Áèëåòû ïî àíãëèéñêîìó çà 11 êëàññ
Áèëåòû ïî àíãëèéñêîìó çà 11 êëàññ
1. Travelling by air .Give your counter reasons in fever of flying.
Many people devote ( ïîñâÿùàþò ) their lives travelling . They can
spend a lot of time for the road .And they can travel by car, by sea, by
train , and by air. Also travelling by air usually preferred by people
who haven’t got much time and they must quickly get to another city,
country or continent. Nowadays there are a lot of businessmen who have to
communicate with people from other countries. Each of us has a lot of
relatives and friends. Some of them live in other countries. For example
you live in Russia, Moscow and you have some relatives in France or in
Britain. You certainly can get to GB by train , and by sea but it will take
you a lot of time. It would be easier if you choose a plane.
There are some rules in air port which every passengers mast following
At first it is necessary to arrive at the airport 2 hours before departure
time. They must register their tickets, weigh in and register the luggage.
Most airports have at least 2 classes of travel, first class and economy
class, which is cheaper. Each passenger of more than 2 years of age has
free luggage allowance. Generally this limit is 20 kg for economy class
passengers and 30 kg for first class passengers, excess luggage must be
paid for except for some articles that can be carried free of charge. At
first you go through the Customs, there you mast fill in the customs
declaration before you talk to the customs officer. He may ask any
passenger routine questions about declare the things, spirits , tobacco ,
presents. Then you do to the check - in counter where your ticket is looked
at, you are given luggage tags and boarding passes, your . The next
formality is filling in the immigration form and going through passport
control. The form has to be filled in block letters . You write your name,
nationality, permanent address and the purpose of your trip. After
fulfilling all these formalities you go to the departure lounge where you
can have a snack , read a paper buy something in the duty-free shop and
wait for the announcement to board the plane.
When you decide to travel by air you can buy first and economy class
tickets. The first class is more comfortable than economy and it is always
more expensive .In spite of first class tickets being very expensive have
some advantages over economy. At first it is more comfortable seats. The
dinner is much better then in economy class , and if you have bought a
first class ticket you can have 30 kg luggage free of charge. Also you have
a private emergency exit for the first class passages only. You have one
more advantage : you can take any drinks free. Although flying by plane is
very fast it has some inconveniences. There is a jet-lag, a difference
between the time you are accustomed to and the new time. At first you won’t
be very well because of it , but don’t worry – it won’t take you long to
get used to it. As a whole to fly by planes is pleasant and convenient
2. British Painters
It is sometimes possible to see the national character in painters or
groups of painters. But the visual language of art travels quickly and
easily, and artists are influenced by things they see all over the world.
Painters themselves also travel and visited over countries. The first
important period of English Painting was started by German visitor Hans
Holbein the Younger lived in London between 1527 and 1543, and painted
wonderful portraits of the rich and famous people. He had learned from
Italian painters. Inspired by Holbein, a school of portrait painters
developed in England. One of the most famous of these painters was Nicholas
Hilliard, who specialized in miniatures: very small, beautifully colored
Another great portrait painter, Joshua Reynolds (1723-92), who too
learning in Italy. The quality of Reynolds paint is differs from his
predecessors(ïðåäøåñòâåííèêè) : William Hogarth and Thomas Gainsborough, he
represented(ïðåäñòàâëåí) the expression on the face and the
insights(ïîíèìàíèå) into the character.
Although there have been brilliant British painters, few of them have
achieved an international reputation. However, there is at least one
notable(èçâåñòíûé) exception -J.M.W. Turner (1775-185l). His paintings were
years ahead of their time. He was working in the first half of the 19th
century, but his work seems to look forward to the impressionism of 75
In fact the genius of Turner was not really appreciated (îöåíåííûé) in
his own time. Only not long time ago he come to be regarded (áûòü ðàñöåíåí
) as the greatest of Br. painters. Much of Turner’s works is at the Tate
Gallery in London , which is also the best place in the country to see
modern art. The 20th century was an extremely busy and exciting time for
Br. painters. At first the tendency was , as often in past , to imitate
the European’s painters. The French impressionists had taken the art
world like a storm and finagle painters try to copy them. The Picasso
and Bragne come up with something completely new – cubism and again Br.
painters followed .
Only in the middle of the 20th century a new movement had started
actually in this country. Pop art painters caught the imagination of young
people. This movement dropped almost all previous (ïðåäûäóùèé) ideas about
painting, and picked-up the images of advertising . Ðop music and cheap
everyday objects. The first artist who do it were Richard Hamilton , Edward
Paolozzi and Peter Black(who did the famous cover of the Beatles album
Nowadays the Br. artists , seem to have given up the traditional forms of
drawing, paining and sculpture. If you go to an art collage exhibition ,
you will probably see photos, constructions with lights and sounds. Media
attention is always on the new ,and the daring and shocking works are
often Are awarded by prizes for its originality. And old-fashion taste and
skill stayed in past.
3. Staying at the hotel. Speak about everyday services available at the
When you come to another country or city you can stay at your friend’s
house or flat. But if you haven’t got any relatives or friends you may stay
at a hotel. There are 2 sorts of hotels: at the seaside and in city The
hotels at the seaside usually occupied big territory . And the services
and facilities are usually better there then in city hotels. You can get
more things free. Also at the seaside hotels food is served usually 2 of 3
times a day and in city hotels you can get only breakfast . Before you
arrive somewhere you can make arrangements about a room of the hotel you’ll
choose. You can call at the hotel of send them a fax or telegram which
numbers you can find in the advertisement. If you haven’t done it , when
you arrive at the hotel it is necessary to come up to the reception desk
.There a person can order a room. First of all you must fill in an arrival
card. In this card you must gave information about yourself. Your name and
surname, telephone number and address besides it is necessary to point out
how long are you going to stay here. Also among the seaside hotels the best
with club system . Usually on the territory of such hotels there are 4-5
storied building with single rooms, double rooms, and suites and separate
there are family cottages. The area of such hotels is usually very big
about 50hectores . Club system allows to take free any , soft drinks, food
24 hours a day, because everything is included into the price of the tour.
There are all day room services , dry cleaners, laundries. In the rooms
there is a refrigerator, bathroom, a satellite TV and direct dial phone.
Also such hotels have their own place on the beach with comfortable sun
beds .You can spend time riding horses, playing tennis, golf, polo,
visiting shops, which are usually situated in the territory of the hotels.
In the evenings you can go to the disco or to the restaurant . The menu in
the restaurants including different cuisine’s such as :French, Spanish,
Chinese, Turkish, Russian and so on. You can order a yacht tour to some
historical places (if any) or something like that. After visiting such
hotels you’ll return home happy and refreshed.
5. Pop and classical Music.
Music always been an integral part of human life. In ancient times it
accompanied the ritual ceremonies later it began to occupy more important
place. Then it transformed in a means of passing time. It reached the
highest development only in 20-th century . new directions appeared in
music such as jazz, disco, rock-and-roll , rock, pop and so on. The music
which was composed from 17 till 20-th century is usually calls classical.
That were a sumphonies, ouvertures, suits, sonnats. The most famous
classical musicious were: Bach, Bethoven, Gaiden, Shopen, Rohmaninov and
many others. In 20-th century it was not so popular any more, her the place
was occupied by other genres, such as fate, ðîð, jazz, and last years
became very popular folk songs.
As for me i neither like classical nor pop music. If we are compare them
I’ll prefer the classical As the songs consists not only of music, not an
unimportant role plays lyrics. In pop music there isn’t both these making
There are a lot of people who enjoyed by classical music, they usually
visit concerts of different symphonic and chamber archers. It is often
people over 30. They like and admire this music and consider it genius.
Some compositions ( works) is really charming( âîñõèòèòåëüíû) for
example the Moonlight sonnat and «to Elise» by Bethoven, and «In cave of
the mountain king” by The music is wonderful and you
can listen it for many times. And a lot of generations admired and will
admire with it. As if to pop music it is very hard to tell something
similar about it. I am very doubt that in (÷åðåç) 50 years the people will
listen to what have the pop singers composed. Because the music is very
primitive , and the lyrics are stupid. The y sing only about love and
some problems which connected with it. And I can’t listen to it at all.
I’ve chosen a rock music. Nowadays it isn’t very popular among young
people. They prefer to listen pop. Rap and so on. The main advantage of
rock music above all others is lyrics. Rock singers write music and texts
them selves and for it i respect them more . the most famous rock group
are : Kino, Alisa, Nau, Krematorium, DDt, and many others. Most of them
appeared 10-25 years ago , but still fortunately there are people who fond
of such music. Rock singers write about eternal (Âå÷íûé) problems. In
their lyrics reflects their fillings . And
each of us can find something close only for him. And that is what rock
music about. And that’s why I like it so mach .
Roll up! Roll up! Audiences have crowded into the Palladium since it opened
as a music hall in 1910. London's theatres have drawn attention for
unrivalled standards ever since the days of Shakespeare when his plays were
enacted in the Globe Theatre. DruryLane, Shaftesbury Avenue, Haymarket and
the Strand are bright with theatrical lights, with musicals and dramas,
farce and comedy. Theatre isn't confined to the West End: the stages of the
Royal Court in Sloane Square, the Mermaid by Blackfriars Bridge, the
Barbican in the City and the National Theatre on the South Bank beckon
nightly. Fringe theatre has been growing but with an ever changing choice
of productions to see, for longevity there's nothing to beat Agatha
Christie's The Mousetrap, which runs and runs.
Most British cities have a theatre, but London has the greatest number.
There are over 50 theatres in London's West End, the area in London with
most theatres, and about 35 smaller fringe theatres.
In recent years, musicals have been very successful. About 51A million
people, many of them tourists, go to see a musical every year in London.
Going to the theatre in Britain is not only popular, but also expensive.
Not many young people can afford to go. It is possible to get cheaper
tickets by going to afternoon performances called matinees or by buying
stand-bys, half-price tickets which are sold half an hour before a
7. Speak about foods you like and dislike. Describe any recipe.
Meals play an important role in human life. Because it contained
indispensable ingredients for life activity of our organism. Such as
dioxides, fats, minerals and vitamins. They are contained in fish,
vegetables, fruits, meat and other food stuffs . To be healthy man should
eat 3 times a day. For lunch people usually eat buiscuits, toasts,
sandwiches, cheese and drink coffee or tea with cream and sugar accordingly
to your taste . For dinner we eat some soup, salad and fowl, fish or meat
with garnish. Many people have to eat out of home in restaurants or in
cafes . In such places you can order French fries, hamburgers,
cheeseburgers, crisps, pizza and many others, but these meals are very
harmful for our health. For the last 10 years in Moscow and in over big
cities appeared a lot of restaurants and fast-food cafes. And with each
year them becomes ever more. The old restaurants, such as Prague, were
advanced, and at the same time has appeared a lot of new. From a net of
restaurants of a fast feed(meal) by first has appeared McDonalds, and then
Russian bistro Sbarro, ¨lki palki, Patio pizza and ò.ä Such trade marks as
McDonalds , Sbarro and Patio a pizza are known all over the world, and in
what you to the country would not be , whether it be Russia, Great Britain
or USA quality of meal and å ¸ of assortment in these restaurants
everywhere identical. And such restaurants as Russian bistro and åëêè ïàëêè
are only in Russia, and were created on an image and similarity of
McDonalds. each of these restaurants has firm dish. For example McDonalds
associates with Big Mag Sbarro and Patio a pizza offer very tasty pizzas,
in Russian bistro a wide range of pies made on the Russian recipe. But the
cheapest and qualitative meal can be found in McDonalds. In Russia
unfortunately price level in restaurants of a fast food, and in expensive
restaurants very strongly differs and many people simply are not capable
to pay the accounts. In Great Britain and in USA considerably more people
can visit restaurants. Plus to all service in restaurants of Russia can
not be compared with European yet. Also nowadays many restaurants give
services in delivery of their most known dishes directly to you home. For
this purpose it is necessary only to call and to name that want. In Europe
this system exists for a long time, and in Russia it has appeared
absolutely recently. In Moscow besides restaurants with Russian there are
the restaurants with the Chinese, Japanese, Indian, Turkish and Spanish
kitchen witch use the large popularity. But it is not enough of them and
the prices same are accessible not to all .
As besides restaurants it is possible to find set of tents in streets
of Moscow selling hot meal, but the quality of it very doubtful. I hope
that in due course will occur ever more and more restaurants offering
tasty, qualitative and useful meal.
8.Speak about shopping in GB and in Russia
Europe dictates a fashion to the whole world. Nowadays France is the
centre of fashion. But in the last century her place was occupied by GB.
At that time a lot of new modern shops appeared. Now their branches are
situated all over the world. you can find . The Most famous of them in
London in Oxford Street, Regent Street, and Knightsbridge . Besides book’s
,clothes’, food shops in GB there are a lot of supermarkets and department
stores where you can buy everything from a button to a car and furniture.
Here there are the most famous British shops:
The Body shop: sells perfumes, soap, shampoo and skin-care products
for men and for women.
Dillons :was open in 1936 as the bookshop to the University of London.
Next: is the a chain of Popular fashion clothes shops for men and
women. It became famous for the suits which were worn by the businessmen
and businesswomen at the beginning of the 1980s.
W.H.Smith: is a national chain of shops which sells newspapers and
magazines. Smith’s also sell books, videos, stationary, pens and office
Harrods : is the famous London department store
Sainbury’s supermarkets are one of the leaders in food and drink
selling in Britain.
But the most famous of British shops all over the world is Marks &
Spencer . It attracts a great variety of customers, from housewives to
millionaires . Princess Diana, Dustin Hoffman and the British Prime
Minister are just a few of its famous customers. Last year it made a profit
of £529 million, which is more than £ 10 million a week. It all started 109
years ago, when a young Polish immigrant, Michael Marks, had a stall in
Leeds market. He didn’t have many things to sell: some cotton, a little
wool, lots of buttons, and few shoelaces. Above his stall he put the
notice: “Don’t ask how much-it’s a penny. 10 years later , he met Tom
Spencer and together they started Penny Stalls in many towns in the north
of England. Today there are 564 brunches of M&S all over the world – in
America, Canada, Spain, France, Belgium, and Hungary. In M&S the best
selling clothes are :for women: jumpers, bras, and knickers; for men:
shirts, socks, pyjamas, dressing gowns, and suits; for children; underwear
and socks. Best – sells in food include fresh chickens, bread, vegetables
and sandwiches. Why is M&S so successful? The store bases its business on
three principles: good value, good quality, and good service. Also it
changes with the times –once it was all jumpers and knickers. Now it’s
food, furniture and flowers as well .Top fashion designers advise on styles
9. Education in GB and in Russia.
As in other countries the vast majority (Îãðîìíîå áîëüøèíñòâî) of people in
medieval Br were illiterate. Written texts were in Latin and exact of
churchman , there was only a small group of professional clerks , who
could read and write. And sometimes when you needed something to write down
you had to pay one of the clerks for his job.
After the Norman invasion in 1066 Br. started to join social-political
life of Europe. In that time the rich families began to employed clerks
to teach their children at home. Then church mans began to open schools
for boys. After French revolution which brought ideas of social
equality . woman began to demand access to some sort of education as boys.
In 1874 Gorton Collage and Cambridge afford the first university places
Nowadays everybody has a right to a school place for a child from age 5
to age 16, and a collage place from 16 to 18. This places are provided free
of charge. In GB there are 2 steps which is free of charge: this is Primary
school ( here learn children from age 5 to 11) and Secondary school (from
11 to 18 years old). The Primary school consist of 6 steps, and Secondary
school education can be devoted into 2 parts. First it is 5 steps after
which children can leave Secondary school after they pass 11 GCSE exams(
General Certificate of School Education), but they can also stay at school
or in collage for more 2 years. Most Secondary schools in GB are
comprehensive for example state school s which take children of all
abilities. About 7% of students go to privet schools. This schools don’t
receive any money from state and they are usually single sex, and
children live there during tern-time. Most pupils in GB schools wear
school uniform. The favorite colors for it are: blue, gray, black and
After Secondary school only 25% of Students continuos education and go
to universities. GB Universities are not open to every one it depends on
your last year in school. And your A-level results. For example the
Nottingam university accepting students it the have 2 Bs and a C in A-
In Russia the education system is different. All children must learn from
1 stage to 9 it is obligatory education. After which pupils pass 5 exams.
They can leave school or stay for 2 years more (10 and 11 grades) . it is
High secondary school education. At the end of 11 form all pupils must pass
6 exams. 2 of them are identically to all. It is written literature and
mathematics . in schools with the profound study of languages (foe
example English) the exam on this subject is considered composure . other
3 or 4 exams pupils choose themselves. During the last form many pupils
usually attends to the courses of the university they had chosen. In
Russia everybody could enter the university, but he must pass entrance
exams. In every university they are different.
11. You like your flat and your district. Speak in fever of the place.
I live in Moscow, in North Orekhovo - Borisovo district. It is situated in
the South of the city. In my district there is Tzarizansky park . It is a
very old park and it has it own interesting history. Catherine I liked the
village called “Black mud” and she ordered architectures Kazakov and
Bazhenov to build there a residence, but as the name of the village was not
appropriate for a summer residence of empress it was decided to rename it
to Tzarizano. When everything was ready Catherine I didn’t like the
building of Big Palace and the architects began to remake it but they
didn’t finish their work. For the many years it remained unfinished. But
about 5 or 7 years ago old buildings were restored. A lot of people like to
walk there and breathe fresh air . It is very important that in our
district there is a forest. It cleans the air. Ecology conditions in our
district are bad as the winds from the North bring polluted air, also in
our district there are a lot of industrial projects. For example near my
house the Tobacco fabric “Ducat” are situated. I live in a 3 room flat.
There are 2 bedrooms, a living room, and a kitchen. In my room there is a
wardrobe , a bed, a desk ,a computer, a tape recorder and some pot plants.
In the kitchen there is a table with chairs , a refrigerator , a microwave
oven , roaster, and a TV set. In the living room there is a sofa, a TV
set , a hi-fi system and a table with chairs. Besides Tzarizansky park
there is another historical place in our district Kolomenskoe .It is a park
too. In warm days it is very pleasant to walk there with friends . I like
my district because nowadays a lot of new interesting shops and places
opened here and in has become more modern. Certainly it is a pity that out
district is situated very far from the center of Moscow and it takes me a
lot of time to get there, but near my house there is Domodedovskaya metro
station which is very good. The only thing I wish is a better ecological
situation in our district and then everything will be OK .
13. Speak about advantages and disadvantages of living in a big city , in a
small town and in the country
The city is the place where all industrial cultural and educational
centers are situated. In big cities you can find museums, theaters, clubs,
cinemas ,big shops and hospitals, comfortable modern flats. People try to
live in cites because all necessary objects are situated near by. For
example if you get ill a hospital or a chemist’s shop will be situated
near your home in the city, and if you live in the country it will be hard
to find any medical help very quicly . Also in big cites you can fiend all
sorts of entertainment such as cinemas clubs entertaining parks and so on.
Many people like to spend their free time in them because it helps them to
relax and bring them a lot of pleasure. It is really convenient that
everything you need in daily life is situated near you. One of the most
important comforts of big cites is that you can fast get everywhere you
like by underground, bus, trolley bas. Also in big cities there is
electricity therefore you can use electrical devices such as TV sets,
computers, radio, microwave owen, refrigerators and so on. One more thing,
without which it would be impossible to live today is the telephone and
where there is a telephone there is also Internet. The connection has huge
value in the life of people and we have got used to it to such extent ,
that it there is no telephone we feel uncomfortable and lonely. Yes , it
is really comfortable, and at first glance everything is good but
nowadays big cites there are a great amount of cars and factories Big
cites suffer of overpopulation, dirty air, and water, The streets became
noisy and after hard working day people cannot relax. People try to do
everything to go to the countryside because only there they can find
quietness . Every holiday and every week-end people try to leave their
houses and go to the country. I live in Orekhovo-Borisovo North district
. The ecological conditions here are very bad because near my house a lot
of industrial objects are situated. For example near the Tobacco factory
“DUCAT” is situated . As for me I prefer to live in a big city because A
lot of big shops are situated near my home, but I also like to spend my
holidays in the country because after living in the city for about 9
months I begin to get tired.
London is where the invading (âòîðæåíèå) Romans first crossed the River
Thames. They built a city a square mile in size, surrounded it with a wall
and called it Londinium. This original site of
London is now called the City of London and is Britain's main financial
The City is only a very small part of London. In the 11-th century,
London began to expand
beyond (Âíå) to City walls when King Edward the Confessor built a huge
abbey at Westminster.
There is saying "When a man is rtred of London, he is lired of life!" (Dr
Johnson)and it is quite trufful. You can't be bebored in London. There
are hundreds of historic buildings, galleries and museums. There are parks
and street markets, over 80 theatres and even more cinemas.
The centre of London has many different areas Each one has its own
special character. Covent Garden in London’s West End , is crowded with
cafes, clubs and clothes shops. Soho is also known for its clubs.
Knightsbridge has a lot of exclusive and expensive shops, as well as many
of the embassies. Fleet Street is the home of the Law Courts. One part of
the West End has so many Chinese shops and restaurants that it is called
Chinatown. Chelsea and Sloane Street are supposed to be the homes of trendy
rich kids. When you go outside the centre you find many areas which used to
be small villages. The village became part of the city when the city
expanded, but they still managed to keep their village is extremely
expensive. It is on one or the highest hills in London
Some visitors say that London is an expensive city, but there are a few
things to do which do not cost a lot of money. Most museums are free and
give free guided tours as well as lectures. The Royal Festival Hall on the
South Bank of the River Thames has free music in the foyer every lunch
rime. The National Theatre next to the Royal Festival Hall also has free
concerts in the foyer evening and on Saturday lunchtime. Some cinemas are
cheaper on Mondays; others sell half-prise tickets before 6 pm If you want
to discover London, it is best to start with a tour on a sightseeing bus.
It’s also fun to go on a guided walk. These are advertised in Time Ont, a
weekly magazine that tells you what is happening in London. The walks last
up to 3 hours and have special themes, such as "Ghosts and Haunted
Taverns", "Royal London - Palaces and People", "The Beatles London - Rock
Routes of the Sixties".
Also there are a lot of beautiful historical places like the Westminster
Abbey. It is a national shrine where the kings and queens are crowned and
famous people are buried. Founded by Edward the Confessor in 1050, the
abbey was a monastery for a long time. The present building dates largely
from the time of henry III who began to rebuild the church , a task which
lasted nearly 300 years. Since William I almost every English monarch has
been crowned in this great church, which contains the tombs and memorials
of many of Britain’s most eminent citizens.
16. Speak about the state of medical servers in Russia. How do you imagine
the medical care of the future?
In our country medical service is provided free of charge. There is a
wide network of local out- patient clinics. If a person falls ill he calls
a local physician. The doctor visits his patient. And examines him. He
usually sounds the patient’s chest, listens to his heart, fells his pulse
and sometimes sahes , his blood pressure. He also examines his throat and
tonque . After the physician has diagnose the case the prescribes medicine
for the descase. Then he writes out a search leave and gives advice If the
patient follows the doctor’s instructions , it doesn’t take him long to
recover. As soon as he feels better , he comes to the local out-patient
clinic for final examination. If the case in complicated and the patient
needs shecial treatment he is taken to the hospital.The situation in
medical service has changed as compared to the previory years. Medicine has
become very expensive. Treatment and special tests or surgery cost a lot
of money. Mist people cannot afford being operated. Nowadays we cannot say
that medical service is must be given by the government to run medical
service properly. Hospitals and clinics should be better equipped. Many of
them are old-fashioned and need repairing. Doctors and nurses are
overworked and underpaid. One of the positive features, which still exists
in Russia, medical service in regular medical check-up of school children.
It is very important to prevent illness. They are vaccinated and examined
by specialists. I think that medical service should be free of charge for
There are so many museums and galleries in London that even people who have
lived there for a long time don't know them all. Some are traditional
museums, but many are now making their exhibitions interactive, or hands-
on, to encourage people to touch and understand what is on display. At the
Science ' Museum, visitors can carry out experiments. At the Natural
History Museum, visitors can find out how to look for fossils on the beach.
At the National Gallery, the country's main art gallery, visitors can call
up paintings on computer screens, find out about them and then print out a
plan with their location indicated.
At MOMI, the Museum of the Moving Image, almost all the things on display
move. You can see how the first film was made, listen to the latest stereo
systems and watch the news from the 1960s. The people who work in the
museum are actors: those in the 1950s section are in 1950s costume and can
talk to you about Marilyn Monroe.
The National Gallery was born when King George IV urged (Óáåæäèë) the
government to purchase (Êóïèòü) a collection of 38 paintings including
six of Hogarth's Marriage A La Mode. Rubens, Rembrandt, other Flemish,
Dutch and Italian Renaissance masters were acquired as years passed and the
Gallery grew, and is still growing. Next door is the National Portrait
Gallery, one of the first major (Ãëàâíûé) institutions to acknowledge the
importance of photography in artistic heritage.When the Tate Gallery opened
in 1897 British painters, including Turner, appeared there. The Tate,
beside The Thames, continued collecting British artists from 1850 to join
works by Hogarth, Blake and Pre-Raphaelites and foreign works from the time
of the Impressionists. The British Museum's supreme collection was based on
the will of Sir Hans Sloane in 1753, which prodded Parliament to acquire
his art, antiquities and natural history collections at a sum (£ 20,000)
far below their actual value. At the same time the Harleian Collection of
Manuscripts was purchased for the nation and on January 15, 1759 the new
museum opened -but only to persons considered acceptable. The King's
Library was built in 1823 and new wings followed. So did a round Reading
Room under a vast copper dome. Ancient works of art abound from Roman
hoardes unearthed in recent years to copies of the Magna Carta, Parthenon
sculptures and Egyptian mummies. The Victoria and Albert Museum is sited
next to a clutch of sister museums - Science and Natural History and
Geological which grew out of Prince Albert's Great Exhibition initiatives.