

literary genius.

Despite Stephen’s continued efforts to impress the men in his company,

he finds that his ploys are mostly frustrated. In contrast to Stephen's

more receptive audience in "Aeolus," two of his library companions, Russell

and Eglington, are men of literary stature who patronize Stephen's ideas

about Shakespeare, ideas that he wedges between commentary on Irish

politics and the difficult predicament of the young Irish literati. In his

discussion of Shakespeare, Stephen aims to make use of his various critical

skills without actually believing the arguments that he makes. Bloom is the

first interruption of the narrative when we learn that he has arrived in

search of the design the Keyes advertisement. Upon Bloom№s arrival, the

head Librarian briefly departs presumably, to help Bloom locate the design

of the "Keys of Killarney."

Later, Mulligan arrives and continues his "tongue-in-cheek" mocking of

Stephen and while Bloom and Stephen do not meet in this chapter, Bloom does

pass between the two young men as he exits, separating them. By the end of

"Scylla and Charybdis," Stephen is irked by the discussion of the Irish

literary renaissance and he wonders if he will ever achieve literary

success in Ireland as Mulligan, a sarcastic medical student, has been

invited to attend a literary function with Haines, while he remains


Chapter Ten: Wandering Rocks

The "Wandering Rocks" chapter of Ulysses is a narrative interlude

midway through the novel. Joyce depicts the adventures of a collection of

Dubliners between 2:40 and 4pm, ending approximately half an hour before

Molly and Boylan meet. The diverse roll of characters includes some figures

that do not appear in other chapters and Joyce's primary concern in Chapter

Ten is painting a vivid portrait of Dublin. Among these, we meet several

figures of the Roman Catholic Church included Father "Bob" Cowley, who a

habitual alcoholic who has lost is collar for previous indiscretions.

We also encounter Father Conmee, who has the noble though naпve dream

of venturing into Africa in the hopes of converting the millions of "dark

souls" who are lost in paganism. Father Conmee№s nostalgic thoughts on his

days at Clongowes College are interrupted when he notices two young people

who are kissing behind a half-hidden bush. Joyce also offers several

glimpses of the Dedalus daughters. One of the four daughters has made a

failed effort to pawn their brother Stephen№s books in the hopes of getting

some money for food. After she returns, another daughter departs for the

bars there father is none to frequent. While she accosts him in the hope of

getting a few coins to purchase some food, her sisters are at home boiling

laundry before taking a break to drink some discolored pea soup.

We receive separate views of Boylan and Molly before they meet. Molly

appears on Eccles Street, offering a coin to a beggar sailor before

preparing her home for her upcoming tryst. Boylan exposes himself as a

hopeless flirt in his relationship with his secretary and in his treatment

of the clerk of the flower shop. Stephen Dedalus appears without mulligan;

a few mourners meet again to discuss Dignam's funeral and two viceregal

carriages cast their shadows over beggars and barmaids, among others.

Bloom's path intersects with Boylan's yet again and Bloom busies himself

with the purchase of a book.

Chapter Eleven: The Sirens

"The Sirens" takes place in the bar and restaurant of the Ormond

Hotel, where Lydia Douce and Mina Kennedy are barmaids. The chronology of

the chapter overlaps with the previous one. Douce and Kennedy have entered

the Ormond bar before the "Wandering Rocks" episode has concluded and Bloom

only arrives at the Ormond after he has made his purchase of Sweets of Sin.

Because Bloom is in the restaurant area of the Ormond he can only hear the

noise coming from the bar area. Boylan arrives at the Ormond to meet

Lenehan and the singer enters and exits without Bloom noticing; all the

while, Bloom sits in dread of his upcoming cuckolding. A despondent Leopold

Bloom accompanies Richie Goulding to a restaurant table. The physical

consequences of Richie's drinking are visible to Bloom who suspects that

Goulding will soon die. Soon after sitting at the table, Bloom begins

writing a letter to Martha while talking to Goulding, disguising his

efforts and insisting that he is only replying to a newspaper advertisement

and not writing a letter as Goulding had suspected.

The piano sets a lively tone for those who are in the bar, including

Simon Dedalus, Douce, Kennedy, Lenehan, Boylan, a singer named Ben Dollard,

Father Cowley and Tom Kernan. This lively group provides intermittent comic

relief from Bloom№s depressing meal. Dedalus is a strong singer and he

engages in several rounds of a few Irish folk songs including the patriotic

ballad, "The Croppy Boy." Ben Dollard, a professional singer, is also

rather obese and he is the butt of a few of the barmaids№ jokes. For their

parts, Douce and Kennedy, fully thrust themselves into their "siren" roles,

luring Boylan and after he departs for 7 Eccles, focusing their attentions

on Lenehan who squanders a significant amount of money in their bar.

Chapter 12: The Cyclops

During the time of Molly's affair, Leopold Bloom wanders into Barney

Kiernan's pub. Bloom is not a drinker and this is not a pub that he

regularly frequents; indeed, Bloom seems to be lost in thought when he

literally wanders into Kiernan№s where he is to meet Cunningham and Power

for a trip to see the Widow Dignam. The pub's fierce scene is a severe

contrast to the mellow drunkenness of the Ormond's bar and Bloom is

immediately uncomfortable. A rabid Irish nationalist called Citizen,

terrorizes Kiernan's pub and focuses most of his verbal attack on Bloom.

Citizen, like many of Joyce№s patriots, is both anti-Semitic and

isolationist in his thinking.

Citizen initially begins his drunken discourse on the subject of the

lost Celtic culture. Though he briefly touches upon the death of the Irish

language, Citizen№s primary focus is on the renaissance of the ancient

Celtic games. Citizen№s verbal spouting is not held in regard, though none

of the pub№s patrons feel as uncomfortable as Bloom. A large dog named

Garryowen is equally menacing for Bloom, and despite Garryowen№s allegiance

with Citizen, who feeds the dog biscuits, Citizen is not the dog№s owner.

Lenehan is present and his conversation reveals the results of the

horserace where Throwaway has upset the heavily favored Sceptre. When

Citizen's anti-Semitism flares, Bloom is forced to assume a heroic role in

defending himself. Specifically, the Citizen accuses Bloom of stealing from

widows and orphans and he goes further, insinuating that Jews can never be

true Irish citizens. Bloom defends himself as an honest person before

offering Citizen a brief catalogue of Jews who have made significant

contributions to European and Irish culture. When Bloom informs Citizen

that his own God (Christ) also happened to be a Jew, Citizen becomes

enraged and as Bloom exits the pub victorious, Citizen chases behind him,

throwing an empty biscuit tin at Bloom's head. The sun temporarily blinds

Citizen, whose missile falls far short of the target. Upon exiting

Kiernan№s pub Bloom continues on his mission to visit the Dignam widow,

accompanied by Martin Cunningham and Jack Power. They intend to discuss the

specifics of Paddy Dignam№s insurance policy and help the widow get her

finances in order.

Chapter 13: Nausicaa

Nausicaa takes place several hours after "The Cyclops," and ends with

the clock striking nine. In the interim between the chapters, Bloom has

visited the Dignam widow to discuss Paddy's insurance policy and in this

chapter he is walking along Sandymount strand, the same beach where Stephen

strolled during "Proteus." There is a group of young people on the beach

including a young woman named Cissy Caffrey who is watching Tommy and Jacky

Caffrey and a smaller baby. Alongside Cissy is her friend Gertrude "Gerty"

MacDowell. Gerty's mostly thinks about her previous boyfriend and later she

considers thoughts of marriage. In her conversation with Caffrey, MacDowell

hides the emotional disappointment that she has suffered. Even as she

maintains a rigid and impassive exterior, MacDowell is deep in thought,

considering (apparently, for the first time) that she may not be able to

find a boyfriend whom she might convince or seduce into marriage.

Midway through her thoughts, Gerty notices the voyeur, Bloom. Leopold

Bloom is still dressed in all black on account of Dignam№s funeral and he

is a somber contrast to the white sand of the beach. MacDowell can easily

detect that Bloom is watching her though he continues his failed attempts

to conceal his furtive staring. Cissy Caffrey suspects that something is

awry when MacDowell appears to be distracted and focused in the direction

of the dark stranger. MacDowell then decides to use Caffrey in a ploy to

get a better look at Bloom who is sitting in the distance. Knowing the

Caffrey did not have a timepiece with her, MacDowell asks her for the time

and when Cissy replies that she does not know, MacDowell ventures over to

Bloom, an "uncle" of hers, so that she might find out.

Upon returning to her original seat with Caffrey, MacDowell feels

sympathy for Bloom, who she decides must be the saddest man alive. In place

of her thoughts on her boyfriend, Reggie Wylie, MacDowell suggests to

herself that Bloom might be a character worth saving, as only she could

truly understand him. It is not long before MacDowell notices that Bloom is

again engaged in furtive behavior, masturbating himself with a hand cloaked

in his pocket. After a brief consideration, Gerty decides to "loves" him

back, teasing Bloom by displaying her garters as he masturbates. Soon after

this, MacDowell and the Caffreys depart from the beach, having stayed for

the display of the nearby Bazaar№s fireworks. After MacDowell№s flirtatious

departure, Bloom's considers his wife Molly and at the end of "Nausicaa,"

our hero confesses that his nauseous post-orgasmic lassitude is a sure sign

that he is aging.

Chapter 14: The Oxen of the Sun

"The Oxen of the Sun" begins no earlier than 10 pm and ends at

approximately 11pm. After the "Nausicaa" episode, Bloom finally arrives at

The National Maternity Hospital to visit Mina Purefoy who has been in labor

for three days. Because Bloom is concerned that Purefoy has not been able

to deliver the child, he waits in the hospital before briefly seeing Mrs.

Purefoy, whose husband, Theodore, is not present. After a brief discussion

with one of the midwives, Bloom decides to wait outside the maternity room,

until he has received word that, with the aid of Dr Horne and midwives,

Mina Purefoy has given birth to a healthy son.

While Bloom is waiting for information regarding Purefoy's labor, he

meanders into a darkened waiting room where he encounters Stephen Dedalus,

who is sitting at a long table, drinking absinthe in the company of several

other young men who are also drinking. Apparently, Stephen№s acquaintances,

including Buck Mulligan, are mostly medical students and interns at the

hospital. When Bloom sits at the drinking table of the younger men, he is

initiating the first union between the novel's principal characters (Bloom

and Dedalus). Buck Mulligan is a menacing presence in the hospital and

Bloom consciously assumes a paternal role, fearing that Mulligan has laced

Stephen's drink with a harmful substance.

Even after Bloom joins the conversation of the semi-inebriated men,

Mulligan remains as bawdy and irreverent as before, making crass references

to contraception, sexual intercourse, masturbation and procreation. And

Bloom№s paternal aura seems to only extend to Stephen, who he singles out

as the one decent character in the group. Repeatedly, the young men are

cautioned to lower the volume of their laughter and profanity. After

Stephen separates from Mulligan at the chapter's end, Bloom worries for

Stephen's safety and he decides to follow Stephen who has departed for

"Baudyville," alongside his friend Vincent Lynch; presumably, the young men

intend to visit a brothel.

Chapter 15: Circe

Bloom follows Stephen and Lynch out of the maternity hospital as they

head to Bawdyville, a brothel in the red-light district of Dublin that

Joyce refers to as Nighttown. The reader is presented with grisly scenes of

street urchin and deformed children, rowdy British soldiers and depraved

prostitutes. Bloom follows the young men by train but he gets off at wrong

stop and has initial difficulty keeping track of them. He is then accosted

by a stranger who refuses to let him pass and a "sandstrewer" runs him off

the road.

As Bloom progresses deeper into Nighttown with the hopes of finding

young Stephen, the frenetic pace of the red-light district provokes several

hallucinations in Bloom and his secret thoughts and hidden fears are played

out before us. A sober Bloom is greeted by the spirits of his dead parents

as well as the image of his wife Marion (Molly) who speaks to him in

"Moorish." The farce continues when Bloom's bar of lemon soap begins to

speak and Mrs. Breen, the wife of the lunatic Denis, appears in the road

and flirts with Bloom before mocking him for getting caught in the red-

light district. Bloom is suddenly in a courtroom, charged with accusations

of lechery. Several young girls recount sordid stories of his Bloom, the

conspicuous voyeur, and the courtroom's roll includes various characters

from earlier in the day including Paddy Dignam and Father Coffey, who

presided over Dignam's funeral.

The narrative abruptly shifts when Bloom finally arrives at Bella

Cohen's brothel. When Bloom finds Stephen inside, he immediately seeks to

protect the young man from being swindled. Stephen continues his own

descent into drunken madness and Bloom holds Dedalus' money to avoid any

further losses. Stephen's despairing hallucinations reach their climax when

he encounters the vengeful ghost of his mother who begs him to return to

the Roman Catholic Church. Dedalus breaking his symbolic chains to past by

smashing Cohen's cheap chandelier with his walking stick. Chaos ensues when

Bella Cohen tries to overcharge Stephen for the damage and Bloom must

defend Stephen's interests. Again, as they are leaving the brothel, Bloom

comes to the defensive when Private Carr assaults Stephen. Carr attacks the

intoxicated young man despite Bloom's insistence that Stephen is incapable

of protecting himself. Stephen has lost his glasses, his hand wounded and

he immediately faints after Carr's blow. Vincent Lynch deserts Dedalus in

Nighttown and Bloom directs Stephen towards shelter. In the final scene of

"Circe," Bloom is distracted by the vision of his dead son, Rudy, not as a

newborn infant but at the age that he would have been had he lived.

Chapter Sixteen: Eumaeus

After Stephen is revived, Bloom directs him towards a "cabman's

shelter," a coffeehouse owned by a man named "Skin-the-Goat" Fitzharris. As

Stephen begins to slowly sober up, Bloom begins a conversation in earnest,

discussing his ideas of love and politics. Bloom's desperation makes his

desire for a "son" transparent and even when Stephen is sober, he does not

seem to be particularly interested in Bloom's thoughts. The conversation

between Bloom and Dedalus resembles the conversation in the Dignam funeral

carriage, where Bloom appears as a man who is desperate for acceptance.

In his efforts to win Stephen№s favor, Bloom attempts to play the role

of an intellectual. Upon entering the cabman№s shelter, Bloom hears a few

Italians speaking their native language and he turns to Stephen, to

proclaim his love of the Italian language, specifically its phonetics.

Stephen (who knows Italian) calmly replies that the Italian melody that

Bloom has heard, was a base squabble over money. Though Bloom soon realizes

that he does not know the brooding young Dedalus very well, he believes

that the student's company would be beneficial for the Blooms. He could

perhaps be a singer like his father and his economic potential is all the

more pleasant to Bloom because he considers Stephen to be an "edifying"

partner in conversation. Later in the conversation, Bloom demonstrates his

intellectual deficiencies as he attempts to discuss politics with Dedalus

arguing a shallow and superficial Marxist Leninism. Bloom№s reform calls

first, for all citizens to "labor" and second, for all citizen№s needs to

be secured regardless of their varying abilities, provided that this reform

is carried out "in installments." Perceiving Stephen№s negative reaction to

be a non-intellectual aversion, Bloom seeks to immediately assuage Dedalus

by explaining that poetry is "labor."

Bloom leaves the cabman's shelter and invites Stephen to his home at 7

Eccles Street and the young man grudgingly accepts. While inside the

coffeehouse, Stephen's paid less attention to Bloom and more attention to a

man named W. B. Murphy, a self-described world sailor who had just come

home to see his wife after many years. The comic sea bard adds a comic note

to the tiring chapter, with his stories of acrobats, conspiracies and

tattoos. As he is leaving the cabman's shelter, Stephen sees his dissipated

friend, Corley. When Corley explains that he is in need of work, Stephen

suggests that Corley visit Mr. Deasy's school to apply for an opening, as

Dedalus intends to vacate his post.

Chapter Seventeen: Ithaca

The novel's penultimate chapter marks the pre-dawn hours of June 17,

1904. Stephen returns with Bloom to his residence at 7 Eccles Street and

after a strained conversation and a cup of cocoa, Dedalus departs, turning

down Bloom's invitation to stay for the night. When the two gentlemen reach

7 Eccles, Bloom realizes that he does not have his key and he is forced to

literally jump over a gate in order to gain entry into the house. After

navigating his way through the dark house, Bloom retrieves a candle and

returns to lead Stephen through the dark house. Their conversation is more

spirited as Stephen is considerably more conscious and lucid than he was in

the fourteenth and fifteenth chapters. And unlike his demeanor in the

cabman№s shelter, Stephen is less sullen as he sits in the Bloom residence

drinking cocoa. Bloom№s conversation eventually tires Dedalus though, and

despite Bloom№s efforts, he departs without committing to Bloom№s offer for

a future engagement for "intellectual" conversation. Dedalus does not know

where he is going to go, as he declines returning to his father№s house and

is locked out of Martello. Guiding Stephen outside of the house, Bloom

lingers outside to stare at the multitude of early morning stars. Upon re-

entering the house, Bloom retires for the night, focusing his thoughts on

the untidy house.

There is visible evidence of Boylan's earlier visit and after briefly

contemplating a divorce, Bloom silently climbs into bed, offering Molly a

kiss on the rear end. It seems that Bloom is eager to forget the matter,

and will sacrifice his self-respect for comforts of married stability.

Bloom's submissiveness presents a sharp contrast to the triumphal actions

of Homer's Ulysses. In the original "Ithaca" episode, Ulysses and his son

Telemachus attack Penelope's suitors, executing them all before re-

establishing Ulysses on his throne.

Chapter Eighteen: Penelope

"Penelope" is Ulysses' eighteenth and final chapter. Molly Bloom

thinks on her life before marriage and she defends and regrets her affair

with Boylan, while bemoaning the social restrictions on women. Mrs. Bloom

catalogues the detriments of her married life, describing her nagging

loneliness, the deceptive allures of adultery and the betrayals she has

suffered on account of her emotionally absent "Poldy." Molly№s narrative

quickly slides between the distant and recent past and we learn of her

years as an unmarried and attractive young lady in Gibraltar, a British

colony on the southernmost tip of Spain. Her years with her mother Lunita

and her father, a military man named Tweedy, seem to offer her the most

pleasure as she is largely displeased with Boylan№s rough manners and her

husband№s effeminate deficiencies.

For all of the negative assessments of hearth and home, "Penelope" is

emphatically braced with the word "Yes" at the beginning and conclusion,

and we have every reason to believe that-at least for June 17-the Bloom's

intend to preserve their marriage. Perhaps in irritation and gratitude for

Bloom's "kiss on the rump," Molly intends to turn his servility on its head

by waking up early to serve Bloom "his breakfast in bed with a couple of

eggs." After analyzing Bloom№s faults, Molly suggests that she knows Bloom

better than anyone else and that their shared memories represent an

emotional wealth that she would be unable to duplicate in a relationship

with Boylan.

Vanity Fair by W.Thackeray

Chapter 1. Chiswick Mall

Two young ladies-Amelia Sedley and Rebecca (Becky) Sharp are preparing

to leave Miss Pinkerton’s finishing school. Amelia is the kind hearted,

conventional beauty who is loved by all, while Rebecca is a defiant young

woman, who is disliked by almost everyone, including Miss Pinkerton. Only

Miss Pinkerton’s sister, Jemima, and Amelia seem to be fond of Becky. Becky

is to leave with Amelia and spend some time at her home before she can take

her job as a governess at Queen’s Crawley.

Owing to the difference in the social status as well as their

temperaments, only Amelia is gifted a copy of Dr Johnson’s Dictionary, as

per the tradition of Chiswick Mall, as a parting gift. Miss Pinkerton

refuses to give Becky a copy. Just as their carriage is about to move, Miss

Jemima runs to Becky and hands over a copy of the Dictionary to her, but

Becky, in her defiance, flings the gift out of the carriage, leaving Miss

Jemima shocked!

Chapter 2 In which Miss Sharp and Miss Sedley prepare to open the


Becky is wickedly satisfied with the heroic act she has just

performed. She tells Amelia that she was treated with contempt and

compelled to teach French at the mall and that she was glad to bid it


Amelia, excitedly, shows Becky around her house and gifts her a Cashmere

shawl (which her brother had brought for her from India), besides a lot of

other things. The knowledge that Amelia’s brother, Joseph Sedley is rich

and unmarried fills hope into Becky’s heart and she is determined to make

an attempt to woo him.

Chapter 3 Rebecca is in presence of the Enemy.

Joseph Sedley is a very stout man, vain as a young girl usually is. He

is greatly flattered, by the fact that Becky considers him to be handsome.

Becky tries all her charms on him. She shows immense interest in tales

about India and suffers the spicy Indian curries and the hot chillies to

win Jos over.


Chapter 4 The Green Silk Purse

Rebecca is all set to please everyone at the Sedley House. She makes

the right moves towards Jos. Amelia insists that Jos take her and Becky to

Vauxhall. It is decided that Lieutenant George Osborne, the godson of Mr.

Sedley, is to accompany Amelia while Jos is to lead Becky to Vauxhall. Mr.

Sedley and Mr. Osborne are good friends and wish to see Amelia and George


Due to a thunderstorm, the young couples are prevented from going to

Vauxhall that night and so they spend the evening indoors. George and

Amelia sing songs, while a besotted Jos helps Becky in weaving a silk

purse. Later he is in ‘a state of ravishment,’ when he hears Becky

performing. Jos makes up his mind to ask Becky to marry him.

Chapter 5 Dobbin of ours

This chapter begins with a flashback. Years ago, at Dr. Swishtail’s

famous school, a boy named Dobbin used to be constantly ridiculed because

his father was a grocer and it was said that he paid for Dobbin’s

education, not in money but in goods.

One day, Dobbin saw the dreadful school bully, Cuff, harassing a

scared boy. Dobbin stood in support of the poor victim and as a result, had

to fight with Cuff. At his victory over Cuff, Dobbin was made the hero of

the school and the little boy, who was George Osborne, began to love him as

a friend. Humbled by the love of George, Dobbin, since that day, became

George’s shadow, his devoted friend.

Back to the present, the party prepares to go to Vauxhall and George

requests them to take Dobbin along. Dobbin enters the Sedley House and

notices the young, beautiful Amelia, singing happily, and instantly falls

in love with her.

Chapter 6 Vauxhall

As the possibility of a match between Jos and Rebecca increases, Mr.

Sedley becomes more and more indifferent towards his son. The five people,

at their best, go to Vauxhall- Becky full of hope and expectations, with

Jos and Amelia extremely happy with George. All Dobbin does at Vauxhall is,

takes care of the shawls, and make payments at the gate.

When the time actually comes for Jos to propose marriage to Becky, he gets

drunk, and in his nervousness creates such a riot that everyone is

miserably embarrassed. Disappointed though, Rebecca does not leave hope.

The next day, George pays a visit to Jos at his apartment and narrates to

him all the foolish things he (Jos) had done the previous night. Thoroughly

ashamed he flees to Scotland, in order to avoid Becky.

This completely crashes all of Becky’s attempts and with all her

pretense at work she bids a tearful goodbye to a dejected Amelia and gifts

the purse to Mr. Sedley. Becky is sure that George Osborne has a hand in

her misery and is therefore determined to take her revenge.

Chapter 7 Crawley of Queen’s Crawley

The narrator traces the history of the Crawley family. Sir Pitt

Crawley first marries Grizzel who bears him two sons-Pitt and Rawdon. Many

years after her demise, Sir Pitt marries Rose Dawson. The job that Becky

gets at Queen’s Crawley, is to look after the two daughters of Sir Pitt and

Rose Dawson.

Rebecca, dusting off her disappointment at the Sedley’s, becomes

excited at the prospect of living with a Baronet. Sir Pitt Crawley is a

dirtily dressed, foul-mouthed old man. He has very crude manners and a

heavy Hampshire accent. The old house too seems almost dilapidated. Sir

Pitt is to take Becky to Crawley’s mansion the next day.

Chapter 8 Private and Confidential

Becky writes a detailed letter to Amelia, describing Sir Pitt Crawley;

her adventures during her journey as she was made to sit outside in the

rain, for a passenger wanted an inside place in Sir Pitt’s coach, the

Crawley estate, and finally the old-fashioned, red-brick mansion. Becky

also gives her an account of the family members: Lady Crawley, who

constantly weeps for the loss of her beauty; Pitt Crawley who is lean with

‘hay colored whiskers’ and dresses with the pomp of an undertakes; the two

girls Rose and Violet who are simple and nice and of course Sir Pitt who

drinks in the company of Horrocks, his butler.

Chapter 9 Family Portraits

Sir Pitt Crawley with his taste for low life marries Rose, daughter of

an ironmonger. He gets drunk more than often and beats his pretty Rose. He

has a brother, a Rector, Bute Crawley, whose wife refused to call on Lady

Crawley because she is the daughter of a petty tradesman. After giving

birth to two daughters, Lady Crawley remains as a mere machine in the

house. She is only faintly attached to Pitt Crawley who is a polite, gentle

and disciplined man. He is also an ambitious and industrious person.

Sir Pitt gets great pleasure in making his creditors wait and go from

court to court. He asks, "What is the good of being in Parliament if you

must pay your debts?"

Sir Pitt has an unmarried half sister, Miss Crawley, who has a large

fortune. She helps the Crawleys often, to pay their debts. The members of

her family love and respected her because of her vast bank balance.

Chapter 10 Miss Sharp Begins to make friends.

Rebecca’s main aim is to make herself agreeable to her benefactors.

She knows that to survive in the world she has to fend for herself. She

easily pleases Lady Crawley and her daughters. Her respect and obedience

towards Pitt Crawley wins her, his good opinion. She finds ways to be

useful to Sir Pitt and within a year, she becomes indispensable to him. She

becomes his constant companion.

Rawdon Crawley of the LifeGuards Green does not get along with his

brother Pitt and pays a visit to the house, only when the aunt comes to

stay with them. He is a favorite of his aunt and there is mutual contempt

between Pitt and Miss Crawley.

Miss Crawley is a rich woman, who loves everything associated with

France. She enjoys life (though Pitt considers her to be ‘godless’) and

loves to pamper her nephew, Rawdon.

Chapter 11 Arcadian Simplicity

Bute Crawley and his wife form the nearest relatives and neighbors of

Sir Pitt. The two brothers are entirely against each other. Mrs. Crawley

keeps a close watch on the Crawley house for news. She is quite suspicious

about Rebecca’s growing influence over the Crawleys. Therefore she writes

to Miss Pinkerton to enquire about her past for which Miss Pinkerton gladly

fills in the information that her parents had been disreputable.

Becky writes a letter to Amelia informing her about the perfect peace

and happiness in the house due to the arrival of Miss Crawley. The two

brothers make best chaperons for her while they wait for her to kick the

bucket. Becky also gives an account of Rawdon Crawley who lives a lavish

life under the favor of his aunt. She does not forget to mention how he

constantly showers attention over her while he is around.

Besides charming Mrs. Bute Crawley, Rebecca also has Miss Crawley tied

to her little finger in no time, (who is immensely impressed by her) and

becomes her constant companion.

Chapter 12 Quite a sentimental chapter.

Sisters of George as well as of Dobbin believe that Amelia is not

worthy enough for a charming man like George. They feel that George is

making a great sacrifice in loving Amelia. George plays truant and in the

evenings is neither at his own house nor at Amelia’s. Amelia is heartbroken

waiting for George. She writes frantic letters to George, who replies in

very few words - in a soldier like manner.

Chapter 13 Sentimental and otherwise

While Amelia suffers in George’s absence, George is busy enjoying in

the company of other women. Unable to hear people talking about George and

his lady in a light manner, Dobbin, to the great displeasure of George,

blurts out the truth about George’s engagement with Amelia. Dobbin also

rebukes George for neglecting the angelic Amelia. George, with some

hesitation, accepts money from Dobbin to buy a gift for Amelia. But he is

driven by self-love, and buys a diamond shirt pin for himself. Amelia is

euphoric to see George.

George’s father, John Osborne, is worried about John Sedley’s

business. He makes it clear to George that he is not to marry Amelia unless

she brings along ten thousand pounds.

Chapter 14 Miss Crawley at Home

Miss Crawley falls severely ill and is transported back to her house.

Rebecca nurses her throughout her illness. Miss Crawley refuses to be

looked after by anyone else, not even her old loyals, like Miss Briggs and

Mrs. Firkin. These two companions are greatly threatened by Becky’s

presence. Rawdon comes regularly to ask Becky about the improvement in the


After great caring and watching over on Becky’s part, Miss Crawley

recovers. Becky keeps her entertained and accompanies her on drives. On one

such drive they pay a visit to Amelia, which again Amelia returns after a

few days. Amelia is invited for dinner in which George Osborne is also a

guest. George tells Rawdon to be careful of a desperate flirt like Becky.

Sir Pitt becomes a widower again. Throughout the time of Miss

Crawley’s convalescence, he writes frantic letters to Rebecca to return to

Queen’s Crawley. One day, he personally comes to fetch her and proposes

marriage to her. Rebecca has only tears to shed at this marriage proposal;

she confesses between her sobs that she is already married.

Chapters 15 & 16 In which Rebecca’s husband appears for a short time

and the letter on the Pincushion

Miss Crawley is astonished to know that Rebecca has turned down Sir

Pitt’s proposal. After much explanation to Miss Crawley, Becky admits that

she loves someone else. Becky is a little remorseful that she has missed

the position of a Lady, but she has enough ‘resolution and energy of

character,’ to not continue mourning for what is lost.

She writes a letter to her secret husband, who is none other than Rawdon,

and plans an elopement. Becky is sure that Miss Crawley will be hysterical

for a while and then forgive her two favorites. She runs away leaving a

letter for Miss Briggs, who does not have a clue about how to break the

news and sends for Mrs. Bute Crawley. Together they inform Miss Crawley,

who is frantic. Sir Pitt is furious. All this while Becky and Rawdon,

together, are hoping that Miss Crawley will sooner or later come around and

forgive them.

Chapter 17 &18 How Capt. Dobbin bought a piano and who played on the

piano Capt. Dobbin bought.

Mr. John Sedley goes bankrupt and the family moves to a modest house

in Fulham Street. There is an auction in their old house where Rawdon and

Becky buy a painting of Jos Sedley on an elephant and Dobbin buys the old

piano and sends it to its previous owner, Amelia.

Jos arranges financial help for his parents but does not come down to

meet them. After his marriage, Rawdon Crawley is a much-altered man. Becky

just avoids the ruined Sedleys.

Everybody is sure that George Osborne will not marry Amelia and speaks

ill about her. Aware of this fact, John Sedley asks the heartbroken Amelia

to return all the gifts that George had given her and break the

relationship. George is moved by Amelia’s letter and, on Dobbin’s

insistence, goes to meet her.

Chapter 19 Miss Crawley at Nurse

Mrs. Bute Crawley tries every way to make Miss Crawley despise Rawdon

and Becky. For this, she reminds Miss Crawley of every vice of Rawdon and

takes Miss Crawley to Miss Pinkerton’s, who helps them trace Becky’s

earlier life. Thus, she fortifies the Park Lane house against the enemy.

Seeing Miss Crawley weak, Mrs. Bute Crawley presses upon the old woman

to alter her will but does not succeed. At a drive in a park, Miss

Crawley’s carriage passes by Rawdon’s carriage, who acknowledges the party

but is coldly spurned. For Mrs. Bute it is a sure triumph. She plans to

take Miss Crawley to Brighton to avoid such encounters in the future.

Chapters 20 & 21 In which Capt. Dobbin acts as the messenger of Hymen

and Quarrel about on heiress.

Dobbin volunteers to convince Mr. Sedley about Amelia’s marriage.

Amelia is as happy as she can be. George tells Amelia that his parents and

sisters have formed a new acquaintance with a Miss Swartz, who is an

extremely beautiful and rich heiress. John Osborne plans to get George

married to Miss Swartz and he keeps giving his son, hints about this wish

of his.

Miss Swartz is invited home for dinner where George is ordered to be

present. During the meetings instigated by the foul words of his sisters

towards Amelia, George declares to Miss Swartz that he loves Amelia and

even rises against his father to defend her. His father is enraged and

warns him not to argue with him if he wants to remain in the family. George

defies his father’s orders and tells Dobbin that he will marry Amelia the

very next day.

Chapter 22 A marriage and part of a Honeymoon.

Like a typical patriarch, Old Osborne is sure that George will return

the moment his supplies fall short. Amelia and George tie the knot at a

chapel near Fulham Road. Immediately after the marriage, the couple leaves

for Brighton. Dobbin stays back to overcome his depression caused due to

Amelia’s marriage and also to inform Mr. Osborne.

At Brighton, the young couple, later joined by, Jos meets the Crawley

couple, who is enjoying their stay. However, the Crawley couple is also

worried about Miss Crawley’s acceptance as she still refuses to yield.

Dobbin too joins them later, bringing the news that all the soldiers are

ordered to Belgium.

Chapters 23 & 24 Capt. Dobbin proceeds on his canvass and in which Mr.

Osborne takes down the family Bible.

Dobbin tries very hard to convince George’s sisters, to be supportive

of his marriage to Amelia. Miss Osbornes are moved, but they dare not

oppose their father. Sure about the fact that, George will lose his share

of the property, Mr. Fredrick Bullock, a businessman, at heart becomes more

interested in Miss Maria Osborne. This is because; he realizes that now she

is worth thirty thousand pounds more.

Very gradually, Dobbin breaks the news about George’s marriage to Mr.

Osborne, who is shattered, angry and deeply disappointed. He decides to

disown George and disinherit him. He sends a letter for George through


Chapter 25 In which all the principal personages think fit to leave


George is panic struck, the moment he reads the letter, from his

father’s lawyer, disinheriting him from his father’s property. He rudely

blames Dobbin for (George’s) his being out of favor of his father, then

later ‘generously’ forgives him. Within a week of marriage, George begins

to neglect Amelia for the company of others, especially the Crawleys. The

regiment is next commissioned to Brussels.

Before leaving town, Becky insists on getting back a sum lent to

George, which he does, and appeasing Miss Crawley. The latter becomes easy

as Mrs. Bute Crawley, the only great obstacle, rushes to her home because

Mr. Bute Crawley had injured himself. Rebecca seizes the opportunity and

sends feelers through honest Miss Briggs. Becky also dictates a letter to

Rawdon for Miss Crawley. Miss Crawley refuses to see Rawdon. On further

insistence, she asks him to see her lawyer. On following her instruction,

Rawdon is shocked to see that she leaves a meager sum of twenty pounds for


Chapters 26, 27 & 28 Between London and Chatham, in which Amelia joins

her Regiment, in which Amelia invades the Low Countries.

On their way to Brussels, George, Amelia, Jos and Dobbin stop at

London. George keeps Amelia in the lap of luxury, but does not spend time

with her. He is back to his vices, of gambling and flirting. A happy Amelia

pays a visit to her parents. George meets his father’s solicitor for the

final little sum of 2000 pounds that his father has spared for him.

At Chatham, Amelia meets George’s regiment. They are all impressed by

Amelia’s sweet and kind nature and George feels proud of her. Amelia takes

a liking for the garrulous and imposing Mrs. Peggy O’Dowd, who is the wife

of Mayor O’Dowd, the commander of George’s regiment.

The regiment is transported by water to Ostend. Before the war can

begin, there is great merriment in the regiment. In such parties, Amelia is

extravagantly dressed, Jos, excessively drunk and George extremely


Chapter 29 Brussels

Following the others, the Crawley couple arrives at Brussels. George

enjoys in their company but Amelia is jealous of the admiration Rebecca

receives from George. George continuously loses his money to Rawdon, at

gambling and loses his heart to Becky.

On June 15, 1815 a noble duchess hosts a lavish ball in which

Crawleys, Osbornes and Dobbin are invited. Amelia, half- expecting what

would happen, is quite without enthusiasm.

George, as usual, chaperones Rebecca, dances with her and in the end, gives

her a piece of paper crumpled in her bouquet. Amelia, totally neglected,

requests Dobbin to take her back to her room.

George Osborne is having a great time at the ball when Dobbin

announces that their regiment is to march to the battlefront. George, the

brave soldier, is excited. On his way to his room, he bitterly regrets his

behavior towards Amelia and wonders what will happen to her and their

unborn child if he were to die in the war. He feels guilty for his

ingratitude towards his father and writes a farewell letter to him.

Chapter 30 "The girl I left behind me"

Major O’Dowd, Rawdon, George, and Dobbin prepare to leave for the

battlefield. Rawdon is worried about the debts he is leaving behind and

gives Becky all his savings and valuables out of which she can make a

little fortune and live comfortably if he were to die. Rawdon is

overwhelmed with emotions while Rebecca bears it all with ‘Spartan


Before leaving, Dobbin extracts a promise from Jos Sedley that he will

not leave Amelia alone and will take care of her while George is away.

After a brief parting with Amelia, George rushes to join the march, full of

enthusiasm and overflowing with excitement.

Chapter 31 In which Jos Sedley takes care of his sister.

Jos is comfortable while Amelia is very ill and disturbed in George’s

absence. Becky comes to pay Amelia a visit, but Amelia is furious at her

and behaves rudely towards her. In a fit of rage and jealousy, she assures

Becky that George loves only her (Amelia) and that none of Becky’s tricks

would work. For the first time, Amelia gathers enough courage to confront

Becky, who is stunned. She leaves Peggy to take care of Amelia.

Before this confrontation with Amelia, Becky flatters and praises an

impressed Jos Sedley so that she can use him whenever she needs to. While

Jos and Peggy are at dinner, they hear cannons being fired and it perturbs


Chapter 32 In which Jos takes flight and the war is brought to a


With the noise of cannons, there are rumors that the French will

overpower the British army. Mrs. O’Dowd courageously consoles Amelia while

Jos is mortally frightened. He puts forth his plan to flee to Ghent but his

servant Isidor informs him that all the horses are gone. Pauline’s (the

cook’s) lover, Regulus returns from the battlefield bringing the news of

the war that, the British army was butchered. They are all scared. Jos

plans to shave his moustaches so that no one will mistake him for an army


Like Jos, even the Bareacres are panic struck and wish to flee but a

paucity of horses prevents them. Rebecca has two horses to sell but she

doesn’t sell them to the Lady Bareacres, as she is angry with the Lady for

ignoring her at the parties. She sells the horses to Jos at a very high


The news of victory arrives. Amelia is even more hysterical. She spots

an injured ensign and mistakes him for George. This ensign, Tom Stubble,

brings news that George and Dobbin are fine. He tells them how Capt. Dobbin

had carried him to the surgeon and has sent him back with a message for

Mrs. Osborne that her husband is well.

When all are at peace, they hear the cannons of Waterloo strike again

and this scares Jos very much. Jos once more implores upon Amelia to leave

with him, but when she refuses, he goes away with his servant. After the

roaring of cannons all day, the British are finally triumphant. While

Amelia is praying for George, he lies dead with a bullet through his heart.

Chapter 33 In which Miss Crawley’s relations are very anxious about


Miss Crawley reads about Rawdon’s bravery and learns that he has been

honored with the title of Colonel. She receives a letter and tokens of war

from his nephew Rawdon from Paris. Mrs. Bute Crawley is disappointed, for

her absence has resulted in her losing her hold over Miss Crawley and her


After Becky leaves Queen’s Crawley, Sir Pitt does not care to mend his

lifestyle. He drinks with the peasants and showers attention on his servant

Miss Horrocks.

Mr. Pitt is to marry Lady Jane, daughter of Countess Southdown. Mr.

Pitt Crawley, together with Lady Southdown and Lady Jane, decides that he

must cultivate Miss Crawley’s friendship and win her favor as well as her


Chapter 34 James Crawley’s pipe is put out.

Miss Crawley instantly likes Jane and asks her to visit her often.

Mrs. Bute Crawley, immensely jealous of the improvement Pitt is making with

Miss Crawley, sends her son James Crawley to please the rich lady. Miss

Crawley asks James to live in her house. Pitt is envious of James for Miss

Crawley had never invited him to stay with her. So he tries various ways to

make Miss Crawley fed up of James. One day, he instigates James to smoke a

pipe in the house. This pollutes the atmosphere of the home and results in

Miss Crawley bidding farewell to James.

Meanwhile, Becky creates a place for herself in the Parisian society.

She delivers a boy and Miss Crawley immediately orders for the marriage of

Pitt and Lady Jane. They come and stay with Miss Crawley and decide to give

them (Pitt and Jane) a thousand pounds a year till she lives and all the

bulk of her property after her death.

Chapter 35 Widow and mother.

Old Osborne and his family is wholly shaken and shattered at the news

of George’s death. His heart melts, when he reads the letter that George

had written to him on the eve of the battle. He goes to see his son’s tomb.

He sees Amelia in her sorrowful widowhood but remains unmoved and refuses

to accept her as his son’s widow.

Amelia lives a passive and melancholic life till the arrival of her

son, which brings life back into her. Dobbin is the godfather of the little

George and takes care that he does not lack anything. One day, Dobbin comes

and informs Amelia that he is leaving and will not be back for a long time.

She promises to write to him about little George.

Chapters 36 & 37 How to live well on nothing a year & the subject


Rebecca and Rawdon live comfortably on debt, in Paris, for 3 - 4

years. Rebecca becomes a favorite in the aristocratic circle. Rawdon has a

lucky hand at gambling but their rising debts compel them to return to

England. Becky makes the scene pretty easy in England, by appeasing

Rawdon’s old debtors. By promising them a fairly good dividend on the

previous debt, Becky gets ten times more from them.

The news of Miss Crawley’s death arrives. In London, Becky and Rawdon

stay in Raggles’ house at Curzon Street, Mayfair. Raggles is an old loyal

of the Crawley family. He was their (Crawley’s) butler, who had spent all

his hard-earned money to buy the apartment, which he now lends Becky. Becky

and Rawdon never pay him anything, and in time, poor Raggles becomes a

ruined man.

Miss Crawley leaves Bute Crawley five thousand pounds, Rawdon inherits

only a hundred pounds, and the rest of the fortune is left to Pitt. Rebecca

advises Rawdon to keep a friendly relationship with Pitt and his wife.

Rebecca is a failure as a mother. In fact, she finds little Rawdon a great

botheration, but father and son share a special bond.

Rebecca totally overshadows Rawdon. While Rawdon is busy with his son,

Becky charms rich men like Lord Styne. One day, while playing at a park,

Rawdon and his son meet John Sedley and Georgy.

Chapter 38 A Family in a small way

Jos Sedley goes to India, straight from Brussels, without meeting

anyone. He sends his parents a small sum of money, which is their chief

income. Amelia develops into a possessive mother and hurts her own mother

by suspecting that she wants her Georgy to be poisoned. Reverend Mr.

Binney, who offers to teach Georgy Latin, proposes marriage to Amelia,

which she turns down kindly. She refuses to send her son away to school and

creates havoc if he falls ill.

Dobbin writes frequently and sends numerous expensive gifts for

Georgy, Amelia, and her parents. Her parents are sorry about the fact that

she does not want to marry Dobbin. Georgy grows up to be pompous and proud

like his father. Sometimes, Dobbin’s sisters take Georgy out for a ride in

their carriage or to spend a day with the ladies. One day they inform

Amelia that Dobbin is about to marry Glorvina O’Dowd at Madras. Amelia

expresses a great deal of happiness at the news.

Chapter 39 A Cynical chapter

Lady Jane and Pitt pay a visit to Sir Pitt, soon after their wedding.

Sir Pitt’s condition is lamentable, so is the state of his house. Miss

Horrocks rules the entire home. Mrs. Bute Crawley, with her close eye on

Queen’s Crawley, catches Miss Horrocks red handed as she is trying to

steal. She brings along her husband and James to bear witness. While Miss

Horrocks is busy robbing, her father and a doctor try to murder Sir Pitt,

but Bute Crawley foils their plan and throws them out of Queen’s Crawley.

Chapters 40 & 41 In which Becky is recognized by the family and in

which Becky revisits the halls of her ancestors.

The news of the death of Sir Pitt makes his son Pitt secretly

delighted, as now he will be Sir Pitt Crawley with a seat in the

Parliament. He quickly communicates the news to Rawdon. Rawdon and Rebecca

rush to Queen’s Crawley, dressed correctly to the occasion, leaving little

Rawdon with Miss Briggs who has been living with them since Miss Crawley’s


Becky and Rawdon’s homecoming is warm. Pitt notices that marriage to

Becky has made Rawdon a better person. Pitt volunteers to pay for little

Rawdon’s education. Becky is touched by the goodness of Lady Jane. Knowing

that Pitt is at odds with Bute Crawley and his family, Becky gladly blames

Mrs. Bute Crawley for her marriage to Rawdon and their eventual falling out

of Miss Crawley’s favor.

Becky and Rawdon leave for London with many gifts from Lady Jane.

During their short stay Rebecca pleases everyone at the house, while Rawdon

misses his beloved son and keeps track of his activities back home.

Chapters 42 & 43 Which treats of the Osborne family and In which the

reader has to double the cape.

Maria Osborne is married to Fredrick Bullock, the greedy materialistic

man, and they are almost cut off from the family due to their social

superiority. Miss Jane leads a monotonous life with her tyrannical father.

One day, she meets Georgy and gifts him a gold watch and a chain. Her

father begins to flush up and tremble at the news.

Amelia writes to Dobbin wishing him and his wife all the best. It is

believed that, Dobbin will marry Glorvina, sister of Peggy O’Dowd, but he

is too involved with Amelia to even think about the match. So he is deeply

hurt to read Amelia’s letter, blessing the couple, and yearns to go back to

England. Soon, he receives his sister’s letter informing him that Amelia

may be marrying a Reverend Mr. Binney. With this knowledge, Dobbin rushes

to England.

Chapters 44 & 45 A roundabout chapter between London and Hampshire and

between Hampshire and London.

Becky is to take care of the renovation of the Great Gaunt House of

Sir Pitt. Sir Pitt comes for a short stay with them, during which Becky

impresses him with everything she does. Sir Pitt realizes that, Rawdon was

supposed to inherit the money that he has, and so helps him with small sums

every now and then. The frequent visits of men like Sir Pitt and Lord Styne

helps Becky to extract more credit, for the creditors believe that if she

stays in such rich company, she can surely return their debts. During this

time Rebecca gets more and more estranged from her son.

While Sir Pitt frequents Becky’s house, Rawdon and his son spend a

happy time with Lady Jane and her children, who they are very fond of. Sir

Pitt is elected as a Member of the Parliament. Becky dislikes Lady Jane for

being a simple and good woman. Becky also introduces Sir Pitt to Lord


Chapter 46 Struggles and trials.

Amelia is too possessive to send Georgy to school, therefore she

teaches him at home. After one of the rides in the Dobbin’s carriage,

Georgy tells his mother that an old man had come to see him. Old Mr.

Osborne sends his attorney to get Georgy in his custody with the following

proposal: Amelia is to get a fair allowance, which will not be withdrawn,

even if she marries again. She will be allowed to see her son sometimes but

at her own residence. Amelia is furious at the attorney for bringing such a


The monetary condition of the Sedley family goes from bad to worse.

Amelia has no money to gift Georgy on Christmas, so she sells one of the

exquisite shawls that Dobbin had sent for her from India. She buys new

clothes and books for Georgy from the money obtained. But her mother is

thoroughly disappointed. According to her, Amelia should not spend lavishly

on her son’s books and on providing him with other luxuries, when they

don’t have enough money to live. The main reasons for this poor financial

condition of the Sedleys are; the money sent by Jos does not arrive,

Amelia’s pension is insufficient, and Mr. Sedley’s business always incurs


Amelia soon begins to feel guilty for her selfishness. She knows that,

Georgy will be provided for in a better manner in his grandfather’s house.

She realizes that she cannot do very much for her son and is afraid that

she may have to part with him.

Chapter 47 Gaunt House

Tom Eaves, an inhabitant of Vanity Fair, tells the narrator about the

history of Lord Styne’s family. Lord Styne an extremely affluent man, has a

brief unhappy married life and due to a low- spirited wife, he is lured by

pleasures and merriment. His son George loses his mental balance due to a

disease that runs in their family and of which Lord Styne is petrified. To

escape his fears, he throws lavish balls and invites everyone. In spite of

all his notorious and immoral escapades, everyone belonging to the high

society attends his parties.

Chapter 48 In which the reader is introduced to the very best of


Becky is rewarded with a chance to go to Court with Sir Pitt and Lady

Jane. She is dazzling in her best clothes and large diamonds which Sir Pitt

secretly gives her. Rawdon goes in his old shabby uniform, which is now too

tight for him. Becky therefore achieves her aim in life.

Lord Styne is a frequent visitor at Rebecca’s place, but he feels

uneasy in the presence of Miss Briggs. He asks Becky to send her away, but

Becky replies that she will not be able to do so, as she owes Miss Briggs

some money. Becky then quotes almost double the amount. Later, Lord Styne

sends her a check and an invitation for dinner. Rebecca buys Briggs a

beautiful, silk gown and pays Raggles and her coachman fifty pounds each to

silence them for sometime. The rest she keeps for herself.

Chapter 49 In which we enjoy three courses and a Dessert.

Lord Styne receives great opposition from his family, for wanting to

invite Rebecca Crawley for his party. His mother-in- law being Lady

Bareacres, this opposition is not surprising. Rebecca is eventually

invited. Though in the former part of the evening she is not very

successful, she enchants Lady Styne by singing sweetly for her.

Chapter 50 Contains a vulgar incident.

After a lot of pondering, Amelia decides to send Georgy to his

grandfather. At this decision, Mr. Osborne sends her a hundred pounds.

Georgy is excited to go to his new lavish home. After he is gone, Amelia is

sad and depressed. He comes often to meet her and on other days, she walks

up to his house and watches the window of his room.

Amelia still does not know that it is not Jos who has stopped sending

money, but it is her father who has already sold away Jos’s future

allowances for his unsuccessful businesses.

Chapter 51 In which a charade is acted which may or may not puzzle the


Becky gets more and more popular in the aristocratic circle. In a

party at Gaunt House, Becky participates in the charades. The audience is

spell bound with Becky’s performance. After the charade, Becky is placed at

a grand exclusive table, with all the distinguished guests, and eats out of

a gold plate.

At the end of the party, Becky leaves by carriage while Rawdon prefers to

walk. On the way, he is arrested on account of an unpaid debt.

Chapter 52 In which Lord Styne shows himself a most amiable light.

This chapter is a flashback. Due to the generosity of Lord Styne,

little Rawdon is sent to a very good school. His father misses him during

his absence and longs for him to return home on Saturdays. Rawdon’s

relationship with Becky is growing more and more estranged.

One day Lord Styne, in a conversation with Miss Briggs realizes that

Becky had told him a falsehood and taken double the amount she needed,

giving none of it to Miss Briggs. When he questions Becky about this, she

tells him another lie, where she puts the entire blame on Rawdon’s greed

and his constant bullying asking her to ask Styne for money.

Lady Jane warns Rawdon to keep an eye on Becky’s activities. Lord

Styne gives Miss Briggs a better place, that of a housekeeper at Gauntly

Hall. Rawdon orders Becky to refuse invitations, which are only for her and

where he is not on the guest list. Becky agrees and they live in each

other’s company and to Rawdon, this feels like the blissful days, just

after their marriage.

Chapter 53 A rescue and a catastrophe

Rawdon, who has been arrested, writes to Becky asking her to arrange

for a hundred pounds to bail him out (for he has only seventy pounds).

Becky writes a sympathetic letter, in, which she makes an excuse of her bad

health and puts off his rescue to the next day. A furious Rawdon sends a

letter to Sir Pitt asking for help. Lady Jane comes to his rescue.

Rawdon rushes home and is enraged to see Becky and Lord Styne spending

a great evening together. Becky is bedecked with numerous diamond trinkets,

which Lord Styne has presented to her. Rebecca is mortally scared on being

caught red handed. Rawdon strikes Lord Styne, who claims to have paid large

sums of money to his wife. Rawdon makes Becky open her secret drawer and

finds a thousand-pound note from Lord Styne. Becky only screams that she is

innocent. Rawdon, in a fit of rage, goes away.

Chapters 54 & 55 Sunday after the battle and in which the same subject

is pursued.

Fuming with anger, Rawdon goes over to Sir Pitt and informs him about

what has happened. He assures Pitt that he has come just to request him to

take care of his son whom he loves dearly.

Then he goes to Gaunt House and leaves his card for Lord Styne, expressing

his wish to meet him. He goes to Captain Macmurdo (Mac) and asks him for

help, which the latter gladly extends. Mac takes the responsibility of

returning Styne’s note back to him.

At Curzon Street, Becky’s maid robs her of all her jewelry and her

servants harass her for money. Now that they know that she is out of favor

of both Lord Styne and Rawdon, they are worried about their repayments.

Becky meets Sir Pitt and convinces him of her innocence by saying that she

was entertaining Lord Styne so that she could acquire a good employment for

Rawdon. Lady Jane is furious to see Becky in her house.

In the meanwhile, Rawdon is spending his time with Mac, when two

acquaintances inform him about his appointment as the Governor of Coventry

Island. He has obtained this position due to the patronage of Lord Styne.

Rawdon meets his emissary, Mr. Wenham. Styne’s emissary tries to prove to

Rawdon that Becky is innocent, but Rawdon refuses to believe him. Capt. Mac

hands over the note (given by Lord Styne to Becky) to Wenham and the ex-

col. accepts the job on the insistence of Mac and Sir Pitt. Sit Pitt

however, is unable to bring about a reconciliation between Becky and


Rawdon fixes an annuity for his wife, writes regularly to his son and

sends Lady Jane all the possible goodies Coventry Island has to offer.

Rawdon also repays all his debts and takes Capt. Mac with him as his


Chapter 56 Georgy is made Gentleman

Georgy lives with his grandfather, in great comfort and luxury. He has

the best of everything. Old Osborne is as proud of him as he was of his

dead son. He exceedingly pampers Georgy and the little boy playfully

bullies the entire household. He regularly comes to visit Amelia. One day,

while Georgy is taking lessons, Dobbin and Jos Sedley come to meet him.

Georgy instantly recognizes one to be Major Dobbin, about whom his mother

had always spoken to him.

Chapters 57 & 58 Eцthen and our friend the major.

Amelia’s mother dies. She now looks after her ill father with the help

of the money given by Old Mr. Osborne. Dobbin proceeds for England, but he

falls seriously ill. His peers wonder if he would survive. Jos Sedley is

traveling back

home on the same ship as Dobbin and, in one of his conversations, assures

Dobbin that Amelia has no plans of marrying. After this assurance Dobbin

begins to recover and becomes more and more excited at the prospect of

seeing Amelia.

Amelia is very happy to see Dobbin and talks to him in very buoyant

spirits about Georgy. He is greatly relieved to see Mrs. Binney (the wife

of the man whom he thought Amelia was marrying). Dobbin also informs them

of Jos’ arrival.

Chapter 59 The old Piano

While watching over the shifting of the Sedley household to a better

place, Dobbin tells Amelia that he is glad that she has still kept her old

piano. Amelia does not realize at first, but later it strikes her that,

perhaps it was not George but Dobbin who had sent it for her. She

apologizes to Dobbin for attributing the kind deed to her dead husband.

Dobbin tells her how much he loves her and has loved her since the

first time he saw her. She reminds him that George is and would always be

her husband. But at the same time, she requests Dobbin to be a friend to

both her and Georgy.

Chapters 60 & 61 Returns to the genteel world and In which two lights

are put out.

Amelia’s good fortune makes her friends happy for her. Georgy is very

fond of Dobbin, while there is no great attachment between Jos and Georgy.

Jos and Amelia become a part of the genteel society. Jos invites his

friends home for frequent parties and himself goes to Court.

John Sedley dies after a prolonged illness, during which he was loved

and cared for by Amelia. He too is very fond of Amelia in his last days,

even more than when she was a little girl. After Mr. Sedley’s death,

Osborne invites Jos to his house, saying that he has nothing against him.

Dobbin also implores Mr. Osborne to reconcile with Amelia and he agrees for

a meeting. Unfortunately, the old patriarch dies soon but he leaves half

his property to Georgy, an annuity of 500 pounds for Amelia and restores

Georgy to his mother. Dobbin too is left a sum, sufficient to buy him his

commission as Lieutenant Colonel. Affluent people from all quarters,

including the haughty Maria Bullock, (nee Osborne) come to pay a visit to

Mrs. Osborne owing to the knowledge of her newly acquired nobility. Jos,

Amelia, Georgy, and Dobbin plan a foreign trip.

Chapter 62 Am Rhein

Jos Sedley, Amelia, Georgy, and Dobbin leave for Pumpernickel for a

pleasure trip. They enjoy themselves and

most of all Amelia begins to brim with excitement and radiance of

happiness. Dobbin is glad to see her so. She sketches the beautiful

mountains and is enchanted by musical performances, which they attend.

Chapter 63 In which we meet an old acquaintance.

Lord Tapeworm, the heir and nephew of one of Major Dobbin’s late

Marshal, accompanies Jos and the rest of the party as their friend.

Tapeworm suggests a doctor for Jos to loose weight, who plans to stay and

get treatment. They move in aristocratic society and attend their


One day, Georgy meets a mysterious woman at a gambling house, for whom

he plays and wins. Jos recognizes her to be Rebecca. Dobbin extracts a word

from Georgy that he will never gamble again.

Chapter 64 A vagabond chapter.

After separating from Rawdon, Becky is left with a bad reputation,

which compels her to leave the country. Before quitting England, she writes

to little Rawdon, to which he replies as per his duty. First she goes to

Bologne. Soon she feels the pangs of loneliness. She is driven out of the

hotel in which she lives, as she is deemed unfit to stay there.

Every time Becky makes her little circle of friends, some past

acquaintance pours cold water on her efforts. She begins again from square

one. She realizes that Amelia and the other people she knew are kind

people. Bored of all her show of being a respectable lady, she throws all

her guard and her taste for low life grows more remarkable. She travels all

over Europe and mingles with coarse men. At Rome, she finds Lord Steyne at

a ball and hopes to reestablish their acquaintance, but a warning from his

confidential man forces her to flee to save her life, as Steyne is livid

about his confrontation with Rawdon.

The news comes later, that Lord Steyne has died is Naples, due to a

series of fits, as a result of the downfall of French Monarchy at the

French Revolution.

Chapter 65 Full of business and pleasure.

Jos goes to see Becky at her dingy room in the ‘Elephant’ Hotel. Becky

succeeds in winning his favor and tells him the saddest story of her life,

which is absolutely false. Jos, much affected, reports about her condition

to Dobbin and Amelia. Initially, Amelia is unmoved, but as soon as she

learns that Becky’s son was torn from her arms, she instantly leaves to see

her dear friend. Becky watches Amelia and Dobbin approach, yet pretends to

give a shriek the moment she sees them at her door.

Chapter 66 Amantium Irae

In spite of repeated polite warnings from Dobbin, Amelia and Jos are

determined to bring Becky home with them. Dobbin is opposed to this view

because he overhears the two boys with whom she comes from Leipzig, talk

very lightly about her. Dobbin is the only one who can see through all of

Becky’s pretensions. Finally, Dobbin tries to remind Amelia of Becky’s

behavior with George, before the battle. This infuriates her and she

refuses to see Dobbin anymore. Dobbin too, angry with her for the first

time, admits to himself as well as her that, she is and never was worth all

the devotion he has given her, and he leaves, never to return. Georgy is

very sad to hear that Dobbin is leaving. When he goes to bid Dobbin

goodbye, Becky sends him a note imploring upon him to stay, which Dobbin

tears in spite.

Chapter 67 Which contains births, marriages, and deaths

While Amelia is silent and depressed due to her behavior towards

Dobbin, Becky takes charge of the house. She becomes popular in society

because of her wit and talents. The news of Dobbin re-joining the service

arrives. The party (Amelia, Becky, Jos and Georgy) moves to Ostend on Jos’

health grounds. Becky has many low acquaintances there, who forcefully

impose themselves upon her and pay tipsy comments on Amelia. Amelia yearns

to go back, but Jos cannot discontinue his treatment. Amelia writes to

Dobbin. When Becky’s luggage arrives from Leipzig, she impresses Jos by

showing him his portrait, which she has preserved, and the letter, asking

Becky to elope, which George had written to her and given her at the ball

just before the war. Amelia is even more determined to marry Dobbin and she

does. Becky roots her anchor on Jos and follows him wherever he goes. After

his marriage to Amelia, Dobbin leaves the service and they live in

Hampshire, close to Queen’s Crawley. Lady Jane and Amelia become great

friends and Georgy and Rawdon study together and both fall in love with

Lady Jane’s daughter. Dobbin and Amelia have a daughter who is named after

her godmother Lady Jane.

Jos Sedley dies, leaving half of his money to Mrs. Crawley, who is

suspected as the cause of his death. Col. Rawdon Crawley dies of yellow

fever in Coventry Island, six weeks before the death of Sir Pitt. As Sir

Pitt’s son had died in infancy, Rawdon is made the next Baronet. He makes

his mother a liberal allowance but does not meet her. Becky calls herself

Lady Crawley and becomes engaged in charity activities.

William Shakespeare

Extremely Short Summaries. Good for Seminars

A Midsummer Night's Dream

Act I: Theseus, Duke of Athens, is preparing to marry Hippolyta in his

palace. He is solving a dispute between Egeus (who wants his daughter,

Hermia, to marry Demetrius) and Lysander, who has Hermia's love. Theseus

declares that Hermia must marry D emetrius as the law specifies, or marry

no one. Hermia and Lysander plan to escape to the woods and elope, and they

tell Helena. Helena loves Demetrius, and plans to impress him by telling

him of the lovers' plans. In the wood, six laborers meet to arrang e the

production of a play for Theseus's wedding.

Act II: In the wood, a Fairy talks with Robin Goodfellow about how Oberon,

King of the Fairies, is mad that his wife Titania has stolen an Indian

child from him. To get him, Oberon tells Puck to find and use a magic

flower's juice to make Titania f all in love with a beast. Meanwhile,

Oberon pities Helena's grief at Demetrius hating her, and tells Puck to

also use the juice to make Demetrius love Helena.

Act III: Puck (Robin) accidently puts the juice on Lysander instead of

Demetrius. He then turns Bottom's head into that of an ass, for Titania.

Oberon sees Puck's mistake, tells him to anoint Demetrius, and now both are

following Helena, leading he r to believe they are mocking her. Hermia does

not know what to think, as the two men begin to fight. Titania is so

entranced with Bottom that she freely gives up the Indian boy. Now Oberon

tells Puck to release her from the spell and fix the lover's quad rangle.

Act IV: Theseus and Hippolyta enter the woods for their marriage. They find

the lovers, and despite Egeus' request, Theseus declares that since all

four are happy (Demetrius with Helena and Lysander with Hermia), they shall

all be married on the sa me day. Bottom finds himself restored, and so the

play be performed.

Act V: At the wedding, Theseus asks for the play "Pyramus and Thisbe," and

it is performed. It is awful. The married people retire to bed, and Puck

ends the play with a nice anecdote.

The Merchant of Venice

Act I: Antonio, the Merchant of Venice, discusses his sadness with Salerio

and Solanio. Bassanio asks him for a loan, and Antonio says he may borrow

on his credit because his money is at sea. In Belmont, Portia discusses her

distaste with her suito rs with Nerissa. Back in Venice, Bassanio gets

money from Shylock on the condition that if Antonio does not repay in three

months, he gets a pound of his flesh.

Act II: The Prince of Morocco arrives to try for Portia's hand. Bassanio

and company plan their dinner. In Venice, Shylock tells his daughter

Jessica not to go out, but she loves Lorenzo and they escape that evening

with her father's valuables. Mor occo picks the Golden Casket, which is

wrong, and leaves. Salerio and Solanio, the gossipers, talk of Shylock's

anger at finding his daughter and money taken. The Prince of Aragon arrives

and tries to win Portia's hand, but incorrectly chooses the silver casket.

Act III: The gossipers reveal that one of Antonio's ships has sunk and that

he may be in trouble. Bassanio correctly picks the leaden casket, but later

finds out that Antonio owes a pound of flesh to Shylock. Because he will

die, he wants to see Ba ssanio again. Bassanio goes to Venice to see him.

Act IV: Shylock rejects an offer from Portia for three times the initial

loan because he wants his enemy Antonio dead. Portia and Nerissa disguise

themselves as doctor and clerk and go to help Antonio. Portia points out

that because the 'bond' they made said Shylock could not have Antonio's

blood, he cannot take the flesh and also loses all of his possessions.

Act V: Lorenzo and Jessica are enjoying the night, when Portia and Nerissa

return just ahead of Bassanio, Graziano, and Antonio. The wives reveal

themselves and the rings they had deceitfully taken.

The Tragedy of Richard II

Act I: The play begins with a dispute between Bolingbroke and The Duke of

Norfolk. Richard wants John of Guant, Bolingbroke's father, to solve the

matter, but when he cannot he says they will fight it out. Then, Richard

cancels this idea and instea d banishes Mowbray for life and Bolingbroke

for ten years.

Act II: Gaunt dies after insulting Richard, and the King claims his wealth

to help finance his war with Ireland. Northumberland reveals that

Bolingbroke is returning to England with an army to overtake Richard. He,

with York and Willoughby, join hi m. Richard's troops under the Earl of

Salisbury dispurse because they think Richard is dead.

Act III: Bolingbroke executes Bushy and Green, both loyal to the King.

Richard returns to England happily after defeating the Irish, but loses

that zest when he finds out that he has lost his troops and Bolingbroke

will surely defeat him. Bolingbro ke discovers that Richard is nearby in

Berkeley Castle, goes and asks him to surrender, and Richard does.

Act IV: The Bishop of Carlisle reluctantly lets Bolingbroke, who has been

questioning Bagot about whether the King ordered an execution or not,

overtake his castle. After some dramatic speech, Richard is sent to the

Tower by Bolingbroke, now known as King Henry IV.

Act V: Richard's loving and grief-stricken wife sees him on his way to

detention. A plot is hatched against Bolingbroke by Aumerle and others, but

his father York finds out and tells. Aumerle is spared but the other rebels

are not. Richard is kille d by Exton, news the new king says he is not

happy to hear, and so he decides to launch a crusade to ease his


Hamlet, Prince of Denmark

Act I: Guards on duty discuss seeing the Ghost of Hamlet's late father, the

dead King, and then see him again. Hamlet's mother, Gertrude, has remarried

to Hamlet's uncle Claudius, putting the King's murderer on the throne. The

courtier Polonius pre pares his son Laertes for a journey to Paris. He then

orders his daughter to stay away from Hamlet, her love, because he fears

Hamlet is going mad. The Ghost appears to Hamlet and tells him he wants

revenge on Claudius.

Act II: After a time lapse, Hamlet feigns madness, but cannot as easily

fool Claudius as he does others. The two both want to kill each other, but

both need a reason to justify it. The attacking Fortinbras is reported to

have called off his strike on Denmark, but that remains to be seen.

Polonius and Claudius try to trick Hamlet, but he stays ahead of them.

Hamlet meets his old friends, Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, and is at first

delighted to see them. But, he immediately realizes they are there to spy

on him. Hamlet devises to use a play which show's Claudius's crime to prove

him guilty.

Act III: Hamlet contemplates suicide, but Claudius is still not fooled and

decides to send Hamlet to England, most likely to kill him. The play is

done, and Claudius knows he must act or he will fall. Foolish Plonius asks

Gertrude to question Hamle t. While the two are talking, Hamlet begins to

grow angry at his mother, but the Ghost reappears and tells Hamlet to

remember who it is that he is after. Inadvertently, Hamlet kills Polonius

who was listening in from behind the curtain.

Act IV: Laertes is angry at Claudius because he thinks he killed his

father, but the king consoles him. Claudius hatches a plan to kill Hamlet,

who is back in Denmark because he escaped death in England via some wit and

some pirates.

Act V: Hamlet finds out from a gravedigger that Ophelia is dead, and upon

seeing her funeral, announces his love for her. Laertes challenges him to a

match, but they do not fight just yet. They go back to the castle for a

jousting match where...the Queen drinks a poisoned glass meant for Hamlet,

Laertes wounds Hamlet, Hamlet kills Laertes, Laertes announces Claudius's

evil intentions, Hamlet kills Claudius, and then Hamlet dies because

Laertes was fighting with a poisoned sword. Before his death, H amlet tells

Horatio to give authority to the approaching Fortinbras.


Act I: Iago is discussing his desire for revenge against Othello (for his

passing over of the lieutenant position that was given to Michael Cassio)

with the idiot Roderigo, who desires Desdemona (Othello's wife). Iago tells

Desdemona's father that she has eloped with Othello. He then tells Othello

to take heed of Brabantio's hostility, a warning the Moor shrugs off. The

two almost fight, but both are summoned by the Duke.

Act II: The scene shifts to Cyprus, and news comes that a tempest has

elimated a Turkish war threat. Othello declares a holiday and Iago uses

this to get Michael Cassio drunk. Iago cleverly sets the scene for a

trashed Cassio to chase Roderigo and wound Montano, followed by Othello

conveniently being woken and forced to discharge Cassio.

Act III: Now Iago tries to break up Othello and Desdemona by telling Cassio

to try and earn reinstatement by getting Desdemona to like him and talk to

Othello for him. Iago cleverly puts people in the right places so that

Othello begins to think Ca ssio is pursuing Desdemona. He also steals a

hankerchief Othello gave to Desdemona and puts it in Cassio's possession.

He lies some more and gets Othello to order Cassio's assassination,

question Desdemona, begin to lose rational thought, and ultimately d estroy

his noble record.

Act IV: Ludovico and other Venetian officials arrive, saying they want

Othello back. Desdemona speaks well of Cassio in hopes that he might

succeed the Moor, and for that Othello slaps and degrades her. Ludovico

wonders if Othello is sane, and Iago seizes the moment to cast Othello in a

bad light. Roderigo starts to realize that the jewels he has been giving

Iago to give to Desdemona have not been making it past Iago, and he

threatens to kill him. But Iago uses his rhetoric to convince Roderigo to

just wait a little longer.

Act V: Roderigo attacks Cassio, both are wounded, and Iago comes upon them

and kills Roderigo. Othello decides to kill Desdemona by strangling her in

her bed. Emilia then enters and tells him the news. She screams at seeing

Desdemona and the others come into the room as well. Emilia tells about how

she gave the hankerchief to Iago, and the truth starts to come out. Othello

realizes what Iago has done, and although he cannot kill him, Iago is

captured. Othello kills himself.

King Lear, 1594

Act I: King Lear announces that he wants to give his kingdom to his three

daughters. He has them all tell him they love him, but when Cordelia

refuses to pour on the compliments, she gets nothing. Kent is banished for

trying to tell the King he is making a mistake, but returns disguised and

serves the King again. Regan and Goneril discuss their problems with their

father. Burgundy loses interest in Cordelia, but France does not. The Earl

of Gloucester's bastard son, Edmund, tricks his father into t hinking that

his other son, Edgar, plans to kill him. Edmund then makes Edgar flee by

telling him that he is in danger.

Act II: Regan and Cornwall arrive at Gloucester's castle. Edmund fools his

father into thinking Edgar has struck him and left. Kent insults Oswald for

his refusal to respect the King and is thrown in the stocks by Cornwall as

an insult to the King. Lear continues to lose his sanity along with his

authoritative presence. After running to Regan, Lear finds that she, too,

will not be hospitable to him.

Act III: Lear rages out at a storm. The fool continues his important

commentary. Kent finally brings the King to safety in a rock sheltering.

Edmund turns his back on his father by informing Cornwall that France is

coming with Cordelia to restore t he King's power. A disguised Edgar meets

the King and Co. in their shelter. Gloucester then comes by and sends them

all to Dover. Gloucester returns to his castle, is tied up by Regan and

Cornwall, has his eyes plucked out, and is thrust outside towards D over.

Act IV:Edgar meets a suicidal Gloucester and agrees to help him. Albany

shows his nobility, Cornwall dies, and Edmund moves closer to control of

the English army. Cordelia longs for her father as France prepares for a

battle. Regan discloses to Osw ald her affection for Edmund and tells him

to kill Gloucester. Edgar saves Gloucester by tricking him into believing

he survived a huge fall, and then by killing Oswald. Lear remorsely meets


Act V: France loses to England and Lear and Cordelia are taken prisoners by

Edmund. Edgar kills Edmund. Goneril poisons Regan and then kills herself.

Lear is unable to save Cordelia from Edmund's ordered execution and then

dies himself after a touch ing moment of remorse.

The First Part of King Henry IV

Act I: This follows Richard II, and King Henry begins by again putting off

his promised crusade because of Westmoreland's reports of battles at home.

Shakespeare introduces the conflict between Hotspur and Prince Hal. Prince

Hal is the son of King Henry and Hotspur the son of Westmoreland, who will

eventually try to take down the King. In a tavern, Hal and Falstaff engage

in a battle of wits, and then Poins enters and plans with Hal to use a

robbery to embarrass Falstaff. Back at Windsor Castle, Ho tspur will not

give the King prisoners he has captured because the King will not agree to

ransom his brother-in-law Mortimer. Worcester and others plan out how to

overtake the King.

Act II: Falstaff and others rob the traveling pilgrims and are then robbed

by a disguised Poins and Hal. Falstaff returns to the tavern and

exaggerates what happened to Poins and Hal, not knowing they are playing a

trick on him. Hal hides Falstaff from the sherriff, who comes looking for

him. Hotspur receives news of when the rebellion will occur, but does not

tell his curious wife.

Act III: An exuberant Hotspur makes his fellow conspirators angry with his

brash statements. Meanwhile, the King gives Hal a scolding for his

behavior, and Hal promises to shape up, for he had originally intended to

be bad so that he could eventual ly look all the better. Hal gives Falstaff

a post in the royal forces.

Act IV: The confident conspirators receive a blow when they learn that the

Earl of Northumberland is sick and they will not have his forces. Also, the

royal army is now swiftly approaching them and Glendower's forces are also

unavailable to the reb ellion. Falstaff admits he has wasted his money and

hired beggars for his battalion, surely leading them to their deaths.

Act V: The rebels forces will surely lose, and the King offers Worcester

amnesty for all if they will surrender. But he does not trust the King and

tells Hotspur they will fight. Prince Hal saves the King from death, and

his own reputation, by kill ing Douglas. Then the climax - Hal fights

Hotspur. Hotspur falls. Falstaff takes credit for this killing, which takes

the hope away from the rebels. They dispurse, but the rebellion carries on

into part two.

The Tragedy of Julius Caesar

Act I: Caesar has just emerged victorious in a series of Roman civil wars.

The populous swarms to see his homecoming, but tribunes question the

celebration. A Soothsayer foreshadows the play by giving Caesar a warning,

which he ignores. Cassius beg ins to subtly sway Brutus against Caesar. The

conspirators meet and decide they need Brutus to join them, for tomorrow

they must kill Caesar before he becomes king.

Act II: Brutus joins, but Cicero is left out. Brutus foolishly decides they

should not kill Mark Antony. Calpurnia tells her husband Caesar to stay

home that day, but Caesar still goes to the senate.

Act III: The conspirators pretend to petition for a recall so that they may

crowd around him, and then stab him to death. Caesar fights back at first,

but when Brutus takes his turn, Caesar gives in dramatically. As the

conspirators try to calm the city, Mark Antony steps in and wins Brutus

over with flattery. Cassius fears him, but Brutus foolishly lets him speak

to the crowds. At the funeral, Brutus gives a short but well-put speech and

then his mistake proves costly. Antony riles up the crowd ag ainst the

conspirators with a magnificent oration. Antony agrees to join Octavius

Caesar and General Lepidus in a three-man government.

Act IV: Civil war now erupts between the new government and the

conspirators. In Asia Minor, Cassius' army comes to join Brutus' army.

Cassius and Brutus argue and make up. Brutus finds out that Portia is dead,

along with many senators including Ci cero. Caesar's ghost visits Brutus

and says they will meet again.

Act V: The armies sit opposite each other near Philippi, waiting for

battle. Antony tells Cassius things might be better had he been in charge

instead of Brutus. Cassius and Brutus exchange good-byes, knowing they may

never see each other again. Br utus poorly leads his men, and turns a sure

victory into a possible defeat. Cassius mistakenly thinks he is prisoner

when in fact the conspirators are winning, and commits suicide. Brutus

continues to mislead, avoiding a sure victory, and eventually it co sts

him. He commits suicide in the face of defeat. Antony's forces win.


Act I: The Witches foreshadow the evil in Macbeth. King Duncan decides to

kill the traitorous Thane of Cawdor. Back to the witches - after some junk-

talk, they are encountered by Macbeth with Banquo, and they say that he is

now Thane and will be Ki ng. However, the King tells Macbeth he will make

Malcolm the next king. Macbeth plans to kill the King when he dines at his

house that night, and Lady Macbeth helps convince him to go ahead with that


Act II: Lady Macbeth drugs the guards, Macbeth kills the king, and then the

guards are framed. Macduff arrives with Lennox at the door, goes to get the

king, and discovers his murder. Macduff is suspicious, but Macbeth is in

the clear for now. Malc olm and Donalbain flee, fearing their lives since

they are prime suspects. Macbeth has killed the servants, and the nobility

feels they were the murderers. Macbeth is now king, but the tragedy is

starting to unfold.

Act III: Macbeth makes arrangements to have Banquo and his son killed. At

dinner, Macbeth is told the Banquo was killed but his son escaped. Banquo's

ghost then appears, but only Macbeth can see it. Hecate, the witch queen,

scolds the witches for d ealing with Macbeth without her. With Banquo dead,

Lennox joins Macduff in increasing suspiscion.

Act IV: Macbeth visits the sisters and three apparitions are shown to him:

an armed head (signifying war), a bloody child (showing that no man born of

a woman shall harm Macbeth), and a crowned child with a tree (saying that

"Macbeth shall never va nquished be until Great Birnam Wood to high

Dunsinane Hill Shall come against him"). Macduff has gone to England to get


Act V: Lady Macbeth is now unstable and walks and talks in her sleep. The

Scottish noblility has mostly joined the English against Macbeth, but he is

not scared because of the witches' prophecy. Lady Macbeth kills herself.

Macbeth then learns that the enemy is walking towards the castle with trees

from Birnam Wood, and that Macduff was ripped from his mother's womb early,

both explaining the witches' apparitions. Macduff kills Macbeth and Malcolm

is now King of Scotland.

Romeo and Juliet

Act I: Chorus gives a play overview. Sampson and Gregory fight with Abraham

and Balthasar. Benvolio breaks it up, fights with Tybalt, and a riot

erupts. Escalus, joined by the Capulets and Montagues, enters and stops the

fight. Afterwards the Monta gues speak with Benvolio about Romeo. Romeo

follows his parents exit with an entrance and talks with Benvolio about his

love life. Paris works on his hopes for a marriage to Juliet. He is invited

to a ball, which Romeo and Benvolio find out about from Cap ulet's Servant.

Juliet finds out about Paris' offer. Romeo and Co. head to the Capulet's

masked ball. At the ball, Romeo and Juliet meet each other, and the Nurse

tells them who each other is.

Act II: Chorus explains the problems Romeo and Juliet face. After climbing

into a back orchard and hearing Benvolio and Mercutio mock him, Romeo finds

Juliet speaking out of her window. The reveal their love and decide to

marry. Friar Lawrence agre es to marry them. With help from the Nurse,

arrangements are made and the two are wed.

Act III: Tybalt taunts Romeo, battles Mercutio and kills him, and is then

killed by Romeo. Romeo flees, Benvolio reports what happened, and Escalus

exiles Romeo. Juliet weeps, but gets a visit from Romeo that night. Romeo

goes to Mantua. Juliet doe s not want to marry Paris, but sees no way to

disobey her father.

Act IV: Friar Lawrence hatches a plan in which Juliet will fake her death:

he gives her a potion that will put her to sleep for a few days. Found to

be dead, everyone mourns the loss.

Act V: Friar John was supposed to tell Romeo that Juliet is not really

dead, but he reveals that he could not do it. Romeo visits the tomb and

finds Paris already there. Romeo kills him. Romeo kills himself after

kissing Juliet. Juliet awakes, sees Romeo dead, kisses him, and stabs

herself. Everyone comes after the watchmen send for Escalus. Friar Lawrence

explains his mistake. Montague and Capulet put aside their strife.

Full Summaries of Some Shakespeare's Works


Act One, Scene One

Francisco, a soldier standing watch outside the gates of Elsinore Castle in

Denmark, is met by Barnardo who has arrived to replace him. They are soon

joined by Marcellus, another guard, and Horatio. Horatio is a scholar who

speaks Latin, and he has been brought along because Barnardo and Marcellus

claim they have seen a ghost. While Barnardo describes to Horatio exactly

what he has seen, the ghost appears in front of them. Horatio tries to

speak with the ghost in Latin, saying, "Stay, speak, speak, I charge thee

speak" (1.1.49), but the ghost remains silent and then leaves.

Horatio tells Barnardo that the ghost looks like the deceased King Hamlet,

also known as Old Hamlet. Horatio sees that the ghost was dressed the same

way as King Hamlet was when he defeated King Fortinbras of Norway. The

story is that King Hamlet went to Norway and fought Fortinbras in single

combat. The loser agreed to yield all his land to the other king. However,

in the time since King Hamlet died, the son of King Fortinbras, known as

young Fortinbras, has been gathering together troops and is threatening to

attack Denmark.

The ghost enters a second time and Horatio again begs it to speak to him.

Just as it seems the ghost is about to say something, a cock crows and the

ghost disappears. Horatio tells Marcellus that he will inform young Hamlet,

the Prince of Denmark and the son of King Hamlet, that a ghost keeps

appearing in the shape of his father. Marcellus knows where young Hamlet is

and leaves with Horatio to find him.

Act One, Scene Two

King Claudius, who has assumed the throne since his brother King Hamlet

died, is accompanied by Queen Gertrude and other lords and attendants in

Elsinore Castle. He addresses the people, telling them that although his

brother's death is fresh in their minds, it is time for them to celebrate

his royal marriage to Queen Gertrude, who was also his brother's former

wife. He further informs the people that young Fortinbras of Norway has

assembled armies against Denmark. In response to this threat, Claudius

sends two men, Valtemand and Cornelius, as messengers to the uncle of young

Fortinbras with a letter in which he asks the older uncle to stop young

Fortinbras from attempting to attack Denmark.

Claudius next asks a young nobleman named Laertes why he has requested an

audience. Laertes informs him that although he has been fulfilled his

duties and attended the coronation in Denmark, he would rather return to

France. Claudius asks Polonius, Laertes' father, if he has given permission

for his son to go. Polonius assents, and Laertes is allowed to leave


Turning to Hamlet, Claudius asks his nephew why he is still in mourning for

his father's death, hinting that Hamlet might only be pretending to be

grief-stricken. Hamlet's mother, Queen Gertrude, also asks him why he still

dresses in black clothing. Hamlet replies that his grief is quite real and

that he will continue grieving. Claudius tells him it is unnatural for a

man to remain sorrowful for such a long time. Both Claudius and Gertrude

then beg Hamlet to stay with them in Denmark instead of returning to

Wittenberg where his university is located. Hamlet agrees to stay, and

watches as everyone leaves the hall to celebrate his uncle's and his

mother's marriage.

He is upset about the fact that his mother married Claudius within less

than two months after the death of King Hamlet. Hamlet says, "O most wicked

speed, to post / With such dexterity to incestuous sheets!" (1.2.157). He

is interrupted by the arrival of Horatio, Barnardo, and Marcellus, who have

come to tell him about the ghost they have seen.

Horatio tells Hamlet about seeing the ghost of King Hamlet. Hamlet asks

them if they have the watch again that night, and Barnardo says they do. At

this information, Hamlet agrees to join them that night in order to see the

ghost and hopefully to speak with it.

Act One, Scene Three

Laertes, about to leave for France, says farewell to his sister Ophelia. He

warns her to beware of Hamlet, whom he tells her is insincere. "For Hamlet

and the trifling of his favour, / Hold it a fashion and a toy in blood, /

...sweet not lasting" (1.3.5-6, 8). Laertes then lectures Ophelia, telling

her that Hamlet will say anything to win her heart. He tells her to hold

off, and if Hamlet still loves her after he has been made king, only then

should she consider marrying him. Ophelia agrees to remember what he has

told her.

Polonius then arrives and tells Laertes to hurry up and catch his ship

before it leaves the harbor. As he walks Laertes towards the ship, Polonius

gives his son fatherly advice. "Be thou familiar but by no means vulgar. /

The friends thou hast, and their adoption tried, / Grapple them to thy soul

with hoops of steel" (1.3.61-63). Laertes promises to obey his father, and

leaves after he reminds Ophelia to remember what he has said.

Polonius asks Ophelia what advice Laertes gave her. Ophelia tells him, and

Polonius gets mad at her for believing what Hamlet has told her. He orders

her to give less of her time to Hamlet in the future, saying, "From this

time, daughter, / Be somewhat scanter of your maiden presence" (1.3.120-

121). Ophelia tells her father she will do what he commands: "I shall obey,

my lord" (1.3.136).

Act One, Scene Four

Hamlet and Horatio are outside waiting for the ghost to arrive. They hear a

cannon go off, and Hamlet tells Horatio that the cannon is fired whenever

the king empties a draught of Rhenish wine. Hamlet is upset about the

custom, because he thinks it makes Denmark appear to be a land of

drunkards. The ghost arrives and Hamlet tries to speak to it, but it only

beckons him to follow it. Horatio and Marcellus try to make him stay, but

Hamlet tells them to let go of him. Marcellus and Horatio watch him leave

and decide to follow him. Marcellus remarks, "Something is rotten in the

state of Denmark" (1.4.67).

Act One, Scene Five

Hamlet follows the ghost, who finally speaks and informs Hamlet that he is

the spirit of Old Hamlet, Hamlet's father. The ghost indicates that he is

in purgatory, "I am thy father's spirit, / Doomed for a certain term to

walk the night / And for the day confined to fast in fires / Till the foul

crimes done in my days of nature / Are burned and purged away" (1.5.9-13).

The ghost then tells Hamlet to listen to him closely.

Old Hamlet orders his son to revenge his murder. Hamlet is confused, not

understanding what the ghost is speaking about. The ghost tells him that

"sleeping in mine orchard, / A serpent stung me" (1.5.35-36), alluding to

the fact that he was murdered. He goes on to say that the serpent is his

brother, Claudius, who entered the garden where he was sleeping and poured

poison into his ear. He died without having a chance to confess his sins,

and is therefore forced to suffer in Purgatory until his sins are burned


The ghost leaves Hamlet with the words, "Adieu, adieu, Hamlet. Remember me"

(1.5.91). Hamlet wonders about what he has heard, and decides that he

believes the ghost. He makes Marcellus and Horatio swear to never reveal

what they have seen. He then makes them swear a second time, this time on

his dagger which is shaped like a cross. He tells Horatio, "There are more

things in heaven and earth, Horatio, / Than are dreamt of in our

philosophy" (1.5.168-169). They all swear yet again and return to the


Act Two, Scene One

Polonius is in his apartments with his servant Reynaldo. He is sending

Reynaldo to France with instructions to keep tabs on the behavior of

Laertes. Polonius tells Reynaldo to first inquire what other Danes are in

the area, and then to tell them that he knows Laertes. He wants Reynaldo to

hint to the other Danes that Laertes has a reputation for gambling,

drinking, or whoring. The purpose of this lie is to see if the other Danes

agree with Reynaldo and tell him about real things that Laertes has done.

Polonius is careful to insist that Reynaldo does not harm his son's honor

in the process, saying, "none so rank / As may dishonour him, take heed of

that" (2.1.20-21). Reynaldo leaves the room to depart for France.

Ophelia arrives and tells Polonius that she thinks Hamlet has gone mad. She

claims that while she was sowing he came to her looking completely

disheveled. Hamlet took her by the wrist and looked at her for a long time.

He then turned to walk away, all the while keeping his eyes on Ophelia and

even walking through the doors without averting his gaze. Polonius is upset

when he hears this, and he concludes that her refusal to see Hamlet anymore

has driven the young prince mad. Polonius takes Ophelia to go see King

Claudius and tell him what has happened.

Act Two, Scene Two

Claudius and Gertrude meet with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, two former

friends of Hamlet. Claudius informs them that he has summoned them to

Denmark due to Hamlet's madness. He wants them to spend time with Hamlet

and find out what the reason for the madness is. They both agree to do

this, and leave to find Hamlet.

Polonius arrives and informs Claudius that the ambassadors he sent to

Norway have returned. Claudius tells him that he always brings good news.

Polonius, delighted by the compliment, further tells him that he thinks he

knows the cause of "Hamlet's lunacy" (2.2.49). Claudius is excited by this

news as well, but orders the ambassadors to enter first.

Valtemand, one of the ambassadors, tells Claudius that Old Norway, the

uncle of Fortinbras, was unaware that his nephew was raising an army

against Denmark. He informs Claudius that Old Norway summoned Fortinbras to

meet him as soon as he heard about his nephew's plans. Fortinbras complied

with the summons and was forced to vow to never attack Denmark. His uncle,

believing him, immediately gave him an annual income of three thousand

crowns and also gave him permission to attack Poland instead. Old Norway

further wrote a letter to Claudius asking him to allow Fortinbras a safe

passage through Denmark on the way Poland.

Claudius is very pleased with the way things appear to have turned out, and

heartily agrees to allow Fortinbras to march through Denmark. After the

ambassadors leave, Polonius turns to Claudius and Gertrude and tells them

that Hamlet is mad. They both become impatient to hear what he is saying,

and Polonius finally produces a letter from Hamlet to Ophelia in which

Hamlet professes his love to her. Gertrude then asks Polonius how Ophelia

received Hamlet's overtures of love. Polonius is forced to tell them that

at his request she ignored Hamlet or rebuked his love. Claudius is not

completely convinced that this is the full cause of Hamlet's insanity. He

and Polonius decide to put Ophelia into the hall where Hamlet is known to

spend hours pacing each day. They plan to hide behind a tapestry and watch

what happens.

Hamlet arrives at this moment dressed as if he is mad and reading a book.

Polonius asks the king and queen to leave so that he may speak with Hamlet

alone. Hamlet pretends not to recognize Polonius, whom he calls a

fishmonger. He then asks Polonius if he has a daughter, and tells him to

keep her out of the sun. When Polonius, thoroughly convinced that Hamlet is

deranged, asks what he is reading, Hamlet tells him, "Words, words, words"

(2.2.192). Polonius gives up trying to reason with Hamlet and leaves.

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern arrive and are greeted warmly by Hamlet who

immediately drops all pretense of madness. He recognizes them and asks them

what brings them to Denmark, referring to it as a "prison". They refuse to

give him a straight answer, and Hamlet infers from this that "you were sent

for, / and there is a kind of confession in your looks which your modesties

have not craft enough to colour" (2.2.271-272). Guildenstern finally admits

that Hamlet is correct in his assumption that they were sent for. Hamlet

tells them that he has been extremely melancholy during the past few


The two friends of Hamlet inform him that some players, a theatrical group,

arrived in Denmark with them that day. Hamlet discusses the actors with

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern until a trumpet announces the arrival of the

performers. He then personally goes to greet them and welcome them to

Denmark. Polonius arrives at that moment and, still thinking that Hamlet is

mad, tells Hamlet that the best actors in the world have arrived. Hamlet

plays word games with Polonius until he starts to ignore him.

Hamlet asks one of the players to perform a speech for him. The player asks

him which speech he is so keen to hear, and Hamlet begins to recite lines

from Dido and Aeneas, taken from Virgil's Aeneid. Finally he stops and asks

the actor to continue the speech. The man does, describing how Pyrrhus

kills Priam (the king of Troy). Polonius starts to get bored and soon

Hamlet is forced to stop the actor. He orders Polonius to take care of the

actors and ensure their comfort for the night. Hamlet also asks the actors

whether they can perform a play about the murder of Gonzago. They tell him

they can, and he then asks them whether they can also perform some lines he

wishes to write for them. They agree to do this as well and then leave,

following Polonius. Hamlet tells Guildenstern and Rosencrantz that he will

see them that night.

Left alone onstage, Hamlet speaks to himself. He wishes that he were able

to act as eloquently as the actor who performed the speech. Hamlet is still

torn with indecision about revenging the murder of his father on Claudius

or keeping silent due to uncertainty about whether Claudius really killed

his father. He decides to try and make the player's enact the murder scene

as it was described to him by the ghost. Hamlet is hoping that Claudius,

when he sees the scene, will reveal himself as the true murderer of King

Hamlet. "I have heard that guilty creatures sitting at a play / Have by the

very cunning of the scene / Been struck so to the soul that presently / The

have proclaimed their malefactions" (2.2.566-569). By watching Claudius

when the actors perform this scene, Hamlet expects to discover whether the

ghost told him the truth.

Act Three, Scene One

Rosencrantz and Guildenstern are reporting to Claudius and Gertrude what

they have noticed about Hamlet. They tell the king and queen that Hamlet

has not revealed to them why he acts mad some of the time, but that he also

seems distracted. They mention that Hamlet seemed much happier when the

actors arrived and that he ordered them to perform for the court that very

night. Polonius interrupts and mentions that Hamlet had asked him to invite

Claudius and Gertrude to the evening's performance. Claudius happily

accepts the invitation.

Claudius then asks Gertrude to leave, telling her that they will put

Ophelia alone in the room so that she and Hamlet may "accidentally" meet.

She agrees to depart and wishes Ophelia luck in bringing Hamlet out of his

supposed madness. Claudius and Polonius proceed to hide themselves behind a

curtain or tapestry in order to spy.

Hamlet enters the room giving his famous soliloquy, "To be, or not to be;

that is the question" (3.1.58). He is grappling with the difficulty of

taking action against Claudius and the fact that he has not been able to

revenge his father's murder yet. Hamlet's introspective commentary is

interrupted when he sees Ophelia.

Ophelia greets Hamlet and tries to hand him back some of the tokens of his

affection he previously gave her. Hamlet tells her that she should never

have believed him when he told her he loved her, and that she was deceived.

He tells her, "Get thee to a nunnery. Why wouldst thou be a breeder of

sinners?" (3.1.122). Hamlet then says that women are liars and should not

be allowed to marry, unless the men they marry are fools. He is likely

alluding to the fact that Ophelia rejected him after he proclaimed his love

for her.

Ophelia is upset by his reactions, and says, "O what a noble mind is here

o'erthrown!" (3.1.149). Claudius and Polonius emerge from their hiding-

place and tell her they heard everything. Polonius still thinks the cause

of Hamlet's misery is Ophelia's rejection of his love. Claudius, however,

is convinced that Hamlet is not mad, merely deeply depressed and possibly

dangerous. He tells Polonius that he will send Hamlet to England as soon as


Act Three, Scene Two

Hamlet has written a scene for the actors and he is instructing them on how

to perform it. He tells them not to be overdramatic, but also "Be not too

tame, neither" (3.2.15). The actors tell him they can perform it exactly as

he desires it to be.

Polonius, Guildenstern and Rosencrantz arrive and Hamlet sends them all to

make the actors hurry up and get ready. Horatio soon shows up and Hamlet

tells him that one scene in the play that night directly mimics the murder

of his father. He asks Horatio to, "observe mine uncle" (3.2.73) in order

to determine whether the ghost was lying or not. They plan to meet

afterwards and compare their separate judgments as to what the reaction of

Claudius means.

Horatio goes to find a seat, and Claudius enters along with the rest of the

court. He greets Hamlet and asks him how he is. Hamlet gives a nonsensical

answer and then asks Polonius if he was an actor during his university

days. Polonius says he was a good actor, and that he played Julius Caesar.

Gertrude asks Hamlet to sit by her, but he says, "No, good-mother, here's

mettle more attractive" (3.2.99) and sits next to Ophelia instead. He

proceeds to make bawdy comments to her, all of which Ophelia tries to

respond to appropriately.

The actors come out onto the stage and proceed to perform a dumb show, a

silent scene in which they enact the murder of a king through poisoning.

Ophelia is confused by the show, but assumes it foretells the actual plot.

The players emerge a second time and start to perform the actual play. They

pretend to be a king and queen. The queen protests her love for the king,

telling him that she will never consider marrying a second man. The king

tells her that such vows are quickly forgotten, but the queen continues to

swear she will never marry a second time.

Hamlet turns to Queen Gertrude and asks her what she thinks of the play.

Gertrude tells him that the queen "protests too much" (3.2.210). Claudius

is worried that the play may be offensive, and asks Hamlet what the play is

called. Hamlet says, "The Mousetrap" (3.2.217), alluding to the fact that

he wants to catch Claudius.

An actor named Lucianus arrives onstage, and Hamlet tells them that he is

meant to portray the nephew of the king. Lucianus pours poison in the

king's ears, and Hamlet comments that he kills the king in order to steal

his estate. Ophelia informs Hamlet that Claudius has stood up out of rage,

thereby stopping the performance. Hamlet happily replies, "What, frighted

with false fire?" (3.2.244). Claudius demands light to shone on him and

leaves the room, followed by everyone except Hamlet and Horatio.

The two friends remain behind and Hamlet gleefully tells Horatio, "O good

Horatio, I'll take the Ghost's word for a thousand pound" (3.2.263-264).

Horatio agrees with him that Claudius is guilty. Rosencrantz and

Guildenstern arrive and tell Hamlet that the king is in a terrible mood and

that Gertrude has sent for him. He agrees to meet with his mother soon, but

they continue to ask him why he is so "distempered" (3.2.308). Hamlet gets

mad at them for their insistence and grabs a recorder from one of the

actors. He shows it to them and demands that Guildenstern play it. When he

refuses, saying he does not know how, Hamlet says,

Why, look you now, how unworthy a thing you make of me! You would play upon

me, you would seem to know my stops...do you think I am easier to be played

on than a pipe?" (3.2.334-335,339-340).

Polonius enters and Hamlet immediately pretends to be crazy again. Polonius

also tells Hamlet that his mother wants to see him in her private chamber.

Hamlet plays with him a little, pointing to the clouds and pretending to

see various animals. Finally he makes Polonius leave, and tells Rosencrantz

and Guildenstern to depart as well. In a soliloquy, Hamlet indicates that

he will be "cruel, not unnatural. / I will speak daggers to her, but use

none" (3.2.365-366). He wants to make his mother aware of the fact that

Claudius murdered her former husband, but not physically harm her in the


Act Three, Scene Three

Claudius meets with Guildenstern and Rosencrantz. He tells them that Hamlet

has become too dangerous to keep in Denmark, and that he is therefore

sending him to England. He orders the two young men to prepare to accompany

Hamlet on the voyage, to which they readily assent.

Polonius informs Claudius that Hamlet will meet with his mother in her

private chamber. Polonius decides to conceal himself behind a tapestry in

order to overhear their conversation. He promises to tell Claudius

everything that happens.

Claudius, finally alone, states, "O, my offense is rank! It smells to

heaven" (3.3.36). He then admits to killing his brother and laments the

fact that he cannot repent his crime. He prays to the angels to help him.

Hamlet enters behind him and draws his sword, preparing to kill Claudius.

However, when he realizes that Claudius has been praying, and therefore

would be absolved of all his sins, he decides not to kill him. "A villain

kills my father, and for that / I, his sole son, do this same villain send

to heaven.../ When he is drunk asleep, or in his rage.../ At gaming,

swearing, or about some act / That has no relish of salvation in't, / And

that his soul may be as damned and black / As hell whereto it goes" (3.3.76-

78,89,91-92,94-95). Hamlet chooses to wait and kill Claudius when he is

sure that Claudius will be sent to hell.

Act Three, Scene Four

Polonius admonishes Gertrude to rebuke Hamlet for the way he has acted. He

quickly hides himself as soon as he hears Hamlet coming. Hamlet arrives and

is immediately rude to his mother; he mentions her incestuous marriage to

Claudius and tells her she has offended his father. He promises to hold up

a mirror to her face so that she can see what she has become. "You go not

till I set you up a glass / Where you may see the inmost part of you"

(3.4.19-20). Queen Gertrude becomes afraid of her life and cries for help,

a cry that Polonius foolishly answers.

Hamlet, having heard Polonius make a sound behind the curtain, pulls out

his sword and thrusts it through the curtains, killing him. Hamlet asks

Gertrude if it is the king, but then realizes he has instead killed

Polonius. Gertrude is upset, but Hamlet comments that his act is, "A bloody

deed - almost as bad, good-mother, / As kill a king and marry with his

brother" (3.4.27-28). Gertrude does not understand what Hamlet means, and

he is forced to explain to her. He pulls out two miniatures of King Hamlet

and Claudius and compares them for her, telling her that Claudius killed

King Hamlet in order to seize the throne.

Gertrude is upset and confused, struggling to believe Hamlet. The ghost

reappears at that moment and Hamlet speaks to it, saying, "What would you,

gracious figure?" (3.4.95). Gertrude, who is unable to see the ghost,

believes that Hamlet has gone completely mad. The ghost tells Hamlet to

keep speaking to Gertrude and to convince her, but she becomes even more

convinced that Hamlet is mad as she watches him speak to empty air. Hamlet

points to his father and urges her to look, but she cannot see anything and

finally exclaims, "this is the very coinage of your brain" (3.4.128).

Hamlet shows her that his pulse is constant, convincing her that it is not

a hallucination. She finally asks him what she must do. Hamlet tells

Gertrude to go to bed that night, but to avoid sleeping with Claudius. He

further tells her to let Claudius know that he is not mad, but rather

merely cunning. Hamlet then leaves to get ready to go to England, tugging

Polonius out of the room behind him.

Act Four, Scene One

Claudius asks Gertrude to tell him what the matter is. She informs him that

Hamlet is completely mad and describes how he killed Polonius behind the

curtain. Claudius decides to pardon Hamlet's life, but calls Guildenstern

and Rosencrantz into the chamber. He orders them find Hamlet and Polonius'

body, and to bring the body into the chapel.

Act Four, Scene Two

Hamlet hears someone calling for him and responds to them. Rosencrantz and

Guildenstern run onstage and demand to know where Polonius' body is. Hamlet

riddles with them, and tells them that they are like sponges who soak up

the king's favors. He refuses to reveal where he has hidden Polonius and

runs away from them.

Act Four, Scene Three

Claudius is upset that Hamlet is running around the palace but cannot order

Hamlet killed because the populace likes him. Rosencrantz arrives and tells

Claudius that he cannot find the body, but that Guildenstern is holding

Hamlet. Claudius orders Guildenstern to bring in Hamlet, and then asks him

where Polonius is. Hamlet riddles some more, telling Claudius to seek for

Polonius in heaven or possibly hell.

Hamlet finally gives them a hint, and says, "you shall nose him as you up

the stairs into the lobby" (4.3.35-36). Rosencrantz immediately goes to

seek the body. Claudius tells Hamlet that because of his "deed", the murder

of Polonius, he must leave Denmark for England. Hamlet walks out after

calling Claudius his "mother" and is followed by Guildenstern. Claudius,

now alone, prays that the King of England will obey his letters, which ask

the King of England to kill Hamlet for him.

Act Four, Scene Four

Fortinbras has reached the Danish castle and orders a captain to inform

Claudius that his army is there and that he requests safe passage through

Denmark so that he may invade Poland. The Captain leaves to deliver the


Hamlet arrives, accompanied by Rosencrantz and Guildenstern, and approaches

the captain. He asks the man whose army it is, and learns that Fortinbras

has marched into Denmark on his way to "Poland". The captain is ambiguous

about the exact location, saying only that they are fighting over a

worthless piece of ground.

Hamlet sends Rosencrantz and Guildenstern on ahead and remains to ponder

the fact that nearly twenty thousand men are in the army, all willing to

die for nothing. He realizes that he has been unable to revenge his

father's death, but decides that now is the time for decisive action.

Hamlet says, "O, from this time forth / My thoughts be bloody or be nothing

worth" (

Act Four, Scene Five

Horatio begs Queen Gertrude to come see what has happened to Ophelia. She

reluctantly agrees, and Ophelia enters singing to herself. Ophelia has gone

completely mad due to the death of her father and the loss of Hamlet, and

she incoherently sings her songs rather than respond to Gertrude.

Claudius arrives and Gertrude shows him what has happened to Ophelia. She

continues singing, the songs getting raunchier as she continues. Finally

Ophelia tells them that Laertes must find out about the death of their

father, and she leaves to go find him. Horatio follows her in order to keep

an eye on her.

Claudius tells Gertrude that they made a mistake in trying to secretly

dispose of Polonius. He further informs her that Laertes has secretly come

from France to Denmark to avenge his father's death. A noise interrupts

him, and a messenger rushes in telling Claudius to save himself. He asks

what the problem is, and learns that Laertes has gathered a mob of citizens

together and rushed the castle, breaking past all the guards. The mob wants

to make Laertes king and is therefore fighting for him.

Laertes bursts through the doors and tells the mob to wait for him outside.

He then demands that Claudius reveal to him why Polonius was killed.

Gertrude intervenes and informs Laertes that Claudius did not kill his

father. Laertes then demands to know who his real enemy is. Ophelia enters

at that moment, completely mad, and gives them each some flowers. Claudius

turns to Laertes after Ophelia leaves and tells him that he will personally

arrange his revenge.

Act Four, Scene Six

Horatio receives a letter from Hamlet which tells him a strange story. The

ship Hamlet was on was caught by pirates, and Hamlet alone boarded the

pirate ship. After the battle was over he became their prisoner but was

treated well because he could do them a favor. Guildenstern and Rosencrantz

are still on their way to England.

Act Four, Scene Seven

Claudius has explained to Laertes that Hamlet killed Polonius. Laertes asks

why Hamlet was not punished at the time and Claudius says that it was for

his mother's sake. Laertes tells Claudius that his revenge will come soon.

Some messengers arrive and hand Claudius letters from Hamlet. He is

surprised to receive the letters, and reads his out loud. The letter

indicates that Hamlet is returning to Denmark alone. Laertes is excited by

this because it means that he will be able to revenge his father's death.

Claudius asks him to "be ruled" and listen to a plot which will make

Hamlet's death seem like an accident, even though Laertes will be allowed

to kill him.

Claudius proposes that Laertes fight Hamlet in a fencing match with

rapiers. Laertes agrees to this provided he be allowed to put poison on the

tip of his rapier so that even the slightest scratch will cause Hamlet to

die. Claudius is uncertain as to whether they can trust the poison, and so

he offers to also create a poison drink for Hamlet. That way, they will

have two ways of killing Hamlet and will not fail.

Gertrude enters the room and informs Laertes that Ophelia has drowned

herself while sitting on a willow branch over a brook. Laertes is overcome

with grief and starts to shed tears for his sister. He leaves the room but

Claudius urges Gertrude to follow him for fear that Laertes will erupt in

rage again.

Act Five, Scene One

Two gravediggers (clowns) are digging out Ophelia's grave. They discuss the

fact that Ophelia drowned herself, and therefore should not receive a

Christian burial under Christian law. However, the one gravedigger points

out that the coroner has declared it a natural death rather than a suicide,

and therefore they must dig the grave for her.

Hamlet overhears the first gravedigger singing to himself and remarks on

the fact that the man is so cheerful at his occupation. Horatio tells him

that it must come from doing the job for such a long time. Hamlet

approaches the man and asks him whose grave it is. The gravedigger, taking

every word literally, tells him, "Mine, sir" (5.1.109). Hamlet finally

gives up asking and instead inquires for news about Prince Hamlet while

pretending to be someone else.

The gravedigger tells him that Hamlet was sent to England because he was

mad. He then informs Hamlet that a body will last in the grave for eight or

nine years at the most. He picks up a skull and shows it to Hamlet, telling

him it has been in the earth for twenty-three years. Hamlet asks whose

skull it is, and is shocked to learn that it is the skull of Yorick, a

jester who entertained him as a youth. He comments that even parts of

Alexander the Great's body might now be used as a flask stopper and they

would never know it.

Hamlet and Horatio run and hide when they hear Claudius, Gertrude, Laertes,

and other attendants arriving. Hamlet wonders whose corpse they are

carrying with them to the grave. He overhears Laertes arguing with the

priest about the last rites. Due to the strange manner of Ophelia's death,

the priest will only allow the body to be buried in holy ground, but he

refuses to read her the prayers. Hamlet soon realizes that the body is that

of Ophelia.

Laertes is so overcome with emotion once the coffin has been placed into

the grave that he leaps in after it. Hamlet, seeing this, reveals himself

and jumps into the grave as well. Laertes immediately grabs Hamlet by the

throat and starts to choke him. Claudius order the other men present to

pull them apart and Hamlet shouts that he loved Ophelia more than forty

thousand of her brothers combined. He tells Laertes that, "I loved you

ever. But it is no matter. / Let Hercules himself do what he may, / The cat

will mew, and dog will have his day" (5.1.275-278). Hamlet leaves and

Horatio follows him.

Act Five, Scene Two

Hamlet tells Horatio what really happened on the way to England. He rose on

night and stole the letters that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern were taking

to the King of England. The letters told the king to kill Hamlet and listed

several reasons why this would benefit both nations. Hamlet immediately

wrote out several new letters and sealed them using his signet. The new

letters ordered that the two men accompanying him should be put to death.

Hamlet is not at all upset about ordering his two "friends" to die in

England since, "they did make love to this employment" (5.2.58). Horatio

warns Hamlet that Claudius will soon discover what has happened when news

arrives from England.

A man named Osric arrives and tells Hamlet that he has news from the king

for him. Hamlet plays a game with the man, telling him to alternately put

on and take off his hat. Osric finally gets frustrated with the game and

informs Hamlet that Laertes, whom he describes in glowing terms, has placed

a wager with Claudius. Claudius has bet Laertes that he cannot beat Hamlet

by at least three hits in a fencing match with twelve passes. Hamlet agrees

to the match and orders Osric to have them bring out the foils.

A lord soon enters and tells Hamlet that everything is prepared and that

they are waiting for Hamlet to come. He further tells Hamlet that Gertrude

wishes that he would treat Laertes with respect and courtesy, to which

Hamlet agrees. Horatio tells Hamlet that, "You will lose this wager, my

lord" (5.2.147), but Hamlet tells him that he has been in continual

practice since Laertes left for France. Horatio again tries to dissuade him

from fencing with Laertes, and again Hamlet tells him that he will go and


Claudius and the rest of the court arrive and Claudius orders Hamlet to

greet Laertes. Hamlet offers Laertes an apology for killing Polonius and

blames the act on his madness. Laertes stiffly asserts that his honor is

still at stake and that he must therefore have his revenge. They then call

for the foils and prepare for the match.

Claudius orders his attendants to bring him a cask of wine. He then

announces that if Hamlet is able to score a hit in the first, second or

third exchange then he will drink some wine and drop a pearl of exceptional

value into the cup for Hamlet. Claudius then drinks to Hamlet as a salute

for good luck and orders them to begin.

Hamlet and Laertes fight until Hamlet shouts, "One" (5.2.220). Laertes

disputes the hit and Osric decides in favor of Hamlet. Claudius halts the

match and drops a pearl into his wine cup. He then offers the cup to

Hamlet, who refuses to take it and tells him that he would rather continue

the match. They fight and Hamlet again claims a hit that Laertes grants

him. Gertrude takes the cup with the pearl in it and offers to drink for

Hamlet. Claudius begs her not to, but she ignores him and drinks anyway,

thereby ingesting the poison that Claudius had planned to give to Hamlet.

Laertes meanwhile has poisoned his rapier's tip and in the next scuffle he

manages to wound Hamlet. They continue fighting and Hamlet accidentally

exchanges rapiers with Laertes after which he wounds him as well. Both men

stop fighting when they realize that Gertrude has fallen onto the ground.

She tells Hamlet, "The drink, the drink - I am poisoned" (5.2.253) before

she dies. Laertes also falls to the ground from the poison he received when

Hamlet wounded him. He tells Hamlet that both of them are poisoned to death

and blames the king for everything.

Hamlet, realizing that the point of the rapier is envenomed, slashes at

Claudius and wounds him with it. The courtiers cry out, "Treason, treason!"

(5.2.265), but they cannot stop Hamlet who has also grabbed the poisoned

wine and is making Claudius drink it. Claudius quickly dies from the

poison. Laertes, still barely alive, tells Hamlet that he forgives him for

Polonius' death before he too dies.

Hamlet orders Horatio to stay alive and report everything he knows to the

public. Horatio instead has grabbed the cup and is preparing to commit

suicide, but at Hamlet's plea he relinquishes the poison. Osric enters the

room and tells them that Fortinbras has arrived with his army. Hamlet gives

Fortinbras his vote to become the next King of Denmark before he dies.

Fortinbras and the English ambassadors arrive together. Fortinbras looks

over the scene of carnage and compares it too a massacre. The Englishmen

inform Horatio that Rosencrantz and Guildenstern have been put to death.

Horatio takes charge and tells Fortinbras and the ambassadors to put the

bodies on a stage in view of the public so that he may tell the full story

of what has happened. Fortinbras agrees with this and orders his men to

obey Horatio. He compares the scene to a battlefield and ends the play by

ordering the soldiers to shoot their guns in honor of Hamlet's death.

King Lear

Act I Summary: scene i:

Gloucester and Kent, loyal to King Lear, objectively discuss his

division of the kingdom (as Lear is preparing to step down) and to which

dukes, Cornwall and Albany, they believe it will equally fall. Kent is

introduced to Gloucester's illegitimate son, Edmund. Gloucester

nonchalantly admits that the boy's breeding has been his charge ever since

impregnating another woman soon after his legitimate son, Edgar, was born.

Kent is pleased to meet Edmund. Gloucester mentions that Edmund has been

nine years in military service and will return shortly.

Lear enters and sends Gloucester to find France and Burgundy,

Cordelia's suitors. He then begins to discuss the partitioning of Britain

he has devised to each of his three daughters and their husbands. Lear

decides to ask each of his daughters to express how much they love him

before he hands over their piece of the kingdom. As oldest, Goneril speaks

first, expressing her love as all encompassing. Regan adds that she is

enemy to other joys. Lear gives each their parcel, wishing them well.

Cordelia, as the youngest and most liked daughter, is saved the choicest

piece of land. However, she responds to her father's request by saying she

has nothing to add. She loves only as much as her obligation entitles and

will save some of her love for a husband. Lear is enraged and hurt. After

giving her a few chances, he strips Cordelia of any title or relation. Kent

intercedes on her behalf but he too is estranged by Lear. Kent cries that

honesty will continue to be his guide in any kingdom.

Cordelia's suitors enter. Lear apprises them of Cordelia's new state of

non-inheritance. Burgundy cannot accept her under the circumstances, but

France finds her more appealing and takes her as his wife. Cordelia is not

unhappy to leave her sisters and leaves with France. Goneril and Regan

conspire to take rule away from Lear quickly as he is becoming more


scene ii:

The scene centers around Edmund, at first alone on stage, crying out

against his position as bastard to the material world. He is envious of

Edgar, the legitimate son, and wishes to gain what he has by forging a

treasonous letter concerning Gloucester from Edgar. Gloucester enters,

amazed at the events which have occurred during the last scene. He wishes

to know why Edmund is hiding a letter and demands to see it. He shrewdly

acts as if he is embarrassed to show it to Gloucester and continually makes

excuses for Edgar's apparent behavior. Gloucester reads the letter

detailing "Edgar's" call to Edmund to take their father's land from him.

Edmund asks that he not make too quick a judgment before they talk to Edgar

as perhaps he is simply testing Edmund. He suggests forming a meeting where

Edmund can ask Edgar about his proposals while Gloucester listens in

secret. Gloucester agrees, musing on the effects of nature and its

predictions. He leaves directly before Edgar enters. Edmund brings up the

astronomical predictions he had discussed with Gloucester and alerts Edmund

that Gloucester is very upset with him, though he knows not why. Edmund

offers to take Edgar back to his lodging until he can bring he and

Gloucester together and advises him to go armed. Edgar leaves and Edmund

notes that he will soon take his due through wit.

scene iii:

Scene iii reintroduces Goneril, as she is outraged by the offenses she

contends Lear has been showing her since moving into her residence. He has

struck Oswald for criticizing his fool, his knights are riotous and so on,

she claims. Lear is out hunting. Goneril commands Oswald to allow her

privacy from Lear and to treat Lear with "weary negligence". She does not

want him to be happy, hoping that he will move to Regan's where she knows

he will face the same contempt. She demands Oswald to treat his knights

coldly as well. She leaves to write Regan.

scene iv:

Kent enters, disguised and hoping to serve in secret as a servant to

Lear so that he can help him though he is condemned. Lear accepts to try

him as a servant.Oswald comes in quickly before exiting again curtly. A

knight tells Lear that Goneril is not well and that Oswald answered him

curtly as well. The knight fears Lear is being treated wrongly. Lear had

blamed himself for any coldness but agrees to look into a problem in

Goneril's household. Lear's fool has hidden himself since Cordelia's

departure so Lear sends the knight for him. Oswald reenters, showing Lear

the negligence Goneril had suggested. Lear and Kent strike him, endearing

Kent in Lear's eyes. Oswald exits as Fool enters. Fool persistently mocks

and ridicules Lear for his actions in scene i, his mistreatment of

Cordelia, trust in Goneril and Regan, and giving up of his authority. He

calls Lear himself a fool, noting he has given away all other titles. The

fool notes that he is punished by Lear if he lies, punished by the

household if he speaks the truth, and often punished for staying silent.

Goneril harps on the trouble Lear and his retinue are causing, such as

the insolence of Fool and the riotous behavior of the knights. She states

that he is not showing her the proper respect and consideration by allowing

these actions to occur. Lear is incredulous. Goneril continues by adding

that as Lear's large, frenzied train cannot be controlled she will have to

ask him to keep fewer than his hundred knights. Outraged, Lear admits that

Goneril's offense makes Cordelia's seem small. As Albany enters, Lear

curses Goneril with infertility or, in its stead, a thankless child. He

then finds that his train has already been halved and again rages against

the incredible impudence Goneril has shown him. He angrily leaves for

Regan's residence. Albany does not approve of Goneril's behavior and is

criticized by her for being weak. Goneril sends Oswald with a letter to her

sister, detailing her fear that Lear is dangerous and should be curtailed

as soon as possible.

scene v:

Impatient, Lear sends the disguised Kent to bring letters to

Gloucester. The Fool wisely warns that Regan will likely act no better than

her sister had. He criticizes Lear for giving away his own home and place,

using examples such as a snail carrying his shell. Lear recognizes he will

have to subdue his fatherly instincts toward Regan as well. Fool points out

that Lear has gotten old before he is wise. Lear cries out, praying that he

will not go mad.

Act II Summary: scene i:

Act II begins with a return to the secondary plot of Edmund, Edgar, and

Gloucester. Edmund speaks with the courtier, Curan, who advises him that

Regan and Cornwall will arrive shortly at Gloucester's castle. He also

passes on the gossip that there may soon be a war between Cornwall and

Albany. After Curan leaves, Edmund expresses his delight over the news he

has learned as he can use that in his plot. Edgar enters and Edmund

cleverly asks if he has offended Cornwall or Albany. Edgar says he has not.

Edmund cries that he hears Gloucester coming and forces Edgar to draw his

sword with him. Telling Edgar to flee, Edmund then wounds himself with his

sword before calling out to Gloucester for help. Gloucester arrives quickly

and sends servants to chase down the villain. Edmund explains that he would

not allow Edgar to persuade him into murdering their father causing Edgar

to slash him with his sword. He continues that Edgar threatened him and by

no means intended to permit Edmund, an "unpossessing bastard", to stop him

from his evil plot. Gloucester is indignant and claims that Edgar will be

captured and punished. He promises that Edmund will become the heir of his


At this point, Cornwall and Regan enter the scene, wondering if the

gossip they had heard about Edgar is correct. Gloucester confirms it is.

Edmund cleverly confirms Regan's fear that Edgar was acting as part of

Lear's riotous knights. Cornwall acknowledges the good act Edmund has done

for Gloucester and promises to take him into their favor. After Gloucester

and Edmund thank them, Regan explains why she and Cornwall have come to

Gloucester's castle. She had received a letter from Goneril and so had left

home to avoid Lear. She asks for Gloucester's assistance.

scene ii:

Oswald, Goneril's servant, and Kent, still disguised as Lear's servant

Caius, meet at Gloucester's castle after first trekking to Cornwall's

residence with messages. Oswald does not first recognize Kent but Kent

recognizes him and responds to him curtly with curses and name-calling. He

claims that Oswald comes with letters against the King and sides with his

evil daughter. He calls Oswald to draw his sword at which Oswald cries out

for help. The noise brings in Edmund, Cornwall, Regan, Gloucester, and some


When asked what the commotion is, Kent continues to insult Oswald, who

is breathless. Oswald claims that he has spared Kent because of his grey

beard at which Kent scoffs. He describes that Oswald is like a dog,

ignorantly following a master. To Cornwall's incredulousness, Kent says

that he does not like the look of his face. Oswald explains that Kent had

no reason to strike him in Lear's company or to draw on him at

Gloucester's. Kent refers to Cornwall and Regan as cowards and they call

for the stocks. Regan comments that they should leave him not only until

noon, as Cornwall had suggested, but for over a day. Gloucester protests

but is overruled. After the others have exited, Gloucester apologizes to

Kent and admits that the Duke is to blame. Alone, Kent muses over a letter

he has received from Cordelia, implying that she knows he has taken

disguise and promises to try to save her father from the evil of her

sisters. Kent recognizes he is at the bottom of luck. He falls asleep.

scene iii:

Scene iii is solely a soliloquy by Edgar discussing his transformation

into poor Tom, the beggar. He tells us that he has just missed being hunted

as he heard them coming for him and hid in a hollow tree. In order to

remain safe, he proposes to take on "the basest and most poorest shape",

that of a beggar. He covers himself with dirt and filth, ties his hair in

knots, strips off much of his clothing, and pricks his skin with pins and

nails and so on. He no longer resembles Edgar.

scene iv:

Lear enters the scene with his fool and a gentleman, who tells him that

he was not advised of Regan and Cornwall's removal to Gloucester's castle.

They come upon Kent, still in the stocks. Lear does not believe that Regan

and Cornwall would commit such an offense to Lear has to place his servant

in the stocks but Kent reassures him that they have. He stresses that their

punishment came only because he was angered enough by Oswald's presence and

his letter to Regan to draw his sword upon Oswald. Fool comments on human

nature, retorting that children are only kind to their parents when they

are rich and that the poor are never given the chance for money. Lear feels

ill and goes to look for Regan. Kent asks why Lear's train has shrunk to

which Fool replies that many have lost interest in Lear as he has lost his

riches and power. He advises all that are not fools to do the same.

Lear returns, amazed that Regan and Cornwall refuse to speak with him

over weariness from travel. Gloucester attempts to excuse them by

mentioning Gloucester's "fiery quality". Lear is enraged by this excuse.

Although he momentarily considers that Gloucester may truly be ill, he is

overwhelmed by anger and threatens to beat a drum by their door until they

speak to him. Gloucester leaves to get them and shortly returns with them.

They appear to act cordial at first to Lear and set Kent free. Lear is

cautious toward Regan and tells her that if she is not truly glad to see

him he would disown her and her dead mother. He expresses his grief to her

over his stay with Goneril and Goneril's demands on him. Regan replies that

he is very old and should trust their counsel. She advises him to return to

Goneril and ask for her forgiveness as she is not yet prepared to care for

him. Lear admits that he is old but pleads with Regan to care for him. She

again refuses even with his arguments that Goneril has cut his train and

his subsequent curses of Goneril. Regan is horrified. Lear pleads with her

to act better than her sister. He finally asks who put Kent in the stocks.

Goneril arrives, as forecast in a letter to her sister. Lear calls on

the gods to help him and is upset that Regan takes Goneril by the hand. He

asks again how Kent was put in the stocks and Cornwall replies that that it

was his order and Lear is appalled. Regan pleads again for him to return to

Goneril's but he still holds hope that Regan will allow him all hundred of

his train. However, Regan assures him that she has no room for the knights

either and alerts him that he should only bring twenty-five with him after

his month stay with Goneril. Lear replies that he has been betrayed after

giving his daughter's his all, his land, authority and his care. He decides

to go then with Goneril as she must love him more if she will agree to

fifty knights. At this point, Goneril diminishes her claim, asking him if

needs twenty-five, ten, or five? Regan adds that he does not even need one.

Lear cries that need is not the issue. He compares his argument to Regan's

clothes which are too scant for warmth. She wears them not for need but for

vanity just as a King keeps many things he does not need for other reasons.

He hopes that he will not cry and fears that he will go mad. He leaves with

Fool, Kent, and Gloucester. A storm is heard approaching and Cornwall calls

them to withdraw. Regan and Goneril discuss how it is Lear's own fault if

they leave him out in the storm. Gloucester asks them to reconsider but is

again overruled. Regan has the house boarded up.

Act III Summary: scene i:

As it continues to storm, Kent enters the stage asking who else is

there and where is the King. A gentleman, one of Lear's knights, answers,

describing the King as struggling and becoming one with the raging elements

of nature. The King has been left alone except for his fool. Kent

recognizes the gentleman and fills him in on the events he has learned

concerning the Dukes and the news from France. He explains that a conflict

has grown between Albany and Cornwall which is momentarily forgotten

because they are united against Lear. He then mentions that French spies

and soldiers have moved onto the island, nearly ready to admit openly to

their invasion. He urges the gentleman to hurry to Dover where he will find

allies to whom he can give an honest report of the treatment to the King

and his declining health. Kent gives him his purse and a ring to confirm

his honor and to show to Cordelia if he sees her. They move out to look for

Lear before the gentleman leaves on his mission.

scene ii:

We meet Lear, raging against the storm, daring the storm to break up

the Earth. Fool pleads with him to dodge his pride and ask for his

daughters' forgiveness so that he can take shelter in the castle. Lear

notes that the storm, unlike his daughters, owes him nothing and has no

obligation to treat him any better. Still, the storm is joining to help his

ungrateful daughters in their unnecessary punishing of him. The fool says

he is foolish, nevertheless, to reside in the house of of the storm but

Lear responds that he will say nothing to his daughters.

Kent enters, pleased to have found the King, and remarks that he has

never witnessed a more violent storm. Lear cries that the gods will now

show who has committed any wrongs by their treatment in the storm and Kent

pushes him toward a cave where they can find a little shelter. Lear agrees

to go, recognizing the cold which must be ravaging he and his fool. Before

entering the hovel, Fool prophecies that when the abuses of England are

reformed, the country will come into great confusion.

scene iii:

Gloucester and Edmund speak in confidence. Gloucester complains of the

unnatural dealings of Cornwall and Regan, taking over his home and

forbidding him to help or appeal for Lear. Edmund feigns agreement. Taking

him further in confidence, Gloucester alerts him to the division between

Albany and Cornwall. He then tells him that he has received a letter, which

he has locked in the closet because of it dangerous contents, divulging

that a movement has started to avenge Lear at home. Gloucester plans to go

find him and aid him until the forces arrive to help. He tells Edmund to

accompany the Duke so that his absence is not felt and if they ask for him

to report that he went to bed ill. Gloucester notes that he is risking his

life but if he can save the King, his death would not be in vain. After he

departs, Edmund tells the audience that he will alert Cornwall immediately

of Gloucester's plans and the treasonous letter. The young will gain, he

comments, where the old have faltered.

scene iv:

Kent and Lear find their way to the cave, where Lear asks to be left

alone. He notes that the storm rages harsher in his own mind and body due

to the "filial ingratitude" he has been forced to endure. Thinking it may

lead to madness, Lear tries not to think of his daughters' betrayal.

Feeling the cruelty of the elements, Lear remarks that he has taken too

little care of the poor who often do not have shelter from such storms in

life. The fool enters the cave first and is frightened by the presence of

Edgar disguised as poor Tom. Edgar enters, speaking in confused jargon and

pointing to the foul fiend who bothers him greatly. Lear decides that Tom

must have been betrayed by daughters in order to have fallen to such a

state of despair and madness. Kent attempts to tell Lear that Tom has no

daughters, but Lear can comprehend no other reason. Fool notes that the

cold night would turn them all into madmen. Lear finds Tom intriguing and

asks him about his life, to which Edgar replies that Tom was a serving man

who was ruined by a woman he had loved. Lear realizes that man is no more

than what they have been stripped to and begins to take off his clothes

before Fool stops him.

Gloucester finds his way to the cave. He questions the King's company

before remarking that he and Lear must both hate what their bodies have

given birth to, namely Edgar, Regan, and Goneril. Although he has been

barred from securing shelter in his own castle for Lear, Gloucester

entreats the King to come with him to a better shelter. Lear wishes to stay

and talk with Tom, terming him a philosopher. Kent urges Gloucester to

plead with Lear to go, but Gloucester notes it is no surprise that Lear's

wits are not about him when his own daughters seek his death. Lear is

persuaded to follow Gloucester when they agree to allow Tom to accompany


scene v:

Cornwall and Edmund converse over the information Edmund has shared

with him. Edmund plays the part of a tortured son doing his duty for the

kingdom. Cornwall muses that Edgar's disloyalty is better understood in

terms of his own father's betrayal. Handing over the letter Gloucester had

received, Edmund cries out wishing that he were not the filial traitor.

Cornwall makes Edmund the new Earl of Gloucester and demands he find where

his father is hiding. In an aside, Edmund hopes he will find Gloucester

aiding the King to further incriminate him although it would be greater

filial ingratitude on his part. Cornwall offers himself as a new and more

loving father to Edmund.

scene vi:

Gloucester finds the group slightly better shelter and then heads off

to get assistance. Edgar speaks of the foul fiend and Fool tells the King a

rhyme, concluding that the madman is the man who has too greatly indulged

his own children. Lear pretends to hold a trial for his evil daughters,

placing Edgar, the fool, and Kent on the bench to try them. Lear tries

Goneril first and then Regan before crying that someone had accepted a

bribe and allowed one to escape. Kent calls for him to remain patient as he

had often been in the past and Edgar notes in an aside that he has nearly

threatened his disguise with tears. He tells Lear that he will punish the

daughters himself. Lear appreciates the gesture and claims that he will

take Tom as one of the hundred in his train if he will agree to change his

seemingly Persian garments. As Gloucester returns, he urges Kent to keep

the King in his arms due to the death threats circulating. There is a

caravan waiting which will take Lear to Dover and safety if they hurry.

Edgar is left on stage and soliloquizes that the King's pains are so much

greater than his own and he will pledge himself to helping him escape


scene vii:

Cornwall calls for Goneril to bring the letter concerning France's

invasion to her husband and calls to his servants to seek out the traitor,

Gloucester. Regan and Goneril call for tortuous punishment. Edmund is asked

to accompany Goneril so as not to be present when his father is brought in.

Oswald enters and alerts the court to the news of Gloucester's successful

move of the King to Dover. As Goneril and Edmund depart, Cornwall sends

servants in search of Gloucester. Gloucester enters with servants and

Cornwall commands that he be bound to a chair. Regan plucks his beard as he

protests that they are his guests and friends.They interrogate him on the

letter he received from France and his part helping King Lear. Gloucester

responds that he received the letter from an objective third-party but he

is not believed. He admits that he sent the King to Dover, explaining that

he was not safe out in the terrible storm nor in the company of those who

would leave him in such conditions. He hopes that Lear's horrific children

will have revenge light upon them. Cornwall answers that he will see no

such thing, blinding one of his eyes.

A servant speaks up in Gloucester's defense and is quickly stabbed by

Regan using the sword Cornwall had drawn. Before the servant dies, he cries

that Gloucester has one eye remaining to see harm come to the Duke and

Duchess. Cornwall immediately blinds the other eye. Gloucester calls out

for Edmund to help him in the time of peril to which Regan replies that it

was Edmund who had alerted them to Gloucester's treachery. At this low

point, Gloucester realizes the wrong he has shown Edgar if Edmund has done

such evil. Regan has Gloucester thrown out of the castle and then helps

Cornwall, who has received an injury, out of the room. Two servants discuss

the incomprehensible evil of Cornwall and Regan, proposing to aid

Gloucester in his blind stumbles. One of the servants leaves to find him

while the other searches for ointments to sooth Gloucester's wounds.

Act IV Summary: scene i:

Edgar is alone on stage soliloquizing about his fate. He seems more

optimistic than earlier, hoping that he has seen the worst. This changes

when Gloucester and an old man enters, displaying to Edgar the cruelty of

Regan and Cornwall's punishment. Gloucester urges the old man aiding him to

leave him, noting that his blindness should not affect him as "I have no

way, and therefore want no eyes;/ I stumbled when I saw" (IV.1.18-19). He

then laments the fool he has been toward his loyal son, Edgar. The old man

tells him a mad beggarman is present to which Gloucester replies that he

cannot be too mad if he knows to beg. Ironically, he notes that his

introduction to a madman the night before (who was poor Tom) had made him

think of Edgar. This causes Edgar further pain. Gloucester again urges the

old man to leave, commenting that poor Tom can lead him. He reasons that

the time is such that madmen will lead the blind and tells the old man to

meet them in a mile with new clothes for the beggar. The old man agrees to

and leaves.

Edgar wishes he did not have to deceive his father but reasons that he

must. He speaks in his poor Tom manner of all of the fiends whom have

plagued him. Gloucester gives him his purse, hoping to even out some of the

inequality which exists between them, and asks him to lead him to the

summit of the high cliff in Dover and leave him there.

scene ii:

Goneril and Edmund are en route to Goneril's home when Goneril asks

Oswald why her husband has not met them. Oswald answers that Albany is a

changed man. To all events Oswald expects he would be pleased by, he is

upset and vice versa. The examples Oswald gives are the landing of the

French army at which Albany smiled and Edmund's betrayal of Gloucester to

which Albany was very displeased. Goneril is disgusted and sends Edmund

back to Cornwall's with a kiss, telling him that she will have to become

master of her household until she can become Edmund's mistress.

After Edmund's departure, Albany enters and greets Goneril with disgust

toward her character and the events with which she and Regan have been

involved. He notes that humanity is in danger because of people like her.

Goneril responds that he is weak, idly sitting by and allowing the French

to invade their land without putting up protest or guarding against

traitors. He lacks ambition and wisdom. The woman form she takes, Albany

proclaims, disguises the fiend which exists beneath and if it were not for

this cover, he would wish to destroy her.

A messenger enters, conveying the news that Cornwall has died from the

wound given him during the conflict with the servant who had stood up for

Gloucester after one of his eye's had been blinded. In this manner, Albany

learns of the treatment and subsequent blindness imparted to Gloucester by

the hands of Regan and Cornwall. Though horrified, Albany remarks that the

gods are at least conscious of justice and have already worked toward

avenging the death of Gloucester by killing Cornwall. The messenger then

delivers a letter to Goneril from Regan. In an aside, Goneril comments that

the news of Cornwall's death is bad for her in that it leaves Regan a widow

so she could easily marry Edmund. However, it may be a positive event since

it takes Cornwall's threat to her reign out of the picture. She leaves to

read and answer the letter. Albany asks the messenger of Edmund's location

when Gloucester was blinded. The messenger informs him that Edmund was with

Goneril at the time but that Edmund knew of the events which were to take

place because it was he who had informed on Gloucester's treason. Albany

swears to fight for Gloucester who has loved the good king and received

such horrible treatment.

scene iii:

We learn from Kent's conversation with a gentleman that the King of

France has had to return to France for important business and has left the

Marshal of France in charge. The gentleman informs him also of Cordelia's

response to Kent's letter. She was very moved, lamenting against her

sisters and their treatment of her father. Kent comments that the stars

must control people's characters if one man and one woman could have

children of such different qualities, like Cordelia and her sisters. Kent

notifies the gentleman that Lear refuses to see Cordelia as he is ashamed

of his behavior toward her. The gentleman confirms that Albany and

Cornwall's powers are advancing. Deciding to leave Lear with him, Kent goes

off to handle confidential business.

scene iv:

Pained, Cordelia laments the mad state of Lear and asks the doctor if

there is a way to cure him. Rest might be the simple answer, the doctor

replies, since Lear has been deprived of it. Cordelia prays for him and

hopes that he will be revived. She must leave briefly on business for


scene v:

Regan and Oswald discuss how Albany's powers are afoot. Oswald points

out that Goneril is the better soldier and informs Regan that Edmund did

not have a chance to speak with Albany. Regan asks what the letter which

Oswald brought from Goneril for Edmund says but Oswald knows only that it

must be of great importance. Regan regrets blinding Gloucester because

allowing him to live arouses sympathy which results in more parties turned

against Regan and her company. Stating that Edmund has gone in search of

Gloucester to put him out of his misery, she then claims that he is

checking out the strength of the enemy forces. She urges Oswald to remain

with her because the roads are dangerous. She is jealous of what she fears

the contents of the letter may be, namely entreaties to Edmund for his

love. Advising him to remind Edmund of the matters he had discussed with

her considering their marriage, Regan allows Oswald to continue. Oswald

agrees to halt Gloucester if he comes upon him and thus show to whom his

loyalty lies.

scene vi:

Edgar leads Gloucester to Dover and pretends they are walking up the

steep hill Gloucester wished to be taken to. Edgar says that it is steep

and he can hear the ocean, noting that Gloucester's other senses must have

grown dim as well if he cannot feel these things. Gloucester comments that

poor Tom's speech seems much more elevated than before so Edgar attempts to

drop back into his beggarman dialect. Edgar says they have reached the

highest spot and Gloucester asks to be placed where he is standing. He then

takes out another purse for Tom and requests to be left. Thinking Tom has

gone, Gloucester prays to the gods to bless Edgar and then wishes the world

farewell and falls forward of the cliff, he believes. Edgar approaches

again as another man entirely, playing along with the idea that Gloucester

has fallen off the high cliff and survived, calling it a miracle.

Gloucester believes what the man says, though he cannot look up to verify.

Edgar helps him up and questions the thing which left him at the top of the

cliff, making it sound like it was not an actual man but a spirit.

Gloucester is skeptical at first but realizes that would make sense for why

he lived.

Stumbling onto the scene is Lear, still mad and wearing weeds. He

rambles on about being king and then bitterly speaks of Goneril and Regan

agreeing to all he said and then stabbing him in the back. Gloucester

recognizes the voice and Lear confirms he is the King. He lectures about

Gloucester's adultery being no cause to fear because his bastard son

treated him better than Lear's own daughters. He then rages on the evil

nature of women in his daughter's shapes, similar to Centaurs but fiends

from the waist down instead of horses. Gloucester is saddened by this

diatribe and wonders if Lear knows him. He does, but refuses to be saddened

by Gloucester's blindness since one sees the world better through other

venues than the eyes. In his ranting, Lear touches on such issues as the

artifice of politicians and others in positions of authority who cover up

their evil-doing and self-centered ambition with wealth and fashion. Edgar

notices the sanity in his madness. Lear then identifies Gloucester and

rages bitterly against the state of the world which has made them as they


A gentleman enters and, glad to find Lear, calls for them to put a hand

upon him. Lear is afraid he is being taken prisoner but they are the

attendants of Cordelia and happy to follow Lear as King. Still confused and

mad, Lear runs out so they will not catch him. The gentleman informs Edgar

that the army is approaching speedily, except for Cordelia's men who are on

a special purpose and have moved on. When he leaves, Edgar assures

Gloucester that he will lead him to a biding place. Oswald enters, pleased

to have found Gloucester, and draws his sword upon him. Edgar interposes,

using a rustic accent to play the part of a peasant. They fight and Oswald

falls. Before dying, Oswald pleads with Edgar to take his purse and deliver

his letter to Edmund, "Earl of Gloucester". Edgar reads the letter which is

from Goneril, pleading with Edmund to slay Albany so Goneril can be free

and they can be together. Edgar vows to defend Albany and defeat the

lechers. Gloucester muses that he is self-centered to worry about his

plight when Lear is mad. He wishes though that he too were mad in order to

numb the pain he feels.

scene vii:

Cordelia thanks Kent for the goodness he has shown her father and the

bravery he has espoused. She asks him to discard his disguise but he knows

that he will be able to work better for Lear if he remains disguised. The

Doctor remarks that Lear has slept for a long while so that they may try

waking him. Lear is brought in, still sleeping. Hoping to resolve the

horrors committed by her sisters, Cordelia kisses Lear and reflects on the

vileness and ingratitude of her sisters, treating Lear worse than a dog by

shutting their doors on him in the storm. Lear wakes and Cordelia addresses

him. Lear feels awakened from the grave and wishes they had left him. Very

drowsy at first, Lear thinks Cordelia is a spirit and then realizes he

should know her and Kent (disguised) but has difficulty putting his memory

together. Finally he recognizes Cordelia, to her delight, but thinks he is

in France. The Doctor advises them to give Lear his space so Cordelia takes

him for a walk. The gentleman remains and asks Kent if the rumors of

Cornwall's death and Edgar's position in Germany with the Earl of Kent are

true. Kent confirms the first, but leaves the latter unanswered. The

gentleman warns that the battle to come will be bloody.

Act V Summary: scene i:

Edmund sends an officer to learn of Albany's plans since he has become

so fickle. Regan approaches Edmund, sweetly asking him if he loves her

sister and if he has ever found his way into her bed. He replies that

though he loves in "honored love" he has done nothing adulterous or to

break their vow. Warning him to stay away from Goneril, Regan threatens

that she will not put up with her sister's entreaties to him. Goneril and

Albany enter as Goneril tells the audience that her battle for Edmund is

more important to her than the battle with France. Albany informs Regan of

Cordelia and Lear's reunion. Regan wonders why he brings up the subject of

the King and his grievances. Goneril points out that they must join

together against France and ignore their personal conflicts.

As the two camps separate, Regan pleads with Goneril to accompany her

instead of the other camp where Edmund will be present. Goneril refuses at

first but then sees Regan's purpose and agrees. Edgar finds Albany alone

and asks him to read the letter to Edmund from Goneril he had intercepted.

Though he cannot stay while Albany reads it, he prays him to let the herald

cry when the time is right and he will appear again. Albany leaves to read

it when Edmund reenters to report of the oncoming enemy. In soliloquy,

Edmund wonders what he will do about pledging his love to both sisters. He

could take both of them, one, or neither. He decides to use Albany while in

battle and after winning, to allow Goneril to kill him. Moreover, he plans

to forbid any mercy Albany may show Cordelia and Lear because his rule of

the state is his highest priority.

scene ii:

The army of France, accompanied by Cordelia and Lear, crosses the stage

with their battle colors and drums and exits. Next, Edgar and Gloucester

enter. Edgar offers Gloucester rest under a nearby tree while he goes into

battle. The noises of the battle begin and end, at which time Edgar

reenters the stage to speak with Gloucester. He calls for Gloucester to

come with him as Cordelia and Lear have lost and been taken captive.

Entertaining ideas of suicide again, Gloucester tries to remain but Edgar

talks him into accompanying him, noting that men must endure the ups and

downs of life.

scene iii:

Edmund holds Cordelia and Lear prisoner. Trying to keep Lear's spirits

up, Cordelia tells him that they are not the first innocent people who have

had to endure the worst and she will be happy to endure for the King. She

asks if they will see Goneril and Regan but Lear rejects that notion. He

wants them to spend their days in prison enjoying their company, conversing

and singing and playing and debating the "mystery of things". As they are

taken away at Edmund's command, Lear encourages Cordelia to dry her tears

and enjoy their reunion as they will never again be separated. Edmund

demands the subordinate captain follow Lear and Cordelia to prison and

carry out the punishment detailed by his written instructions. Threatened

with demotion, the captain agrees.

Albany praises Edmund for his work in the battle and in obtaining his

prisoners. He then commands Edmund to turn Cordelia and Lear over into his

protection. Edmund replies that he thought it best to send Lear and

Cordelia into retention so that they did not arouse too much sympathy and

start a riot, but he assures Albany that they will be ready the next day to

appear before him. Albany warns Edmund to remember that he is only a

subordinate to which Regan replies that Edmund is in fact her husband and

thus an equal. Goneril proclaims that he is more honorable on his own merit

than as Regan's partner. Not feeling well, Regan implores Edmund to accept

all of her property and herself. Goneril asks if she means to be intimate

with him to which Albany retorts that the matter does not relate to her.

Edmund disagrees and Regan calls for him to take her title. Albany

interrupts, arresting Edmund for treason and barring any relationship

between Goneril and Edmund. He calls Edmund to duel, throwing down his

glove. Edmund throws down his glove as well and Albany alerts him that all

of his soldiers have been sent away. Feeling very ill, Regan is taken off.

The herald reads aloud Albany's notice, calling for anyone who holds

that Edmund is a traitor to come support that claim. The trumpet is sounded

three times and Edgar, still disguised, appears after the last. Asked why

he has responded, Edgar states that he is a noble adversary who desires to

fight with Edmund, a traitor to "thy gods, thy brother, and thy father".

They fight and Edmund falls. Albany calls for him to be spared while

Goneril supports Edmund for fighting an unknown man when not required,

noting that he cannot be defeated. Albany quiets her with the letter she

wrote desiring Edmund's hand but Goneril retorts that as she is the ruler,

he can bring no punishment upon her. She leaves before he can take command

over her. Dying, Edmund asks his conqueror to reveal himself. Edgar tells

of his identity and their relation, noting that Edmund has rightly fallen

to the bottom as a result of his father's adulterous act, which also cost

Gloucester his sight. Edmund agrees that he has come full circle and Albany

rejoices in Edgar's true identity, sorrowful that he had ever worked

against him or his father. Edgar describes his disguise and how he led his

blinded father, protecting him and sheltering him. He had never revealed

his identity until a half hour before, telling his father the entire story.

Gloucester was so overwhelmed by the news that his heart gave out.

Furthermore, after learning who Edgar was, Kent revealed his identity to

Edgar, embracing him and spilling all of the horrid details of Lear's state

and treatment. Edgar then learned that Kent too was dying but was forced to

rush off as he heard the trumpet call.

A gentleman runs onto the stage with a bloody knife, informing the

company that it was just pulled from Goneril's heart. She had stabbed

herself after admitting that she had poisoned Regan. Edmund notes that as

he had been contracted to both sisters, now all three would die. Albany

calls for the gentleman to produce the bodies and comments on the immediate

judgment of the heavens. Kent enters, hoping to say goodbye to Lear.

Realizing that he has forgotten about the safety of Cordelia and Lear in

the excitement, Albany demands Edmund to tell of their circumstances.

Edmund admits that he had ordered their murders but as he hopes to do some

good, he sends an officer to try to halt Cordelia's hanging. He and Goneril

had commanded it look like a suicide. Lear stumbles in, carrying the body

of Cordelia. Overcome by grief, Lear rages against the senseless killing of

Cordelia, admitting that he killed the guard who was hanging her. Lear

recognizes Kent, though he can hardly see, and Kent informs him that he has

been with him all along, disguised as his servant Caius. It is not clear if

Lear ever understands. Kent tells him that his evil daughters have brought

about their own deaths. A messenger enters to tell them that Edmund has

died. Albany tries to set things right, reinstating Lear's absolute rule

and Kent and Edgar's authority, promising to right all of the good and

punish the evil. Lear continues to mourn the loss of Cordelia and then dies

himself. Albany thus gives Kent and Edgar the rule of the kingdom to which

Kent replies that he must move on to follow his master, leaving Edgar as

the new ruler.


Act 1 Summary Act 1, scene 1

On a heath in Scotland, three witches, the Weird Sisters, wait to meet

Macbeth amid thunder and lightning. Their conversation is filled with

paradoxes; they say that they will meet Macbeth "when the battle's lost and

won," when "fair is foul and foul is fair."

Act 1, scene 2

As the play opens, the Scottish army is at war with the Norwegian army.

Duncan, king of Scotland, meets a soldier returning from battle. The

soldier informs them of Macbeth and Banquo's bravery in battle, and

describes Macbeth's attack on the castle of the traitorous Macdonwald, in

which Macbeth triumphed and planted the severed head of Macdonwald on the

battlements of the castle. The Thanes (lords) of Ross and Angus enter with

the news that the Thane of Cawdor has sided with Norway. Duncan decides to

strip the traitor Thane of his title and give the title of Thane of Cawdor

to Macbeth.

Act 1, scene 3

The Weird Sisters meet on the heath and wait for Macbeth. He arrives with

Banquo, confirming the witches' paradoxical prophecy by stating "So foul

and fair a day I have not seen." The witches hail him as "Thane of Glamis"

(his present title), "Thane of Cawdor" (which title Macbeth does not know

he has been granted yet), and "king hereafter." Their greeting startles and

seems to frighten Macbeth. Banquo questions the witches as to who they are,

and they greet him as "lesser than Macbeth and greater," "not so happy, yet

much happier," and a man who "shall get kings, though [he] be none." When

Macbeth questions them further, the witches vanish like bubbles into the

air. Almost as soon as they disappear, Ross and Angus appear, bearing the

news that the king has granted Macbeth the title of Thane of Cawdor.

Macbeth and Banquo step aside to discuss this news; Banquo is of the

opinion that the title of Thane of Cawdor might "enkindle" Macbeth to seek

the crown as well. Macbeth questions why good news like this causes his

"seated heart [to] knock at [his] ribs / Against the use of nature," and

his thoughts turn immediately and with terror to murdering the king in

order to fulfill the witches' second prophesy. When Ross and Angus notice

Macbeth's distraught state, Banquo dismisses it as Macbeth's unfamiliarity

with his new title.

Act 1, scene 4

Duncan demands to know if the ex-Thane of Cawdor has been executed, and his

son Malcolm assures him that he has. While Duncan muses about the fact that

he mistakenly placed his "absolute trust" in the traitor Thane, Macbeth

enters. Duncan thanks Macbeth and Banquo for their loyalty and bravery, and

announces his decision to make his son Malcolm the heir to the throne of

Scotland (something he should not have done, since his position was

elected, not inherited). Duncan then states that he plans to visit Macbeth

at his home in Inverness. Macbeth leaves to prepare his home for the royal

visit, pondering the stumbling block that the king has just placed in front

of his ambitions with the announcement of his heir. The king follows with


Act 1, scene 5

At Inverness, Lady Macbeth reads a letter from Macbeth telling of his

meeting with the witches. She fears that his nature is not ruthless enough,

is "too full o' th' milk of human kindness," to murder Duncan and assure

the completion of the witches' prophesy. He has ambition enough, she

claims, but lacks the gumption to act on it. She then implores him to hurry

home so that she can "pour [her] spirits in [his] ear," in other words,

goad him on to the murder he must commit. When a messenger arrives with the

news that Duncan is coming, Lady Macbeth calls on the heavenly powers to

"unsex me here" and fill her with cruelty, taking from her all natural

womanly compassion. When Macbeth arrives, she greets him as Glamis and

Cawdor and urges him to "look like th'innocent flower, / but be the serpent

under ?t," and states that she will make all the preparations for the

king's visit and subsequent murder.

Act 1, scene 6

Duncan arrives at Inverness with Banquo and exchanges pleasantries with

Lady Macbeth. He asks her where Macbeth is, and she offers to bring him to

where Macbeth waits.

Act 1, scene 7

Alone, Macbeth agonizes over whether or not to kill Duncan, stating that he

knows the king's murder is a terrible sin. He struggles not so much with

the horrifying idea of regicide as with the actual fact and process of

murdering a man ­ a relative, no less ­ who trusts and loves him. He would

like the king's murder to be over and done with already. He hates the fact

that he has "only / Vaulting ambition" without the motivation or

ruthlessness to ensure the attainment of his ambitions. Lady Macbeth

enters, and Macbeth tells her that he "will proceed no further in this

business." Taunting him for his fears and ambivalence, she tells him he

will only be a man when he commits this murder. She states that she herself

would go so far as to take her own nursing baby and dash its brains out if

she had to in order to attain her goals. She counsels him to "screw [his]

courage to the sticking place" and details the way they will murder the

king. They will wait until he is asleep, she says, then they will get his

bodyguards drunk. Then they will murder Duncan and lay the blame on the two

drunken bodyguards. Macbeth, astonished at her cruelty, warns her to "bring

forth male children only," since she is too tough and bloodthirsty to bear

girls. He resigns to follow through with her plans.

Act 2 Summary Act 2, scene 1

Banquo, who has also come to Inverness with Duncan and Fleance, wrestles

with the witches' prophesy; unlike Macbeth, he restrains the desire to act

on it that tempts him in his dreams. Macbeth enters and, when Banquo

questions him, pretends to have forgotten the witches' prophesy. When

Banquo and Fleance leave Macbeth alone, Macbeth imagines that he sees a

bloody dagger pointing toward Duncan's chamber. Frightened by this "dagger

of the mind," he prays that the earth will "hear not [his] steps" as he

completes his bloody plan. The bell rings ­ a signal from Lady Macbeth ­

and he exits into Duncan's room.

Act 2, scene 2

Lady Macbeth waits for Macbeth to return from killing Duncan. Hearing the

hoot of an owl ­ an omen of death ­ she assumes that he has done it, and

waits fitfully for him to appear. She hears a noise within and worries that

the bodyguards have awakened before Macbeth had a chance to plant the

evidence on them. Macbeth enters, still carrying the bloody daggers with

which he killed Duncan. He is shaken because as he entered Duncan's chamber

he heard the bodyguards praying and could not say "Amen" when they finished

their prayers. He takes this as a bad sign. Lady Macbeth counsels him not

to think "after these ways; so, it will make us mad." Unheeding, Macbeth

goes on to tell her that he also thought he heard a voice that said, "sleep

no more! / Macbeth does murder sleep . . . . Glamis [Macbeth] hath murdered

sleep, and therefore Cawdor [also Macbeth] / Shall sleep no more." Lady

Macbeth warns him not to think of such "brainsickly things" but to wash the

blood from his hand. Seeing the daggers he carries, she chastises him for

bringing them in and tells him to plant them on the bodyguards according to

the plan. When Macbeth, still horrified by the crime he has just committed,

will not do it, Lady Macbeth herself takes the daggers and brings them into

the guards' chamber.

While she is gone, Macbeth hears a knocking and imagines that he sees hands

plucking at his eyes. He mourns the fact that not even an entire ocean

could wash the blood from his hand. Lady Macbeth enters here and, hearing

this, states that her hands are just as stained as his, but she is not a

coward like him. She claims that "a little water clears us of this deed" ­

that washing the blood from their hands will wash the guilt from them as

well. She, too, hears knocking, and tells Macbeth to retire with her to

their chamber and put on their nightgowns; they cannot be out in the hall

and in their clothes when the others enter.

Act 2, scene 3

In a "comic relief" scene, the Porter (doorman) hears knocking at the gate

and imagines that he is the porter at the door to Hell. He imagines

admitting a farmer who has committed suicide after a bad harvest, an

"equivocator" who has committed a sin by swearing to half-truths, and an

English tailor who stole cloth to make fashionable clothes and visited

brothels. Since it is "too cold for hell" at the gate, he stops there

instead of continuing with a longer catalogue of sinners and opens the

door. Outside are Macduff and Lennox, who scold him for taking so long to

answer the door. The Porter claims that he was tired after drinking until

late, and delivers a small sermon on the ills of drink.

Macbeth enters, and Macduff asks him if the king is awake yet. On hearing

that the king is still asleep, Macduff leaves to wake him. While he is

gone, Lennox tells Macbeth that the night was full of strange events in the

weather ­ chimneys were blown down, birds screeched all night, the earth

shook, and ghostly voices were heard prophesying bad fortune. A stunned

Macduff returns with the news that the king is dead. He tells them to go

see for themselves and calls to the servants to ring the alarm bell and

wake the other guests.

Lady Macbeth and Banquo enter and Macduff informs them of the king's death.

Macbeth and Lennox return and Macbeth laments the king's death, claiming

that he witches he was dead instead of the king. Malcolm and Donalbain

appear and ask who murdered their father. Lennox tells them that the

bodyguards must have done it because they still had the king's blood on

their faces and hands and the daggers on their pillows. Macbeth tells them

that he has already killed the bodyguards in a grief-stricken rage. When

Malcolm and Donalbain question this act, Lady Macbeth pretends to faint in

order to distract them. Aside, Malcolm and Donalbain confer and decide that

their lives are threatened and they should flee. As Lady Macbeth is being

helped to leave, Banquo counsels the others to get together to analyze what

just happened and figure out what to do next. Leaving Malcolm and Donalbain

alone, they leave to meet in the hall. Malcolm decides that he will flee to

England, and Donalbain says that he will go to Ireland.

Act 2, scene 4

Ross and an old man discuss the unnatural events that have taken place

recently: days are as dark as nights, owls hunt falcons, and Duncan's

horses have gone mad and eaten each other. Macduff enters, and Ross asks

him who killed the king. Macduff tells him that the bodyguards did it, but

that Malcolm and Donalbain's hasty flight from Inverness has cast suspicion

on them as well. Ross comments that Macbeth will surely be named the next

king, and Macduff says that he has already been named and has gone to Scone

to be crowned. Ross leaves for Scone to see the coronation, and Macduff

heads home to Fife.

Act 3 Summary Act 3, scene 1

At Macbeth's court, Banquo voices his suspicions that Macbeth has killed

Duncan in order to fulfill the witches' prophesies. He muses that perhaps

this means that the witches' vision for his future will come true as well,

then pushes this thought from his mind. Macbeth and Lady Macbeth enter to

the sound trumpets, along with Lennox and Ross. Macbeth announces that he

will hold a banquet that evening, and that Banquo will be the chief guest.

Banquo states that he must ride this afternoon, but he will be back in time

for supper. Macbeth tells him that Malcolm and Donalbain will not confess

to killing their father, and asks if Fleance will accompany Banquo on his

trip (he will), then wishes Banquo a safe ride.

Left alone, Macbeth summons the two murderers he has hired. While he waits

for them, he gives voice to his greatest worry of the moment ­ that the

witches' prophesy for Banquo will come true, and that Banquo's children

will inherit the throne instead of his own. He will put an end to that

thought by killing Banquo and Fleance. The murderers enter. These men are

not "murderers" by trade but poor men who are willing to do anything to

make some money. Macbeth has evidently sent them letters stating that

although they think Macbeth is the cause of their present poverty, the real

cause is Banquo, and that he will reward them richly if they would kill

Banquo for him. The Murderers respond that they are so "weary with

disasters [and] tugged with fortune" that they are "reckless what / [they]

do to spite the world." Macbeth tells them that Banquo is his own enemy as

well as theirs, but that loyal friends of Banquo's prevent him from killing

him himself. Macbeth tells them the particulars of the murder: they must

attack him as he is coming back from his ride, at a distance from the

palace in order to avert suspicion. They must also kill Fleance, and

perform these murders at exactly the right time.

Act 3, scene 2

Alone, Lady Macbeth expresses her unhappiness: there seems to be no end to

her desire for power, and she feels unsafe and doubtful. Macbeth enters,

looking upset, and she again counsels him not to spend his time alone

worrying about what they have done. Macbeth states that their job is not

done, and that he spends every waking moment in fear and each night

embroiled in nightmares. He says that he envies Duncan, who sleeps

peacefully in his grave. Lady Macbeth warns him to act cheerful in front of

their dinner guests, and Macbeth says that he will, and asks her to pay

special attention to Banquo tonight, both in speech and looks. Lady Macbeth

tries to comfort him by reminding him that although Banquo and Fleance

live, they are not immortal, and he should not fear them. Macbeth responds

elusively, telling her that "a deed of dreadful note" will be done tonight;

he will not tell her more.

Act 3, scene 3

The two murderers are joined by a third, who says that he has also been

hired by Macbeth. Horses are heard approaching, and Banquo and Fleance

enter. The murderers attack Banquo, but Fleance flees. The murderers leave

to report back to Macbeth.

Act 3, scene 4

At the banquet, Macbeth is just welcoming his guests when one of the

murderers comes to the door. He informs Macbeth that Banquo is dead but

Fleance has escaped. Shaken, Macbeth thanks him for what he has done and

arranges another meeting the next day. The murderer leaves and Macbeth

returns to the feast. Standing next to the table, he announces that the

banquet would be perfect if only Banquo were there. At this point, unseen

by any, Banquo's ghost appears and sits in Macbeth's seat. The guests urge

Macbeth to sit and eat with them, but Macbeth says that the table is full.

When Lennox points to Macbeth's empty seat, Macbeth is shocked to see

Banquo sitting there. He addresses the ghost, saying, "Thou canst not say I

did it. Never shake / Thy gory locks at me." The guests, confused by his

behavior, think that he is ill, but Lady Macbeth reassures them, saying

that he has had "fits" like this since youth, and that he will soon be

well. She draws Macbeth aside and tries to talk some sense into him,

telling him that this is just a hallucination brought on by his guilt, like

the dagger he saw before he killed Duncan. Ignoring her, Macbeth charges

the ghost to speak, and it disappears. Disgusted, Lady Macbeth scolds him

for being "unmanned in folly." Turning back to his guests, Macbeth tells

them that he has "a strange infirmity" that they should ignore.

Just as the party begins again and Macbeth is offering a toast to Banquo,

the ghost reappears, and Macbeth again yells at it. Lady Macbeth again

tries to smooth things over with the guests. The ghost exits again and Lady

Macbeth scolds Macbeth him. This time Macbeth responds in kind, telling her

that he is shocked that she can look on sights such as this and not be

afraid. Ross asks what sights Macbeth means, and Lady Macbeth tells the

guests that they should leave, because Macbeth's "illness" is getting


The guests leave, and Macbeth, frightened, says that he takes this

appearance as an omen. He decides that he will go back to the Weird Sisters

the next day and ask to hear more.

Act 3, scene 5

On the heath, the witches meet Hecate, queen of witches, who chastises them

for meddling in Macbeth's affairs without involving her or showing him any

fancy magic spectacles. She tells them that Macbeth will visit them

tomorrow, and that they must put on a more dramatic show for him.

Act 3, scene 6

Lennox and another lord discuss politics. Lennox comments sarcastically on

the recent deaths of Duncan and Banquo, saying that it seems almost

impossible for Malcolm and Donalbain to be inhuman enough to kill their

father, and that Macbeth's slaying of the bodyguards was pretty convenient,

since they would probably have denied killing Duncan. Lennox proposes that

if Malcolm, Donalbain, and Fleance were in Macbeth's prison, they would

probably be dead now too. He also reveals that since Macduff did not attend

Macbeth's feast, he has been denounced. The lord with whom Lennox speaks

comments that Macduff has joined Malcolm at the English court, and that the

two of them have asked Siward to lead an army against Macbeth. Lennox and

the lord send their prayers to Macduff and Malcolm.

Act 4 Summary Act 4, scene 1

The witches circle their cauldron, throwing into it the elements of their

magic spell while chanting "double, double toil and trouble; / Fire burn,

and cauldron bubble." Hecate appears, and they all sing together, then

Hecate leaves again. Macbeth enters, demanding answers. The witches

complete their magic spell and summon forth a series of apparitions. The

first is an Armed Head (a head wearing a helmet), that warns Macbeth to

beware the Thane of Fife (Macduff). The second apparition is a bloody

child, who tells him that "none of woman born / Shall harm Macbeth."

Hearing this, Macbeth is bolstered, and states that he no longer needs to

fear Macduff then. The third apparition is a child wearing a crown, with a

tree in its hand, who says that "Macbeth shall never vanquished be until /

Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill [Macbeth's castle] / Shall come

against him." This cheers Macbeth even more, since he knows that nothing

can move a forest. Macbeth now asks his last question: will Banquo's

children ever rule Scotland?

The cauldron sinks, and a strange sound is heard. The witches now show

Macbeth the "show of kings": a procession of eight kings, the eighth of

whom holds a mirror in his hand, followed by Banquo. As Banquo points at

this line of kings, Macbeth realizes that they are indeed his family line,

and that the witches' words were true. The witches dance and disappear, and

Lennox enters, with the news that Macduff has fled to England. Macbeth

resolves that from now on he will act immediately on his ambitions, and the

first step he will take will be to seize Fife and kill Macduff's wife and


Act 4, scene 2

At Fife, Ross visits Lady Macduff, who is frightened for her own safety now

that her husband has fled. He reassures her by telling her that her husband

did what he had to do, and takes his leave, telling her that he will return

soon. After he leaves, Lady Macduff engages her son in a conversation about

his missing father. The little boy shows wisdom beyond his years in his

side of the discussion. A messenger interrupts them with a warning to flee

the house immediately. But before Lady Macduff can go anywhere, Macbeth's

hired murderers attack the house and kill everyone in it.

Act 4, scene 3

Macduff has arrived at the English court and meets with Malcolm. Malcolm,

remembering his father's mistaken trust in Macbeth, tests Macduff by

confessing that he is a greedy, lustful and sinful man, who makes Macbeth

look like an angel in comparison. Macduff despairs and says that he will

leave Scotland forever if this is the case, since there seems to be no man

fit to rule it. Hearing this, Malcolm is convinced of Macduff's goodness

and reveals that he was merely testing him; he has none of these faults to

which he has just confessed. In fact, he claims, the first lie he has ever

told was this false confession to Macduff. He then announces that Siward

has assembled an army of ten thousand men and is prepared to march on


A messenger appears and tells the men that the king of England is

approaching, attended by a crowd of sick and despairing people who wish the

king to cure them. The king, according to Malcolm, has a gift for healing

people with the laying on of hands.

Ross enters, just come from Scotland, and reports that the country is in a

shambles. When Macduff asks how his wife is, Ross replies "Ay, well,"

meaning that they are now beyond Macbeth's grasp. Pressed further, he

relates the story of her death. Macduff is stunned speechless, and Malcolm

urges him to cure his grief by acting, and getting revenge on Macbeth.

Macduff replies "he has no children," meaning perhaps that Malcolm does not

know what it feels like to lose a child, or that Macbeth could never have

killed another man's children if he had children of his own. He is overcome

with guilt that he was gone from his house when it happened. Again Malcolm

urges him to put his grief to good use and seek revenge, and all three men

leave to prepare for battle.

Act 5 Summary Act 5, scene 1

Back at Dunsinane, the Scottish royal home, a gentlewoman who waits on Lady

Macbeth has summoned a doctor because Lady Macbeth has been walking in her

sleep. The doctor reports that he has watched her for two nights already

and has not seen anything strange. The gentlewoman describes how she has

seen Lady Macbeth rise, dress, leave her room, write something on a piece

of paper, read it and seal it, and return to bed, all without waking up.

When the doctor asks if the Lady said anything while sleepwalking, the

gentlewoman says that what the Lady said she does not dare to repeat. They

are interrupted by the sleepwalking Lady Macbeth, who enters carrying a

candle. The gentlewoman reports that Lady Macbeth asks to have light by her

all through the night. The doctor and the gentlewoman watch as Lady Macbeth

rubs her hands as if washing them and says " yet here's a spot . . . . Out,

damned spot, out I say!" As she continues to "wash" her hands, her words

betray her guilt to the watchers. She seems to be reliving the events of

the nights of Duncan and Banquo's deaths. She cannot get the stain or smell

of blood off her hand: "will these hands ne'er be clean? . . . . All the

perfumes of Arabia will not sweeten this little hand." The doctor is

shocked and understands that Lady Macbeth's words have heavy implications.

The sleepwalking lady imagines she hears knocking at the gate and returns

to her chamber. The doctor concludes that Lady Macbeth needs a priest's

help, not a physician's, and takes his leave, warning that he and the

gentlewoman had better not reveal what they have seen and heard.

Act 5, scene 2

Menteith, Caithness, Angus, and Lennox march with a company of soldiers

toward Birnam Wood, where they will meet up with Malcolm and the English

army. They claim that they will "purge" the country of Macbeth's sickening


Act 5, scene 3

At Dunsinane, Macbeth tires of hearing reports of nobles who have fled from

him to join the English forces. He recalls the witches' prophesy that he

has nothing to fear until Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane or until he meets

up with a man not born of woman, and since these events seem impossible, he

feels unstoppable. A servant enters with the news that then thousand men

have gathered to fight against them, and Macbeth sends him away, scolding

him for cowardice. He calls for his servant Seyton to help him put on his

armor, and asks the doctor who has been treating Lady Macbeth how she is.

The doctor replies that she is not sick but troubled with visions, and that

she must cure herself of these visions (presumably by confessing the crimes

she has committed). Macbeth is not pleased with this answer. As his

attendants begin to arm him, he facetiously asks the doctor if it he could

test the country's urine to find out what disease ails it, and give it a

purgative medicine to cure it. Fully armed, Macbeth begins to leave the

room. As he goes, he professes that he will not be afraid of anything until

Birnam Wood comes to Dunsinane. Aside, the doctor confesses that he would

like to be as far away from Dunsinane as possible.

Act 5, scene 4

Malcolm, Siward, Young Siward, Macduff, Mentieth, Caithness, and Angus

march toward Birnam Wood. When they approach the forest, Malcolm instructs

each soldier to cut a branch from the trees and carry it in front of him as

the group marches on Dunsinane, in order to disguise their numbers. Siward

informs Malcolm that Macbeth confidently holds Dunsinane, waiting for their

approach. Malcolm comments that Macbeth must be incredibly optimistic,

since almost all of his men have deserted him. The army marches on toward


Act 5, scene 5

Macbeth confidently orders his men to hang his banners on the outer walls

of the castle, claiming that his castle will hold until the men who attack

it starve of famine. If only the other side was not reinforced with men who

have deserted him, he claims, he would not think twice about rushing out to

attack the English army head-on. He is interrupted by the sound of women

screaming within, and Seyton leaves to see what the trouble is. Macbeth

comments that he had almost forgotten what fear felt and tasted like.

Seyton returns and announces that Lady Macbeth is dead. Seemingly unfazed,

Macbeth comments that she should have died later. He stops to muse on the

meaning of life, which he says is "but a walking shadow, a poor player /

That struts and frets his hour upon the stage / And then is heard no more.

It is a tale / Told by an idiot, full of sound and fury, / Signifying


A messenger enters and reports that he has seen something unbelievable: as

he looked out toward Birnam Wood, it looked like the forest began to move

toward the castle. Macbeth is stunned and begins to fear that the witch's

words may come true after all. He instructs his men to ring the alarm.

Act 5, scene 6

Malcolm tells his soldiers that they are near enough to the castle now to

throw down the branches they carry. He announces that Siward and Young

Siward will lead the first battle, and that he and Macduff will follow

behind. He tells his trumpeters to sound a charge.

Act 5, scene 7

Macbeth waits on the battlefield to defend his castle. He feels like a bear

that has been "baited": tied to a stake for dogs to attack. Young Siward

enters and demands his name. Macbeth responds that he will be afraid to

hear it: it is Macbeth. The two fight, and Macbeth kills Young Siward,

commenting, as he does, that Young Siward must have been born "of woman."

He exits. Macduff enters and shouts a challenge to Macbeth, swearing to

avenge his wife and children's deaths. He asks Fortune to let him find

Macbeth, and exits. Malcolm and Siward enter, looking for the enemy, and


Act 5, scene 8

Macbeth enters, contemplating whether or not he should kill himself, and

resolving that he is too brave to do so. Macduff finds him and challenges

him. Macbeth replies that he has avoided Macduff until his point, but now

he will fight. Macduff unsheathes his sword, saying that his sword will

speak for him. The men fight. As they fight, Macbeth tells him that he

leads a charmed life; he will only fall to a man who is not born of woman.

Macduff replies that the time has come for Macbeth to despair: "let the

angel whom thou still hast served / Tell thee Macduff was from his mother's

womb / Untimely ripped" (Macduff was born through the medieval equivalent

of a caesarian section)! Hearing this, Macbeth quails and says that he will

not fight. Macduff replies by commanding him to yield, and allow himself to

be the laughing stock of Scotland under Malcolm's rule. This enrages

Macbeth, who swears he will never yield to swear allegiance to Malcolm.

They fight on, and exit fighting.

Malcolm, Siward, and the other Thanes enter. They have won the battle, but

Malcolm states that Macduff and Young Siward are missing. Ross reports that

Young Siward is dead, and eulogizes him by stating that "he only lived but

till he was a man, / The which no sooner had his prowess confirmed / In the

unshrinking station where he fought, / But like a man he died." Siward asks

if his son's wounds were in his front (in other words, did he fight until

the end, instead of running away), and when he learns that they were, he

declares that he will mourn no more for him then, because he died a hero's

death, and Siward could not wish for a better death for any of his sons.

Macduff enters, carrying Macbeth's severed head, and shouts "Hail, King of

Scotland!" All the men return this shout and the trumpets flourish as

Malcolm accepts the throne. He then announces that he will make the thanes

earls now ­ up until then they had only been called thanes. He will call

back all the men whom Macbeth has exiled, and will attempt to heal the

scars Macbeth has made in the country. All exit, headed toward Scone to

crown Malcolm King of Scotland.

The Merchant of Venice

Act I, Scene One

Antonio, a merchant, is in a melancholic state of mind and unable to find a

reason for his depression. His friends Salerio and Solanio attempt to cheer

him up by telling him that he is only worried about his ships returning

safely to port. Antonio, however, denies that he is worried about his ships

and remains depressed. His two friends leave after Bassanio, Graziano and

Lorenzo arrive. Graziano and Lorenzo remark that Antonio does not look well

before exiting, leaving Bassanio alone with Antonio.

Bassanio informs Antonio that he has been prodigal with his money and that

he currently has accumulated substantial debts. Bassanio reveals that he

has come up with a plan to pay off his obligations by marrying Portia, a

wealthy heiress in Belmont. However, in order to woo Portia, Bassanio needs

to borrow enough money so that he can act like a true nobleman. Antonio

tells him that all his money is invested in ships at sea, but offers to

borrow money for him.

Act I, Scene Two

Portia, the wealthy heiress, discusses her many suitors with her noblewoman

Nerissa. She points out the faults that each of them has, often

stereotyping each suitor according to the country from which he has

arrived. Nerissa, a gentlewoman who works for Portia, asks her if she

remembers a soldier who stayed at Belmont several years before. Portia

recalls the man, and says, "Yes, yes, it was Bassanio" (1.2.97). Portia's

servingman then arrives with news that four of her suitors are leaving, but

another, the Prince of Morocco, has arrived.

Act I, Scene Three

Bassanio in engaged in conversation with Shylock, a Jew who makes his

living as a moneylender. Bassanio has asked him for a loan of three

thousand ducats, a very large sum at the time, for a period of three

months. He further tells Shylock that Antonio is to "be bound," meaning

that Antonio will be responsible for repaying the loan.

Shylock knows Antonio's reputation well, and agrees to consider the

contract. He asks Bassanio if he may speak with Antonio first, and Bassanio

invites Shylock to dinner. Shylock responds that he will never eat with a


Antonio arrives at that moment and Bassanio takes him aside. Shylock

addresses the audience and informs them that he despises Antonio. He bears

an old grudge against Antonio which is not explained, but Shylock is

further upset that Antonio lends out money without charging interest,

thereby lowering the amount he is able to charge for lending out his own

money. Shylock turns to Antonio and tells him why interest is allowed in

the Hebrew faith by quoting a biblical passage in which Jacob receives all

the striped lambs from his father-in-law. Antonio asks him if the passage

was inserted into the bible to defend interest charges. He states, "Was

this inserted to make interest good, / Or is your gold and silver ewes and

rams?" (1.3.90-91). Shylock replies that, "I cannot tell. I make it breed

as fast" (1.3.92).

Antonio is upset that Shylock is considering charging him interest on the

loan, and asks Shylock to loan the money without any interest. Shylock

tells him that, "I would be friends with you, and have your love"

(1.3.133). He offers to seal the bond, "in a merry sport" (1.3.141) without

charging interest, but as collateral for the loan demands a pound of

Antonio's flesh. Antonio thinks Shylock is only joking about the pound of

flesh, and is happy to seal the contract. He remarks that, "The Hebrew will

turn Christian; he grows kind" (1.3.174).

Act II, Scene One

The Prince of Morocco meets with Portia and tells her that he is often

considered very handsome on account of his black skin. She tells him that

unfortunately she does not have the right to choose the man who will marry

her. Instead, her father created three caskets from among which each suitor

must choose. Portia warns the Prince that if he chooses the wrong casket,

he must swear to never propose marriage to a woman afterwards. The Prince

of Morocco agrees to this condition and joins Portia for dinner before

attempting to choose.

Act II, Scene Two

Lancelot, referred to as a clown, is the servant to Shylock. He tells the

audience that he is thinking about running away from his master, whom he

describes as a devil. However, he cannot make up his mind about whether to

run away or not because his conscience makes him guilty when he thinks

about leaving Shylock.

Lancelot's father, and old man named Gobbo, arrives with a basket. He is

nearly completely blind and cannot see Lancelot clearly. Gobbo asks his son

which way leads to the Jew's house, meaning Shylock's house. He mentions

that he is searching for his son Lancelot. Lancelot decides to have some

fun with his father, and so he pretends to know a "Master Lancelot" (a term

for a gentleman's son, not a servant). He informs Gobbo that "Master

Lancelot" is deceased.

Gobbo is clearly upset by this, and Lancelot kneels down in front of him

and asks his father for his blessing. Gobbo at first does not believe that

Lancelot is really his son, but then he feels his head and recognizes him.

Lancelot tells his father that he is wasting away serving Shylock and that

he will turn into a Jew himself if he stays there much longer. Gobbo has

brought a present for Shylock, but Lancelot instead convinces his father to

give it to Bassanio, whom Lancelot hopes to have as his new master.

Bassanio, coming onto stage at that moment, accepts the gift of doves and

tells Lancelot that he may leave Shylock and join his service. He then

orders one of the men to get Lancelot a new uniform to wear, and sends

Lancelot away.

Graziano arrives and tells Bassanio that he wants to join him on the trip

to Belmont, where Bassanio plans to go and woo Portia. Bassanio feels that

Graziano is too loud and rude and asks him if he will be able to act more

appropriately. Graziano says that he can, and that he will "put on a sober

habit" (2.2.171). Bassanio then agrees to take him to Belmont.

Act II, Scene Three

Jessica, the daughter of Shylock, meets with Lancelot and tells him that

she will miss him after he leaves to go work for Bassanio. She hands him a

letter to take to Lorenzo, who is supposed to be a guest of Bassanio's that

night. After Lancelot leaves, Jessica remarks,

"Alack, what heinous sin is it in me

To be ashamed to be my father's child!

But though I am a daughter to his blood,

I am not to his manners. O Lorenzo,

If thou keep promise I shall end this strife,

Become a Christian and thy loving wife.

Jessica thus informs the audience that she is in love with Lorenzo, a

Christian. She intends to meet him soon and run away from her father's

house in order to marry Lorenzo.

Act II, Scene Four

Lorenzo, Graziano, Salerio and Solanio are preparing for a masque that

night. Lancelot arrives with the letter from Jessica and hands it to

Lorenzo. Lorenzo reads it and tells Lancelot to inform Jessica that he will

not fail her. Lancelot leaves to bring the news to Jessica, and also to

invite Shylock to Bassanio's house for dinner.

After the other two men leave, Lorenzo shows Graziano the letter from

Jessica. He tells his friend that he and Jessica plan to steal away from

her father's house that night, along with a great deal of her father's gold

and jewels.

Act II, Scene Five

Shylock informs Lancelot that he will have to judge for himself whether

Bassanio is a better master. He then calls Jessica, hands her the keys to

the house, and tells her that he must leave for dinner that evening.

Lancelot tells Shylock that there will likely be a masque that night. At

this news, Shylock orders Jessica to lock up the house and not look out the

windows. He says, "Let not the sound of shallow fopp'ry enter / My sober

house" (2.5.34-35).

As Shylock gets ready to depart, Lancelot privately tells Jessica that

Lorenzo will come for her that night. She is grateful for the message, and

after Shylock leaves she comments that, "I have a father, you a daughter

lost" (2.5.55).

Act II, Scene Six

Salerio and Graziano are part of the masquers partying through the street

of Venice. They stop and wait for Lorenzo, who has asked them to meet him

at a certain spot. Lorenzo arrives and thanks them for their patience. He

then calls out to Jessica, who appears in the window of Shylock's house

dressed as a man. She throws out a casket to Lorenzo filled with much of

her father's gold and jewels. Jessica then goes back inside and steals even

more ducats (golden coins) before joining the men on the street.

Everyone departs except for Bassanio, who unexpectedly meets Antonio.

Antonio tells him to get to the ship heading for Belmont, because the wind

has started blowing the right way and the ship is ready to depart.

Act II, Scene Seven

The Prince of Morocco is brought into a room containing three caskets,

gold, silver and lead. Portia tells him to make his choice. The Prince

reads the inscriptions on all the caskets. Gold reads: "Who chooseth me

shall gain what many men desire" (2.7.5). The silver casket has, "Who

chooseth me shall get as much as he deserves" (2.7.7). Finally, the dull

lead casket bears the inscription, "Who chooseth me must give and hazard

all he hath" (2.7.9).

Portia tells the Prince that the correct casket, or the one that will allow

him to marry her, contains a miniature picture of her likeness. The Prince

looks over all the inscriptions a second time, and decides that lead is too

threatening and not worth risking anything for. He also spurns the silver,

which he feels is too base a metal to hold such a beautiful woman as

Portia. The Prince therefore chooses gold.

Portia hands him the key, and he opens the casket to reveal a golden skull.

The skull holds a written scroll that poetically indicates that he chose

superficially. The Prince departs after a hasty farewell. Portia watches

him go, and remarks, "A gentle riddance. Draw the curtains, go. / Let all

of his complexion choose me so" (2.7.78-79).

Act II, Scene Eight

Salerio and Solanio meet in the street and discuss the hasty departure of

Bassanio and Graziano for Belmont. They further tell the audience that

Shylock returned home and discovered his daughter had run away with

Lorenzo. Shylock then woke up the Duke of Venice and tried to stop

Bassanio's ship, which had already set sail. Antonio assured Shylock that

Jessica was not on board the ship, but rather had been seen in a gondola

with Lorenzo. However, Shylock continues to blame Antonio for the loss of

his daughter and his money.

Solanio informs Salerio that Shylock was later seen in the streets crying,

"My daughter! O, my ducats! O, my daughter!

Fled with a Christian! O, my Christian ducats!

Justice! The law! My ducats and my daughter!

A sealed bag, two sealed bags of ducats,"

Solanio is worried about Antonio, whom he says had better repay his bond

with Shylock on time, because Shylock is furious about losing his daughter

and his money and blames Antonio for it. Salerio indicates that a Frenchman

mentioned a Venetian vessel had sunk in the English Channel the day before.

Both men hope that it is not Antonio's ship.

Act II, Scene Nine

The Prince of Aragon arrives in Belmont and decides to choose from among

the three caskets. Portia takes him into the room and makes him recite the

oath never to reveal which casket he chooses, and further to promise never

to marry should he choose the incorrect casket. The Prince of Aragon agrees

and starts to read the inscriptions.

He rejects lead because of the ominous warning, and thinks that gold refers

to the foolish populace. Instead he chooses silver which indicates he will

receive what he deserves. The Prince takes the key and opens the casket to

reveal a "blinking idiot" (2.9.53). The scroll indicates that those who are

self-loving deserve to be called idiots, and would not make good husbands

for Portia. The Prince is upset by his choice, but is forced to leave.

Portia is happy that the Prince has chosen the wrong casket. Her messenger

comes into the room at that moment and informs her that a young Venetian

has just arrived. Portia goes to see who it is, while Nerissa secretly

wishes that it might be Bassanio.

Act III, Scene One

Solanio and Salerio discuss the rumor that Antonio has lost yet a second

ship. Shylock enters and complains that both Solanio and Salerio had

something to do with his daughter's flight. They do not deny it, but

instead ask Shylock if he has heard about Antonio's losses.

Shylock tells them that Antonio should "look to his bond" and make sure he

repays the money, or else Shylock is planning on taking his pound of flesh.

Shylock is furious with Antonio, whom he blames for the loss of Jessica,

and also bears an older grudge against the man. He then delivers his famous

soliloquy, "Hath not a Jew eyes? Hath not a Jew hands, organs, dimensions,

senses, affections, passions..." (3.1.49-50). The speech concludes with

Shylock saying that he will be revenged for all the times he has been

treated badly by Christians.

One of Antonio's servants arrives and bids Solanio and Salerio to go to

Antonio's house. They leave, and Tubal, another Jew, arrives to speak with

Shylock. Tubal has been in Genoa, where he tried to locate Jessica. He

tells Shylock that Jessica had been in the city, and had spent over eighty

ducats while there. She had also traded a turquoise ring for a monkey, a

ring which Shylock regrets losing because he had received it from his wife

Leah. However, Tubal also brings Shylock news that Antonio has lost yet a

third ship, and is almost certain to go bankrupt in the near future.

Shylock is excited by this news, since he has decided that he would rather

exact revenge on Antonio than receive his three thousand ducats back.

Act III, Scene Two

Portia tells Bassanio that she wants him to wait a month or two before

choosing from the caskets so that she may be guaranteed his company for a

while longer. Bassanio tells her that he is desperate to choose, and feels

like he is being tortured the longer he waits. Portia finally agrees to

take him into the room with the caskets.

Portia orders music to be played for Bassanio, and one of her servants

starts to sing a song in which the rhymes all rhyme with lead. Bassanio

speaks directly to the audience and tells them that too many things are

gilded and coated with ornaments. He therefore decides to do away with

gold, comparing it to Midas' greed. The silver casket he also ignores,

saying it resembles money and is therefore too common. He thus chooses the

lead casket and finds Portia's picture inside.

Bassanio is overjoyed by the picture and remarks that it is a beautiful

"counterfeit". He then takes the scroll and reads it: "You that choose not

by the view / Chance as fair and choose as true" (3.2.131-132). Bassanio

goes over to Portia with the note, and she offers him everything she owns,

including herself. Portia then hands Bassanio a ring as a token of her love

and commitment and tells him never to lose it. He promises, telling her

that if he ever stops wearing the ring it will be because he is dead.

Graziano then informs them that he would like to be married as well. He

tells Bassanio and Portia that he and Nerissa (the chambermaid to Portia)

are in love. Bassanio is thrilled for his friend and agrees to let them get

married as well.

Jessica, Lorenzo and Salerio arrive at Belmont. Bassanio is happy to see

all of them, but Salerio then hands him a letter from Antonio. Bassanio

turns pale at the news that Antonio has lost his fortune and his ships, and

he asks Salerio if it is true that all of Antonio's ventures have failed.

Salerio tells him it is true, and that Shylock is so excited about getting

his pound of flesh that even if Antonio could repay him he would likely

refuse it.

Portia asks what amount of money Antonio owes to Shylock, and then orders

Bassanio to return to Venice and offer Shylock six thousand ducats to

destroy the contract. She informs Bassanio and Graziano that she and

Nerissa will live like widows in their absence. They all agree to get

married first and then go straight to Venice to rescue Antonio.

Act III, Scene Three

Shylock has come to watch Antonio be taken away by a jailer. Antonio pleads

with Shylock to listen to him, but Shylock says, "I have sworn an oath that

I will have my bond," (3.3.4) and refuses to listen to any of the pleas for

mercy. After Shylock departs, Antonio tells Solanio that Shylock hates him

because he used to loan money to men who were in debt to Shylock, thus

preventing Shylock from collecting the forfeiture. Antonio is prepared to

pay his "bloody creditor" the next day in court, but prays that Bassanio

will arrive in time to watch him die.

Act III, Scene Four

Portia and Nerissa, worried about their new husbands, tell Lorenzo that

they are going to stay at a local monastery for a few days in order to

pray. After Lorenzo and Jessica leave, Portia sends her servant Balthasar

to her cousin Doctor Bellario with instructions that Balthasar should bring

anything Bellario gives him to Venice. Portia then informs Nerissa that

they are going to dress up as men and go to Venice in order to help their


Act III, Scene Five

Lancelot and Jessica are in an argument over whether she can be saved by

God since she was born a Jew. Lancelot tells her that since both her

parents are Jews, she is damned. She protests that she can be saved once

she becomes a Christian because her husband Lorenzo is a Christian.

Lancelot then makes a joke, and says that Lorenzo is a bad man because by

converting all the Jews he is raising the price of pork (since Jews do not

eat pork, but Christians do). Lorenzo then arrives and orders Lancelot to

go inside and prepare the table for dinner. He and Jessica praise Portia

for being such a wonderful hostess before entering the house to get their


Act IV, Scene One

Antonio is brought before the Duke and the magnificoes of Venice to stand

trial for failing to pay off his obligation to Shylock. The Duke is upset

about the penalty, a pound of Antonio's flesh, but cannot find any lawful

way of freeing Antonio from his bond. Shylock enters the court and the Duke

tells him that all of the men gathered there expect him to pardon Antonio

and forgive the debt.

Shylock replies that he has already sworn by his Sabbath that he will take

his pound of flesh from Antonio. He is unable to provide a good reason for

wanting to punish Antonio in this manner, other than to say, "So can I give

no reason, nor I will not, / More than a lodged hate and a certain loathing

/ I bear Antonio" (4.1.58-60).

Bassanio then comes forward and offers Shylock the six thousand ducats as

repayment for the loan. Shylock tells him that even if there were six times

as much money offered to him, he would not take it. The Duke asks Shylock,

"How shalt thou hope for mercy, rend'ring none?" (4.1.87). Shylock responds

that he is doing nothing wrong, and compares his contract with Antonio to

the Christian slave trade. He tells the Duke that he does not demand that

the Christians should free their slaves, and therefore the Christians

should not demand that he free Antonio.

The Duke threatens to dismiss the court without settling the suit brought

by Shylock if Doctor Bellario fails to arrive. Salerio tells him that a

messenger has just come from Bellario, and Nerissa enters dressed as a man

and informs the Duke that Bellario has sent a letter to him. Shylock whets

his knife on his shoe, confident that he will receive his pound of flesh.

The letter from Bellario recommends a young and educated doctor to

arbitrate the case. The Duke asks where the young doctor is, and Nerissa

tells him that he is waiting outside to be admitted into the court. The

Duke orders him to be brought in, and Portia enters dressed as a man,

pretending to be a doctor named Balthasar.

Portia tells the Duke that she has thoroughly studied the case and then

asks, "Which is the merchant here, and which the Jew?" (4.1.169). Antonio

and Shylock both step forward, and Portia asks Antonio if he confesses to

signing the contract. He does, and Portia then says that Shylock therefore

must be merciful. She delivers a short speech on mercy, but Shylock ignores

it and demands the contract be fulfilled. Portia then asks if no one has

been able to repay the amount, but since Shylock has refused the money

there is nothing she can do to make him take it. She comments that she must

therefore side with Shylock.

Shylock, impressed that Portia is supporting his case, says, "A Daniel come

to judgment, yea, a Daniel!" (4.1.218). Portia rules that Shylock has the

right to claim a pound of flesh from next to Antonio's heart according to

the bond. Antonio's bosom is laid bare and Shylock gets ready to cut.

Portia asks him if he has a surgeon ready to stop the bleeding once he has

taken his pound of flesh. Shylock says, "I cannot find it. 'Tis not in the

bond" (4.1.257).

Just as Shylock is about to start cutting again, Portia says that the bond

does not give him permission to shed Antonio's blood. The laws of Venice

are such that if any Venetian's blood is shed, all the goods and lands of

the perpetrator may be confiscated by the state. Shylock realizes that he

cannot cut the flesh without drawing blood, and instead agrees to take the

money instead. However, Portia is not willing to back down and instead only

gives him the pound of flesh, further saying that if he takes a tiny bit

more or less he will be put to death himself. Shylock, unable to comply

with this stipulation, decides to withdraw his case.

Portia tells Shylock to remain in the court. She says that Venice has a

further law which says that if any foreigner tries to kill a Venetian, the

foreigner will have half of his property go to the Venetian against whom he

plotted, and the state will receive the other half. In addition, the life

of the foreigner will be in the hands of the Duke, who may decide to do

whatever he wants to. Shylock is forced to kneel on the ground before the

court, but the Duke pardons his life before he can beg for mercy.

Shylock instead asks the Duke to kill him, saying, "Nay, take my life and

all, pardon not that. / You take my house when you do take the prop / That

doth sustain my house; you take my life /When you do take the means whereby

I live" (4.1.369-373). Antonio intervenes on Shylock's behalf, and asks the

Duke to allow Shylock to keep half of his wealth. He further offers to take

care of the half he was awarded as a form of inheritance for Jessica and

Lorenzo. The only requirements Antonio puts on his offer are that Shylock

must convert and become a Christian, and further that he must give

everything he owns to Lorenzo upon his death.

Shylock, wretched and having lost everything he owns, tells the court that

he is content to accept these conditions. The Duke leaves and tells Antonio

to thank the young doctor who has saved his life. Bassanio and Graziano go

to Portia and thank her profusely, and Bassanio offers the young doctor

anything he wants. Portia decides to test her husband's trustworthiness,

and asks him for the engagement ring, the ring which she made him vow never

to part with. He refuses, and Portia and Nerissa leave. However, at

Antonio's urging, Bassanio takes off the ring and gives it to Graziano,

telling him to take it to Portia and invite her to dinner that night at


Act IV, Scene Two

Portia gives Nerissa the deed by which Shylock will pass his inheritance to

Lorenzo. She tells Nerissa to take it to Shylock's house and make him sign

it. At the moment Graziano catches up with the two women and gives the ring

to Portia. She is surprised that Bassanio parted with it after all, and

Nerissa decides to test Graziano in the same way. Nerissa takes the deed

and asks Graziano to show her the way to Shylock's house.

Act V, Scene One

Lorenzo and Jessica, still at Belmont, sit outside and enjoy the night.

They compare the night to the stories of Troilus and Cressida, Pyramus and

Thisbe, and Dido and Aeneus, and then extend the analogy to their own love

affair. They are interrupted by Stefano, who tells them that Portia is

returning home with Nerissa. Lancelot then arrives and informs Lorenzo that

Bassanio will also be back by morning. Both Lorenzo and Jessica return to

the house and listen to music.

Portia and Nerissa, dressed as themselves again, return home and enter the

building. Lorenzo recognizes Portia's voice and comes to greet her. She

orders the servants to pretend as if she had never left, and asks Lorenzo

and Jessica to do the same. Soon thereafter Bassanio, Graziano and Antonio


Nerissa demands that Graziano show her the ring he gave away to Portia's

"clerk" in Venice. They start to argue over it, with Graziano defending his

action as a form of kindness for Antonio. Portia overhears them and

pretends to "discover" what happened. She then demands that Bassanio show

her his ring, which he of course cannot do. Portia and Nerissa then berate

their husbands for giving away the rings, and even tell them that they

would prefer to sleep with the doctor and his clerk rather than with their

unfaithful husbands.

Antonio offers his assurance that neither Bassanio nor Graziano will ever

give away their wives' gifts again. Portia thanks him and asks him to give

Bassanio another ring to keep. Bassanio looks at the ring and recognizes it

as being the same ring he gave away. Portia then tells him that the doctor

came back to Belmont and slept with her. Bassanio is amazed and does not

know how to respond.

Portia finally clears up the confusion by informing Bassanio that she and

Nerissa were the doctor and the clerk. She further has good news for

Antonio, namely a letter that indicates that three of his ships arrived in

port safely. Nerissa then hands Lorenzo the deed from Shylock in which he

inherits everything after Shylock dies. The play ends with Graziano

promising to forever keep Nerissa's ring safe.


Act I, scene i:

Othello begins in the city of Venice, at night; Roderigo is having a

discussion with Iago, who is bitter at being passed up as Othello's

lieutenant. Though Iago had greater practice in battle and in military

matters, Cassio, a man of strategy but of little experience, was named

lieutenant by Othello. Iago says that he only serves Othello to further

himself, and makes shows of his allegiance only for his own gain; he is

playing false, and admits that his nature is not at all what it seems. Iago

is aware that the daughter of Brabantio, a Venetian nobleman of some

stature, has run off with Othello, the black warrior of the Moors.

Desdemona is Brabantio's daughter, and Brabantio, and many others, know

nothing of this coupling; Iago decides to enlist Roderigo, who lusts after

Desdemona, and awaken Brabantio with screams that his daughter is gone.

At first, Brabantio dismisses these cries in the dark; but when he realizes

his daughter is not there, he gives the news some credence. Roderigo is the

one speaking most to Brabantio, but Iago is there too, hidden, yelling

unsavory things about Othello and his intentions toward Desdemona.

Brabantio panics, and calls for people to try and find his daughter; Iago

leaves, not wanting anyone to find out that he betrayed his own leader, and

Brabantio begins to search for his daughter.

Act I, scene ii:

Iago has now joined Othello, and has told Othello about Roderigo's betrayal

of the news of his marriage to Brabantio's daughter. He tells Othello that

Brabantio is upset, and will probably try to tear Desdemona from him.

Cassio comes at last, as do Roderigo and Brabantio; Iago threatens Roderigo

with violence, again making a false show of his loyalty to Othello.

Brabantio is very angry, swearing that Othello must have bewitched his

daughter, and that the state will not decide for him in this case. Othello

says that the Duke must hear him, and decide in his favor, or else all is

far from right in Venice.

Act I, scene iii:

Military conflict is challenging the Venetian stronghold of Cyprus; there

are reports that Turkish ships are heading toward the island, which means

some defense will be necessary. Brabantio and Othello enter the assembled

Venetian leaders, who are discussing this military matter, and Brabantio

announces his grievance against Othello for marrying his daughter. Othello

addresses the company, admitting that he did marry Desdemona, but wooed her

with stories, and did her no wrongs. Desdemona comes to speak, and she

confirms Othello's words; Brabantio's grievance is denied, and Desdemona

will indeed stay with Othello. However, Othello is called away to Cyprus,

to help with the conflict there; he begs that Desdemona be able to go with

him, since they have been married for so little time. Othello and Desdemona

win their appeal, and Desdemona is to stay with Iago, until she can come to

Cyprus and meet Othello there.

Roderigo is upset that Desdemona and Othello's union was allowed to stand,

since he lusts after Desdemona. But Iago assures him that the match will

not last long, and at any time, Desdemona could come rushing to him. Iago

wants to break up the couple, using Roderigo as his pawn, out of malice and

his wicked ability to do so.

Act II, scene i:

A terrible storm has struck Cyprus, just as the Turks were about to

approach. This might mean that the Turkish attack will not happen; but it

also bodes badly for Othello's ship. A messenger enters, and confirms that

the Turkish fleet was broken apart by the storm, and that Cassio has

arrived, though Othello is still at sea. They spot a ship coming forth; but

Iago, Desdemona, and Emilia are on it, not Othello. Cassio greets them all,

especially praising Desdemona; somehow, Iago and Desdemona enter into an

argument about what women are, and Iago shows how little praise he believes

women deserve. Othello arrives at last, and is very glad to see his wife

arrived, much earlier than expected; he and Desdemona make public signs of

their love, and then depart. Iago speaks to Roderigo, convincing him that

Desdemona will stray from Othello, as she has already done with Cassio. He

convinces Roderigo to attack Cassio that night, as he plans to visit

mischief on both Othello and Cassio.

Act II, scene ii:

Othello's herald enters, to proclaim that the Turks are not going to

attack, all should be joyful, and Othello is celebrating the happiness of

his recent marriage.

Act II, scene iii:

Iago and Cassio are on the watch together; Iago gets Cassio to drink a bit,

knowing that he cannot hold his liquor at all. Iago also tries to get

Cassio's feelings about Desdemona, and make her seem tempting to him; but

his intentions are innocent and friendly, so this approach fails. Cassio

leaves for a bit, and Iago says that he intends to get Cassio drunk, that

will hopefully cause a quarrel between Cassio and Roderigo, who has been

stirred up against Cassio. Iago wants to see Cassio discredited through

this, so that he might take Cassio's place. Montano and others come, and

Iago entertains them with small talk and song; soon, Cassio is drunk, and

Roderigo has approached. Cassio fights offstage with Roderigo, and comes

forth, chasing him; Montano tries to hinder Cassio, but Cassio just ends up

injuring him. All the noise wakes Othello, who comes down to figure out

what has happened. Montano tells what he knows of it all, and Iago fills in

the rest‹making sure to fictionalize his part in it all too. Cassio is

stripped of his rank, and all leave Cassio and Iago alone.

Cassio laments that he has lost his reputation, which is very dear to him.

Iago tries to convince him that a reputation means little; and, if he talks

to Desdemona, maybe he can get her to vouch for him with Othello. This will

help Iago get the impression across that Desdemona and Cassio are together,

which will make Othello very angry if it works. Iago then gives a soliloquy

about knowing that Desdemona will speak for Cassio, and that he will be

able to turn that against them both.

Act III, scene i:

The third act begins with a little bit of comic relief; a clown is mincing

words with a few musicians, then has a little wordplay with Cassio, who

bids the clown to go and see if Desdemona will speak with him. Iago enters,

and Cassio tells him that he means to speak to Desdemona, so that she may

clear things up with Othello. Emilia comes out, and bids Cassio to come in

and speak with Desdemona about his tarnished reputation.

Act III, scene ii:

Othello gives Iago some letters that need to be delivered back to Venice,

which Iago is in turn supposed to give to a ship's pilot who is sailing

back to Venice.

Act III, scene iii:

Desdemona decides that she wants to advocate for Cassio. She tells Emilia

so, and that she believes Cassio is a good person, and has been wronged in

this case; she pledges to do everything she can to persuade her husband to

take Cassio back. Cassio speaks with her briefly, but leaves just as

Othello enters because he does not wish for a confrontation. Iago seizes on

this opportunity to play on Othello's insecurities, and make Cassio's exit

seem guilty and incriminating. Othello then speaks to Desdemona, and

Desdemona expresses her concern for Cassio; she is persistent in his suit,

which Othello is not too pleased about. Othello says he will humor her, and

the subject is dropped for a while.

Iago then plays on Othello's insecurities about Desdemona, and gets Othello

to believe, through insinuation, that there is something going on between

Desdemona and Cassio. Othello seizes on this, and then Iago works at

building up his suspicions. Soon, Othello begins to doubt his wife, as Iago

lets his insinuations gain the force of an accusation against her. Othello

begins to voice his insecurities when it comes to Desdemona, and himself as

well. Desdemona enters, and they have a brief conversation; Othello admits

that he is troubled, though he will not state the cause.

Desdemona drops the handkerchief that Othello gave her on their honeymoon;

Emilia knew that her husband had wanted it for something, so she doesn't

feel too guilty about taking it. Emilia gives it to Iago, who decides to

use the handkerchief for his own devices. Othello re-enters, and tells Iago

that he now doubts his wife; Othello demands "ocular proof" of Desdemona's

dishonesty, so Iago sets about making stories up about Cassio talking in

his sleep, and says that Cassio has the handkerchief that Othello gave to

Desdemona. Iago knows how important this handkerchief is to Othello; it was

his first gift to Desdemona, and was given to him by his mother. Othello is

incensed to hear that Desdemona would give away something so valuable, and

is persuaded by Iago's insinuations and claims to believe that Desdemona is

guilty. Othello then swears to have Cassio dead, and to be revenged upon

Desdemona for the non-existent affair.

Act III, scene iv:

Desdemona asks the clown where Cassio is; the clown goes off to fetch him.

Desdemona is looking everywhere for the handkerchief, very sorry to have

lost it; she knows that her losing it will upset Othello greatly, although

she claims he is not so jealous that he will think ill of the loss. Othello

enters, and asks for Desdemona's handkerchief; she admits that she does not

have it, and then Othello tells her of its significance and alleged magical

powers. Desdemona does not like Othello's tone; he seems obsessed with this

object, and Desdemona is so frightened by him that she wishes she had

nothing to do with it. She interrupts Othello's inquiry by bringing up

Cassio's attempt to get back into Othello's favor; Othello becomes angry,

and storms out. Desdemona and Emilia both note that Othello is much

changed; he is unkind and seems jealous, and they are suspicious of the

change in him.

Cassio then enters, with Iago; he laments that his suit is not successful,

and that Othello does not seem likely to take him back. Desdemona is sorry

for this, since she knows that Cassio is a man of worth; she tells Cassio

and Iago that Othello has been acting strange, and is upset, and Iago goes

to look for him, feigning concern. Emilia thinks that Othello's change has

something to do with Desdemona, or Othello's jealous nature; they still

cannot fathom what has happened, and exit, leaving Cassio.

Bianca comes in, and Cassio asks her to copy the handkerchief that he found

in his room; it is Desdemona's handkerchief, though Cassio has no idea. He

claims he does not love her, and gets angry at her for allegedly suspecting

that the handkerchief is a gift of another woman. But, Bianca is not

disturbed, and leaves with the handkerchief.

Act IV, scene i:

Othello is trying, even after swearing that Desdemona was unfaithful, not

to condemn her too harshly. He is talking with Iago about the handkerchief

still, and its significance in being found; but, soon, Iago whips Othello

into an even greater fury through mere insinuation, and Othello takes the

bait. Othello falls into a trance of rage, and Iago decides to hammer home

his false ideas about his wife. Iago calls Cassio in, while Othello hides;

Iago speaks to Cassio of Bianca, but Othello, in his disturbed state,

believes that Cassio is talking of Desdemona, which is the last "proof" he

needs before declaring his wife guilty. Bianca comes in, and gives the

handkerchief back to Cassio, since she swears she will have nothing to do

with it.

Othello is incensed by Cassio, still believing that he was speaking of

Desdemona, rather than Bianca. Now, Othello is resolved to kill Desdemona

himself, and charges Iago with murdering Cassio. Ludovico, a noble Venetian

whom Desdemona knows, has recently landed; Desdemona and Othello welcome

him there. But, when Desdemona mentions Cassio, Othello becomes very angry

and slaps her in front of everyone; she rushes off, very upset. Ludovico

especially is shocked at this change in Othello, and has no idea how such a

noble man could act so cruelly.

Act IV, scene ii:

Othello questions Emilia about Desdemona's guilt, or the chance she has had

an affair with Cassio. Emilia admits to having seen nothing, though Othello

does not believe her. Emilia swears that she has seen and heard all that

has gone on between Cassio and Desdemona, and that Desdemona is pure and

true. Othello believes that Emilia is in on all this too; he accuses

Desdemona, and her insistence that she is innocent only infuriates him

further. Othello leaves, and Desdemona and Emilia try to figure out what

has happened to Othello, and what they can do; Desdemona feels especially

helpless, and Emilia is very angry. Emilia thinks that someone has

manipulated Othello into accusing Desdemona, and has poisoned his mind;

however, Iago is there to dispel this opinion, so that Emilia does not

inquire further into her theory. Upon leaving the women, Iago comes across

Roderigo; he is not pleased with how Iago has handled things, and knows

that although Iago is promising him Desdemona's favor, he has done nothing

to indicate that he has worked to achieve this. Iago quiets him by making

him believe that if he kills Cassio, then he will win Desdemona; Roderigo

decides to go along with it, but Iago is coming dangerously close to being


Act IV, scene iii:

Othello tells Desdemona to go to bed, and dismiss Emilia; Emilia regrets

Desdemona's marriage, although Desdemona cannot say that she does not love

Othello. Desdemona knows that she will die soon; she sings a song of

sadness and resignation, and decides to give herself to her fate. Desdemona

asks Emilia whether she would commit adultery to win her husband the world.

Emilia, the more practical one, thinks that it is not too big a price for a

small act; Desdemona is too good, and too devout, to say that she would do


Act V, scene i:

Iago has Roderigo poised and ready to pounce on Cassio, and kill him; if

either of them is killed, it is to Iago's benefit, although he would like

to have both of them disposed of, so that his devices might not be

discovered. Roderigo and Cassio fight, and both are injured; Othello hears

the scuffle, is pleased, and then leaves to finish off Desdemona. Iago

enters, pretending that he knows nothing of the scuffle; Gratiano and

Ludovico also stumble upon the scene, having no idea what has happened.

Roderigo is still alive, so Iago feigns a quarrel, and finishes him off.

Bianca comes by, and sees Cassio wounded; Iago makes some remark to

implicate her; Cassio is carried away, and Roderigo is already dead. Emilia

also comes in, and pins more blame on Bianca; she has done nothing, but

Iago has some quick work to do if he is to exonerate himself in this mess.

Act V, scene ii:

Othello enters Desdemona's room while she is asleep; and though she is

beautiful, and appears innocent, he still is determined to kill her. He

justifies this with images, metaphors, and ideas of her rebirth after

death, and though his rage is softened, he is still much mistaken about

her. Desdemona awakens, and he tells her to repent of any sins before she

dies; she believes there is nothing she can do to stop him from killing

her, and continues to assert her innocence. Othello tells her that he found

her handkerchief with Cassio, though Desdemona insists it must not be true;

she pleads with Othello not to kill her right then, but he begins to

smother her. Emilia knocks, curious about what is going on; Othello lets

her in, but tries to conceal Desdemona, who he thinks is already dead.

Emilia brings the news of Roderigo's death, and Cassio's wounding.

Emilia soon finds out that Desdemona is nearly dead, by Othello's hand;

Desdemona speaks her last words, and then Emilia pounces on Othello for

committing this horrible crime. Othello is not convinced of his folly until

Iago confesses his part, and Cassio speaks of the use of the handkerchief;

then, Othello is overcome with grief. Iago stabs Emilia for telling all

about his plots, and then Emilia dies; the Venetian nobles reveal that

Brabantio, Desdemona's father, is dead, and so cannot be grieved by this

tragedy now. Othello stabs Iago when he is brought back in; Othello then

tells all present to remember him how he is, and kills himself. Cassio

becomes temporary leader of the troops at Cyprus, and Lodovico and Gratiano

are supposed to carry the news of the tragedy back to Venice. Iago is taken

into custody, and his crimes will be judged back in Venice.

Richard III

Act One, Scene One

Richard gives a short speech detailing his plot against his brother

Clarence, who comes before him as heir to the throne of England. Richard

has just succeeded in having Clarence arrested and it as a prisoner that

Clarence walks onto the stage, guarded by Sir Robert Brackenbury.

Richard asks Clarence what the reason for his arrest is. Clarence replies

that someone told King Edward that a person with a name starting with the

letter "G" would cause his family to lose the throne. Since Clarence's full

name is George, Duke of Clarence, he was considered to be the primary

suspect. Richard complains that this arrest is the result of the women

plotting against Clarence, most notably Queen Elizabeth and possibly also

Mrs. Shore.

Brackenbury tells the men he is not allowed to let anyone converse with the

prisoner, and takes Clarence into the Tower of London. Richard comments

that he will soon remove Clarence permanently and thus clear the path to

the throne for himself.

Lord Hastings, also known as Lord Chamberlain, emerges from the Tower,

having just been freed. Lord Hastings tells Richard that King Edward IV is

sickly and ailing, and cannot hope to live much longer. After he departs,

Richard remarks that he will first have Edward kill Clarence. This will put

Richard into a position where upon Edward's death he can assume the throne.

He also plots to marry Lady Anne Neville, who is the widow of Edward,

Prince of Wales and the daughter-in-law of Henry VI, whom Richard just